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1.
JBMR Plus ; 5(9): e10531, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532616

RESUMO

Genome-wide-association studies (GWASs) have discovered genetic signals robustly associated with BMD, but typically not the precise localization of effector genes. By intersecting genome-wide promoter-focused Capture C and assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) data generated in human mesenchymal progenitor cell (hMSC)-derived osteoblasts, consistent contacts were previously predicted between the EPDR1 promoter and multiple BMD-associated candidate causal variants at the 'STARD3NL' locus. RNAi knockdown of EPDR1 expression in hMSC-derived osteoblasts was shown to lead to inhibition of osteoblastogenesis. To fully characterize the physical connection between these putative noncoding causal variants at this locus and the EPDR1 gene, clustered regularly interspaced short-palindromic repeat Cas9 endonuclease (CRISPR-Cas9) genome editing was conducted in hFOB1.19 cells across the single open-chromatin region harboring candidates for the underlying causal variant, rs1524068, rs6975644, and rs940347, all in close proximity to each other. RT-qPCR and immunoblotting revealed dramatic and consistent downregulation of EPDR1 specifically in the edited differentiated osteoblast cells. Consistent with EPDR1 expression changes, alkaline phosphatase staining was also markedly reduced in the edited differentiated cells. Collectively, CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in the hFOB1.19 cell model supports previous observations, where this regulatory region harboring GWAS-implicated variation operates through direct long-distance physical contact, further implicating a key role for EPDR1 in osteoblastogenesis and BMD determination. © 2021 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1611-1630, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343493

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a melanoma-associated locus on chromosome band 7p21.1 with rs117132860 as the lead SNP and a secondary independent signal marked by rs73069846. rs117132860 is also associated with tanning ability and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Because ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a key environmental exposure for all three traits, we investigated the mechanisms by which this locus contributes to melanoma risk, focusing on cellular response to UVR. Fine-mapping of melanoma GWASs identified four independent sets of candidate causal variants. A GWAS region-focused Capture-C study of primary melanocytes identified physical interactions between two causal sets and the promoter of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Subsequent chromatin state annotation, eQTL, and luciferase assays identified rs117132860 as a functional variant and reinforced AHR as a likely causal gene. Because AHR plays critical roles in cellular response to dioxin and UVR, we explored links between this SNP and AHR expression after both 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Allele-specific AHR binding to rs117132860-G was enhanced following both, consistent with predicted weakened AHR binding to the risk/poor-tanning rs117132860-A allele, and allele-preferential AHR expression driven from the protective rs117132860-G allele was observed following UVB exposure. Small deletions surrounding rs117132860 introduced via CRISPR abrogates AHR binding, reduces melanocyte cell growth, and prolongs growth arrest following UVB exposure. These data suggest AHR is a melanoma susceptibility gene at the 7p21.1 risk locus and rs117132860 is a functional variant within a UVB-responsive element, leading to allelic AHR expression and altering melanocyte growth phenotypes upon exposure.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Loci Gênicos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Alelos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Banho de Sol , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(4): 564-582, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713608

RESUMO

Although many loci have been associated with height in European ancestry populations, very few have been identified in African ancestry individuals. Furthermore, many of the known loci have yet to be generalized to and fine-mapped within a large-scale African ancestry sample. We performed sex-combined and sex-stratified meta-analyses in up to 52,764 individuals with height and genome-wide genotyping data from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC). We additionally combined our African ancestry meta-analysis results with published European genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. In the African ancestry analyses, we identified three novel loci (SLC4A3, NCOA2, ECD/FAM149B1) in sex-combined results and two loci (CRB1, KLF6) in women only. In the African plus European sex-combined GWAS, we identified an additional three novel loci (RCCD1, G6PC3, CEP95) which were equally driven by AAAGC and European results. Among 39 genome-wide significant signals at known loci, conditioning index SNPs from European studies identified 20 secondary signals. Two of the 20 new secondary signals and none of the 8 novel loci had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 5%. Of 802 known European height signals, 643 displayed directionally consistent associations with height, of which 205 were nominally significant (p < 0.05) in the African ancestry sex-combined sample. Furthermore, 148 of 241 loci contained ≤20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% of the posterior probability of driving the associations. In summary, trans-ethnic meta-analyses revealed novel signals and further improved fine-mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between African and European ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Estatura/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , África/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/genética , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
Prog Neurobiol ; 201: 102000, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545232

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders are thought to arise from interrupted development of the brain at an early age. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of loci associated with susceptibility to neurodevelopmental disorders; however, which noncoding variants regulate which genes at these loci is often unclear. To implicate neuronal GWAS effector genes, we performed an integrated analysis of transcriptomics, epigenomics and chromatin conformation changes during the development from Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) into neurons using a combination of high-resolution promoter-focused Capture-C, ATAC-seq and RNA-seq. We observed that gene expression changes during the NPC-to-neuron transition were highly dependent on both promoter accessibility changes and long-range interactions which connect distal cis-regulatory elements (enhancer or silencers) to developmental-stage-specific genes. These genome-scale promoter-cis-regulatory-element atlases implicated 454 neurodevelopmental disorder-associated, putative causal variants mapping to 600 distal targets. These putative effector genes were significantly enriched for pathways involved in the regulation of neuronal development and chromatin organization, with 27 % expressed in a stage-specific manner. The intersection of open chromatin and chromatin conformation revealed development-stage-specific gene regulatory architectures during neuronal differentiation, providing a rich resource to aid characterization of the genetic and developmental basis of neurodevelopmental disorders.

5.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 1, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone accrual impacts lifelong skeletal health, but genetic discovery has been primarily limited to cross-sectional study designs and hampered by uncertainty about target effector genes. Here, we capture this dynamic phenotype by modeling longitudinal bone accrual across 11,000 bone scans in a cohort of healthy children and adolescents, followed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and variant-to-gene mapping with functional follow-up. RESULTS: We identify 40 loci, 35 not previously reported, with various degrees of supportive evidence, half residing in topological associated domains harboring known bone genes. Of several loci potentially associated with later-life fracture risk, a candidate SNP lookup provides the most compelling evidence for rs11195210 (SMC3). Variant-to-gene mapping combining ATAC-seq to assay open chromatin with high-resolution promoter-focused Capture C identifies contacts between GWAS loci and nearby gene promoters. siRNA knockdown of gene expression supports the putative effector gene at three specific loci in two osteoblast cell models. Finally, using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, we confirm that the immediate genomic region harboring the putative causal SNP influences PRPF38A expression, a location which is predicted to coincide with a set of binding sites for relevant transcription factors. CONCLUSIONS: Using a new longitudinal approach, we expand the number of genetic loci putatively associated with pediatric bone gain. Functional follow-up in appropriate cell models finds novel candidate genes impacting bone accrual. Our data also raise the possibility that the cell fate decision between osteogenic and adipogenic lineages is important in normal bone accrual.

6.
Elife ; 102021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459256

RESUMO

To uncover novel significant association signals (p<5×10-8), genome-wide association studies (GWAS) requires increasingly larger sample sizes to overcome statistical correction for multiple testing. As an alternative, we aimed to identify associations among suggestive signals (5 × 10-8≤p<5×10-4) in increasingly powered GWAS efforts using chromatin accessibility and direct contact with gene promoters as biological constraints. We conducted retrospective analyses of three GIANT BMI GWAS efforts using ATAC-seq and promoter-focused Capture C data from human adipocytes and embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived hypothalamic-like neurons. This approach, with its extremely low false-positive rate, identified 15 loci at p<5×10-5 in the 2010 GWAS, of which 13 achieved genome-wide significance by 2018, including at NAV1, MTIF3, and ADCY3. Eighty percent of constrained 2015 loci achieved genome-wide significance in 2018. We observed similar results in waist-to-hip ratio analyses. In conclusion, biological constraints on sub-significant GWAS signals can reveal potentially true-positive loci for further investigation in existing data sets without increasing sample size.

7.
Pediatr Res ; 89(3): 653-659, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite improved health, shorter stature is common in cystic fibrosis (CF). We aimed to describe height velocity (HV) and contribution of height-related genetic variants to height (HT) in CF. METHODS: HV cohort: standard deviation scores (-Z) for HT, mid-parental height-adjusted HT (MPAH), and HV were generated using our Pediatric Center's CF Foundation registry data. HV-Z was compared with population means at each age (5-17 y), the relationship of HV-Z with HT-Z assessed, and HT-Z compared with MPAH-Z. GRS cohort: HT genetic risk-Z (HT-GRS-Z) were determined for pancreatic exocrine sufficient (PS) and insufficient (PI) youth and adults from our CF center and their relationships with HT-Z assessed. RESULTS: HV cohort: average HV-Z was normal across ages in our cohort but was 1.5× lower (p < 0.01) for each SD decrease in HT-Z. MPAH-Z was lower than HT-Z (p < 0.001). GRS cohort: HT-GRS-Z more strongly correlated with HT-Z and better explained height variance in PS (rho = 0.42; R2= 0.25) vs. PI (rho = 0.27; R2 = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Despite shorter stature compared with peers and mid-parental height, youth with CF generally have normal linear growth in mid- and late childhood. PI tempered the heritability of height. These results suggest that, in CF, final height is determined early in life in CF and genetic potential is attenuated by other factors. IMPACT: Children with CF remain shorter than their healthy peers despite advances in care. Our study demonstrates that children with CF have persistent shorter stature from an early age and fail to reach their genetic potential despite height velocities comparable to those of average maturing healthy peers and similar enrichment in known height increasing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genetic risk scores better explained variability in pancreatic sufficient than in pancreatic insufficient individuals, suggesting that other modifying factors are in play for pancreatic insufficient individuals with CF. Given the CF Foundation's recommendation to target not only normal body mass index, but normal height percentiles as well, this study adds valuable insight to this discussion.

8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 36(3): 469-479, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249669

RESUMO

Genetic studies of bone mineral density (BMD) largely have been conducted in European populations. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of six independent African ancestry cohorts to determine whether previously reported BMD loci identified in European populations were transferable to African ancestry populations. We included nearly 5000 individuals with both genetic data and assessments of BMD. Genotype imputation was conducted using the 1000G reference panel. We assessed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD in each cohort separately, then combined results in fixed effects (or random effects if study heterogeneity was high, I2 index >60) inverse variance weighted meta-analyses. In secondary analyses, we conducted locus-based analyses of rare variants using SKAT-O. Mean age ranged from 12 to 68 years. One cohort included only men and another cohort included only women; the proportion of women in the other four cohorts ranged from 52% to 63%. Of 56 BMD loci tested, one locus, 6q25 (C6orf97, p = 8.87 × 10-4 ), was associated with lumbar spine BMD and two loci, 7q21 (SLC25A13, p = 2.84 × 10-4 ) and 7q31 (WNT16, p = 2.96 × 10-5 ), were associated with femoral neck BMD. Effects were in the same direction as previously reported in European ancestry studies and met a Bonferroni-adjusted p value threshold, the criteria for transferability to African ancestry populations. We also found associations that met locus-specific Bonferroni-adjusted p value thresholds in 11q13 (LRP5, p < 2.23 × 10-4 ), 11q14 (DCDC5, p < 5.35 × 10-5 ), and 17p13 (SMG6, p < 6.78 × 10-5 ) that were not tagged by European ancestry index SNPs. Rare single-nucleotide variants in AKAP11 (p = 2.32 × 10-2 ), MBL2 (p = 4.09 × 10-2 ), MEPE (p = 3.15 × 10-2 ), SLC25A13 (p = 3.03 × 10-2 ), STARD3NL (p = 3.35 × 10-2 ), and TNFRSF11A (p = 3.18 × 10-3 ) were also associated with BMD. The majority of known BMD loci were not transferable. Larger genetic studies of BMD in African ancestry populations will be needed to overcome limitations in statistical power and to identify both other loci that are transferable across populations and novel population-specific variants. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

9.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 11(3): 667-682, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a polygenic disorder characterized principally by dysregulated inflammation impacting the gastrointestinal tract. However, there also is increasing evidence for a clinical association with stress and depression. Given the role of the hypothalamus in stress responses and in the pathogenesis of depression, useful insights could be gleaned from understanding its genetic role in IBD. METHODS: We conducted genetic correlation analyses on publicly available genome-wide association study summary statistics for depression and IBD traits to identify genetic commonalities. We used partitioned linkage disequilibrium score regression, leveraging our ATAC sequencing and promoter-focused Capture C data, to measure enrichment of IBD single-nucleotide polymorphisms within promoter-interacting open chromatin regions of human embryonic stem cell-derived hypothalamic-like neurons (HNs). Using the same data sets, we performed variant-to-gene mapping to implicate putative IBD effector genes in HNs. To contrast these results, we similarly analyzed 3-dimensional genomic data generated in epithelium-derived colonoids from rectal biopsy specimens from donors without pathologic disease noted at the time of colonoscopy. Finally, we conducted enrichment pathway analyses on the implicated genes to identify putative IBD dysfunctional pathways. RESULTS: We found significant genetic correlations (rg) of 0.122 with an adjusted P (Padj) = 1.4 × 10-4 for IBD: rg = 0.122; Padj = 2.5 × 10-3 for ulcerative colitis and genetic correlation (rg) = 0.094; Padj = 2.5 × 10-3 for Crohn's disease, and significant approximately 4-fold (P = .005) and approximately 7-fold (P = .03) enrichment of IBD single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HNs and colonoids, respectively. We implicated 25 associated genes in HNs, among which CREM, CNTF, and RHOA encode key regulators of stress. Seven genes also additionally were implicated in the colonoids. We observed an overall enrichment for immune and hormonal signaling pathways, and a colonoid-specific enrichment for microbiota-relevant terms. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the hypothalamus warrants further study in the context of IBD pathogenesis.

10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(10): e1008718, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045005

RESUMO

The genetic background of childhood body mass index (BMI), and the extent to which the well-known associations of childhood BMI with adult diseases are explained by shared genetic factors, are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. Twenty-five independent loci reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and replication analyses. Two of these, located near NEDD4L and SLC45A3, have not previously been reported in relation to either childhood or adult BMI. Positive genetic correlations of childhood BMI with birth weight and adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes were detected (Rg ranging from 0.11 to 0.76, P-values <0.002). A negative genetic correlation of childhood BMI with age at menarche was observed. Our results suggest that the biological processes underlying childhood BMI largely, but not completely, overlap with those underlying adult BMI. The well-known observational associations of BMI in childhood with cardio-metabolic diseases in adulthood may reflect partial genetic overlap, but in light of previous evidence, it is also likely that they are explained through phenotypic continuity of BMI from childhood into adulthood.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Menarca/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Relação Cintura-Quadril
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3294, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620744

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is mediated by autoreactive antibodies that damage multiple tissues. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) link >60 loci with SLE risk, but the causal variants and effector genes are largely unknown. We generated high-resolution spatial maps of SLE variant accessibility and gene connectivity in human follicular helper T cells (TFH), a cell type required for anti-nuclear antibodies characteristic of SLE. Of the ~400 potential regulatory variants identified, 90% exhibit spatial proximity to genes distant in the 1D genome sequence, including variants that loop to regulate the canonical TFH genes BCL6 and CXCR5 as confirmed by genome editing. SLE 'variant-to-gene' maps also implicate genes with no known role in TFH/SLE disease biology, including the kinases HIPK1 and MINK1. Targeting these kinases in TFH inhibits production of IL-21, a cytokine crucial for class-switched B cell antibodies. These studies offer mechanistic insight into the SLE-associated regulatory architecture of the human genome.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/genética , Interferência de RNA , Receptores CXCR5/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia
12.
Stem Cells ; 38(10): 1332-1347, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535942

RESUMO

Osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) can be induced by stimulation with canonical Notch ligand, Jagged1, or bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, it remains elusive how these two pathways lead to the same phenotypic outcome. Since Runx2 is regarded as a master regulator of osteoblastic differentiation, we targeted Runx2 with siRNA in hMSC. This abrogated both Jagged1 and BMP2 mediated osteoblastic differentiation, confirming the fundamental role for Runx2. However, while BMP stimulation increased Runx2 and downstream Osterix protein expression, Jagged1 treatment failed to upregulate either, suggesting that canonical Notch signals require basal Runx2 expression. To fully understand the transcriptomic profile of differentiating osteoblasts, RNA sequencing was performed in cells stimulated with BMP2 or Jagged1. There was common upregulation of ALPL and extracellular matrix genes, such as ACAN, HAS3, MCAM, and OLFML2B. Intriguingly, genes encoding components of Notch signaling (JAG1, HEY2, and HES4) were among the top 10 genes upregulated by both stimuli. Indeed, ALPL expression occurred concurrently with Notch activation and inhibiting Notch activity for up to 24 hours after BMP administration with DAPT (a gamma secretase inhibitor) completely abrogated hMSC osteoblastogenesis. Concordantly, RBPJ (recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region, a critical downstream modulator of Notch signals) binding could be demonstrated within the ALPL and SP7 promoters. As such, siRNA-mediated ablation of RBPJ decreased BMP-mediated osteoblastogenesis. Finally, systemic Notch inhibition using diabenzazepine (DBZ) reduced BMP2-induced calvarial bone healing in mice supporting the critical regulatory role of Notch signaling in BMP-induced osteoblastogenesis.

13.
J Immunol ; 204(5): 1334-1344, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953354

RESUMO

The IL1A and IL1B genes lie in close proximity on chromosome 2 near the gene for their natural inhibitor, IL1RN Despite diverse functions, they are all three inducible through TLR4 signaling but with distinct kinetics. This study analyzed transcriptional induction kinetics, chromosome looping, and enhancer RNA production to understand the distinct regulation of these three genes in human cells. IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN were rapidly induced after stimulation with LPS; however, IL1B mRNA production was less inhibitable by iBET151, suggesting it does not use pause-release regulation. Surprisingly, chromatin looping contacts between IL1A and IL1B were highly intermingled, although those of IL1RN were distinct, and we focused on comparing IL1A and IL1B transcriptional pathways. Our studies demonstrated that enhancer RNAs were produced from a subset of the regulatory regions, that they were critical for production of the mRNAs, and that they bound a diverse array of RNA binding proteins, including p300 but not CBP. We, furthermore, demonstrated that recruitment of p300 was dependent on MAPKs. Integrator is another RNA binding protein recruited to the promoters and enhancers, and its recruitment was more dependent on NF-κB than MAPKs. We found that integrator and NELF, an RNA polymerase II pausing protein, were associated with RNA in a manner that facilitated interaction. We conclude that IL1A and IL1B share many regulatory contacts, signaling pathways, and interactions with enhancer RNAs. A complex of protein interactions with enhancer RNAs emphasize the role of enhancer RNAs and the overall structural aspects of transcriptional regulation.


Assuntos
Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/imunologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/imunologia , Interleucina-1alfa/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/imunologia , Transcrição Genética , Linhagem Celular , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Humanos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/genética , Interleucina-1alfa/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/imunologia
14.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 418-425, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The MHC region harbors the strongest loci for latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA); however, the strength of association is likely attenuated compared with that for childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. In this study, we recapitulate independent effects in the MHC class I region in a population with type 1 diabetes and then determine whether such conditioning in LADA yields potential genetic discriminators between the two subtypes within this region. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Chromosome 6 was imputed using SNP2HLA, with conditional analysis performed in type 1 diabetes case subjects (n = 1,985) and control subjects (n = 2,219). The same approach was applied to a LADA cohort (n = 1,428) using population-based control subjects (n = 2,850) and in a separate replication cohort (656 type 1 diabetes case, 823 LADA case, and 3,218 control subjects). RESULTS: The strongest associations in the MHC class II region (rs3957146, ß [SE] = 1.44 [0.05]), as well as the independent effect of MHC class I genes, on type 1 diabetes risk, particularly HLA-B*39 (ß [SE] = 1.36 [0.17]), were confirmed. The conditional analysis in LADA versus control subjects showed significant association in the MHC class II region (rs3957146, ß [SE] = 1.14 [0.06]); however, we did not observe significant independent effects of MHC class I alleles in LADA. CONCLUSIONS: In LADA, the independent effects of MHC class I observed in type 1 diabetes were not observed after conditioning on the leading MHC class II associations, suggesting that the MHC class I association may be a genetic discriminator between LADA and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Genes MHC da Classe II/genética , Genes MHC Classe I/genética , Testes Genéticos , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/classificação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/classificação , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/diagnóstico , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(19): 3327-3338, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504550

RESUMO

Although hundreds of genome-wide association studies-implicated loci have been reported for adult obesity-related traits, less is known about the genetics specific for early-onset obesity and with only a few studies conducted in non-European populations to date. Searching for additional genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, we performed a trans-ancestral meta-analysis of 30 studies consisting of up to 13 005 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI) achieved 2-18 years old) and 15 599 controls (consistently <50th percentile of BMI) of European, African, North/South American and East Asian ancestry. Suggestive loci were taken forward for replication in a sample of 1888 cases and 4689 controls from seven cohorts of European and North/South American ancestry. In addition to observing 18 previously implicated BMI or obesity loci, for both early and late onset, we uncovered one completely novel locus in this trans-ancestral analysis (nearest gene, METTL15). The variant was nominally associated with only the European subgroup analysis but had a consistent direction of effect in other ethnicities. We then utilized trans-ancestral Bayesian analysis to narrow down the location of the probable causal variant at each genome-wide significant signal. Of all the fine-mapped loci, we were able to narrow down the causative variant at four known loci to fewer than 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (FAIM2, GNPDA2, MC4R and SEC16B loci). In conclusion, an ethnically diverse setting has enabled us to both identify an additional pediatric obesity locus and further fine-map existing loci.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 89-107, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204013

RESUMO

Deciphering the impact of genetic variation on gene regulation is fundamental to understanding common, complex human diseases. Although histone modifications are important markers of gene regulatory elements of the genome, any specific histone modification has not been assayed in more than a few individuals in the human liver. As a result, the effects of genetic variation on histone modification states in the liver are poorly understood. Here, we generate the most comprehensive genome-wide dataset of two epigenetic marks, H3K4me3 and H3K27ac, and annotate thousands of putative regulatory elements in the human liver. We integrate these findings with genome-wide gene expression data collected from the same human liver tissues and high-resolution promoter-focused chromatin interaction maps collected from human liver-derived HepG2 cells. We demonstrate widespread functional consequences of natural genetic variation on putative regulatory element activity and gene expression levels. Leveraging these extensive datasets, we fine-map a total of 74 GWAS loci that have been associated with at least one complex phenotype. Our results reveal a repertoire of genes and regulatory mechanisms governing complex disease development and further the basic understanding of genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the human liver tissue.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Epigênese Genética , Fígado/patologia , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Cromatina/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Células Hep G2 , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estudos Prospectivos , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1260, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890710

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a devastating disease with an essential genetic component. GWAS have discovered genetic signals robustly associated with bone mineral density (BMD), but not the precise localization of effector genes. Here, we carry out physical and direct variant to gene mapping in human mesenchymal progenitor cell-derived osteoblasts employing a massively parallel, high resolution Capture C based method in order to simultaneously characterize the genome-wide interactions of all human promoters. By intersecting our Capture C and ATAC-seq data, we observe consistent contacts between candidate causal variants and putative target gene promoters in open chromatin for ~ 17% of the 273 BMD loci investigated. Knockdown of two novel implicated genes, ING3 at 'CPED1-WNT16' and EPDR1 at 'STARD3NL', inhibits osteoblastogenesis, while promoting adipogenesis. This approach therefore aids target discovery in osteoporosis, here on the example of two relevant genes involved in the fate determination of mesenchymal progenitors, and can be applied to other common genetic diseases.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Osteoporose/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Adipogenia/genética , Adulto , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Loci Gênicos/genética , Células Hep G2 , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteogênese/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Bone ; 121: 221-226, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711642

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, a low frequency variant (rs1800012) within the first intron of the type I collagen alpha 1 (COLIA1) gene has been implicated in lower areal BMD (aBMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. This association is particularly strong in postmenopausal women, in whom net bone loss arises in the context of high bone turnover. High bone turnover also accompanies childhood linear growth; however, the role of rs1800012 in this stage of net bone accretion is less well understood. Thus, we assessed the association between rs1800012 and aBMD and bone mineral content (BMC) Z-scores for the 1/3 distal radius, lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck total body less head in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study, a mixed-longitudinal cohort of children and adolescents (total n = 804 girls and 771 boys; n = 19 girls and 22 boys with the TT genotype). Mixed effects modeling, stratified by sex, was used to test for associations between rs1800012 and aBMD or BMC Z-scores and for pubertal stage interactions. Separately, SITAR growth modeling of aBMD and BMC in subjects with longitudinal data reduced the complex longitudinal bone accrual curves into three parameters representing a-size, b-timing, and c-velocity. We tested for differences in these three parameters by rs1800012 genotype using t-tests. Girls with the TT genotype had significantly lower aBMD and BMC Z-scores prior to puberty completion (e.g. spine aBMD-Z P-interaction = 1.0 × 10-6), but this association was attenuated post-puberty. SITAR models revealed that TT girls began pubertal bone accrual later (b-timing; e.g. total hip BMC, P = 0.03). BMC and aBMD Z-scores also increased across puberty in TT homozygous boys. Our data, along with previous findings in post-menopausal women, suggest that rs1800012 principally affects female bone density during periods of high turnover. Insights into the genetics of bone gain and loss may be masked during the relatively quiescent state in mid-adulthood, and discovery efforts should focus on early and late life.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Fraturas por Osteoporose/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenótipo
19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 2961-2970, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811542

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Mutations in melanocortin receptor (MC4R) are the most common cause of monogenic obesity in children of European ancestry, but little is known about their prevalence in children from the minority populations in the United States. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the prevalence of MC4R mutations in children with severe early-onset obesity of African American or Latino ancestry. DESIGN AND SETTING: Participants were recruited from the weight management clinics at two hospitals and from the institutional biobank at a third hospital. Sequencing of the MC4R gene was performed by whole exome or Sanger sequencing. Functional testing was performed to establish the surface expression of the receptor and cAMP response to its cognate ligand α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred twelve children (1 to 18 years old, 50% girls) with body mass index (BMI) >120% of 95th percentile of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts at an age <6 years, with no known pathological cause of obesity, were enrolled. RESULTS: Eight rare MC4R mutations (2.6%) were identified in this study [R7S, F202L (n = 2), M215I, G252D, V253I, I269N, and F284I], three of which were not previously reported (G252D, F284I, and R7S). The pathogenicity of selected variants was confirmed by prior literature reports or functional testing. There was no significant difference in the BMI or height trajectories of children with or without MC4R mutations in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of MC4R mutations in this cohort was similar to that reported for obese children of European ancestry, some of the variants were novel.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Diabetes Care ; 41(11): 2396-2403, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) shares clinical features with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes; however, there is ongoing debate regarding the precise definition of LADA. Understanding its genetic basis is one potential strategy to gain insight into appropriate classification of this diabetes subtype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed the first genome-wide association study of LADA in case subjects of European ancestry versus population control subjects (n = 2,634 vs. 5,947) and compared against both case subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 2,454 vs. 968) and type 2 diabetes (n = 2,779 vs. 10,396). RESULTS: The leading genetic signals were principally shared with type 1 diabetes, although we observed positive genetic correlations genome-wide with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we observed a novel independent signal at the known type 1 diabetes locus harboring PFKFB3, encoding a regulator of glycolysis and insulin signaling in type 2 diabetes and inflammation and autophagy in autoimmune disease, as well as an attenuation of key type 1-associated HLA haplotype frequencies in LADA, suggesting that these are factors that distinguish childhood-onset type 1 diabetes from adult autoimmune diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the need for further investigations of the genetic factors that distinguish forms of autoimmune diabetes as well as more precise classification strategies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico/genética , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Intolerância à Glucose/imunologia , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/imunologia , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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