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1.
Diabetes Care ; 43(8): 1878-1884, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether low baseline diastolic blood pressure (DBP) modifies the effects of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering on cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure trial (ACCORD BP), a two-by-two factorial randomized controlled trial, examined effects of SBP (<120 vs. <140 mmHg) and glycemic (HbA1c <6% vs. 7.0-7.9% [<42 vs. 53-63 mmol/mol]) control on cardiovascular events in T2DM (N = 4,731). We examined whether effects of SBP control on cardiovascular composite were modified by baseline DBP and glycemic control. RESULTS: Intensive SBP lowering decreased the risk of the cardiovascular composite (hazard ratio [HR] 0.76 [95% CI 0.59-0.98]) in the standard glycemic arm but not in the intensive glycemic arm (HR 1.06 [95% CI 0.81-1.40]). Spline regression models relating the effects of the intervention on the cardiovascular composite across the range of baseline DBP did not show evidence of effect modification by low baseline DBP for the cardiovascular composite in the standard or intensive glycemic arms. The relation between the effect of the intensive SBP intervention and baseline DBP was similar between glycemic arms for the cardiovascular composite three-way interaction (P = 0.83). CONCLUSIONS: In persons with T2DM, intensive SBP lowering decreased the risk of cardiovascular composite end point irrespective of baseline DBP in the setting of standard glycemic control. Hence, low baseline DBP should not be an impediment to intensive SBP lowering in patients with T2DM treated with guideline-recommended standard glycemic control.

2.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(7): 1047-1049, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269029
3.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(6): 776-783, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kidney functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires further investigation to enhance the noninvasive identification of patients at high risk of CKD progression. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In this exploratory study, we obtained baseline diffusion-weighted and blood oxygen level-dependent MRI in 122 participants of the CKD Optimal Management with Binders and Nicotinamide trial, which was a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, 12-month, four-group parallel trial of nicotinamide and lanthanum carbonate versus placebo conducted in individuals with eGFR 20-45 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Lower values of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on diffusion-weighted MRI may indicate increased fibrosis, and higher values of relaxation rate (R2*) on blood oxygen level-dependent MRI may represent decreased oxygenation. Because there was no effect of active treatment on eGFR over 12 months, we tested whether baseline kidney functional MRI biomarkers were associated with eGFR decline in all 122 participants. In a subset of 87 participants with 12-month follow-up MRI data, we evaluated whether kidney functional MRI biomarkers change over time. RESULTS: Mean baseline eGFR was 32±9 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and mean annual eGFR slope was -2.3 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -3.4 to -1.1) ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year. After adjustment for baseline covariates, baseline ADC was associated with change in eGFR over time (difference in annual eGFR slope per 1 SD increase in ADC: 1.3 [95% CI, 0.1 to 2.5] ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, ADC×time interaction P=0.04). This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for albuminuria (difference in annual eGFR slope per 1 SD increase in ADC: 1.0 (95% CI, -0.1 to 2.2) ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, ADC×time interaction P=0.08). There was no significant association between baseline R2* and change in eGFR over time. In 87 participants with follow-up functional MRI, ADC and R2* values remained stable over 12 months (intraclass correlation: 0.71 and 0.68, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline cortical ADC was associated with change in eGFR over time, but this association was not independent of albuminuria. Kidney functional MRI biomarkers remained stable over 1 year. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: CKD Optimal Management with Binders and Nicotinamide (COMBINE), NCT02258074.

4.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(3): 349-358, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: eGFR and albuminuria primarily reflect glomerular function and injury, whereas tubule cell atrophy and interstitial fibrosis on kidney biopsy are important risk markers for CKD progression. Kidney tubule injury markers have primarily been studied in hospitalized AKI. Here, we examined the association between urinary kidney tubule injury markers at baseline with subsequent loss of kidney function in persons with nondiabetic CKD who participated in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Among 2428 SPRINT participants with CKD (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at baseline, we measured urine markers of tubule injury (IL-18, kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1], neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]), inflammation (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1]), and repair (human cartilage glycoprotein-40 [YKL-40]). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations of these markers with the kidney composite outcome of 50% eGFR decline or ESKD requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation, and linear mixed models evaluated annualized change in eGFR. RESULTS: Mean participant age was 73±9 (SD) years, 60% were men, 66% were white, and mean baseline eGFR was 46±11 ml/min per 1.73 m2. There were 87 kidney composite outcome events during a median follow-up of 3.8 years. Relative to the respective lowest quartiles, the highest quartiles of urinary KIM-1 (hazard ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.31 to 6.17), MCP-1 (hazard ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.13 to 5.23), and YKL-40 (hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.08 to 3.51) were associated with higher risk of the kidney composite outcome in fully adjusted models including baseline eGFR and urine albumin. In linear analysis, urinary IL-18 was the only marker associated with eGFR decline (-0.91 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year for highest versus lowest quartile; 95% CI, -1.44 to -0.38), a finding that was stronger in the standard arm of SPRINT. CONCLUSIONS: Urine markers of tubule cell injury provide information about risk of subsequent loss of kidney function, beyond the eGFR and urine albumin.

5.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(2): 200-208, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In early-phase studies of individuals with hypertensive CKD and normal serum total CO2, sodium bicarbonate reduced urinary TGF-ß1 levels and preserved kidney function. The effect of sodium bicarbonate on kidney fibrosis and injury markers in individuals with diabetic kidney disease and normal serum total CO2 is unknown. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 74 United States veterans with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, eGFR of 15-89 ml/min per 1.73 m2, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥30 mg/g, and serum total CO2 of 22-28 meq/L. Participants received oral sodium bicarbonate (0.5 meq/kg lean body wt per day; n=35) or placebo (n=39) for 6 months. The primary outcome was change in urinary TGF-ß1-to-creatinine from baseline to months 3 and 6. Secondary outcomes included changes in urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1)-to-creatinine, fibronectin-to-creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)-to-creatinine, and UACR from baseline to months 3 and 6. RESULTS: Key baseline characteristics were age 72±8 years, eGFR of 51±18 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and serum total CO2 of 24±2 meq/L. Sodium bicarbonate treatment increased mean total CO2 by 1.2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.3 to 2.1) meq/L, increased urinary pH by 0.6 (95% CI, 0.5 to 0.8), and decreased urinary ammonium excretion by 5 (95% CI, 0 to 11) meq/d and urinary titratable acid excretion by 11 (95% CI, 5 to 18) meq/d. Sodium bicarbonate did not significantly change urinary TGF-ß1/creatinine (difference in change, 13%, 95% CI, -10% to 40%; change within the sodium bicarbonate group, 8%, 95% CI, -10% to 28%; change within the placebo group, -4%, 95% CI, -19% to 13%). Similarly, no significant effect on KIM-1-to-creatinine (difference in change, -10%, 95% CI, -38% to 31%), fibronectin-to-creatinine (8%, 95% CI, -15% to 37%), NGAL-to-creatinine (-33%, 95% CI, -56% to 4%), or UACR (1%, 95% CI, -25% to 36%) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: In nonacidotic diabetic kidney disease, sodium bicarbonate did not significantly reduce urinary TGF-ß1, KIM-1, fibronectin, NGAL, or UACR over 6 months.

6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(1): 161-174, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) may preserve kidney function in CKD, even if initiated when serum bicarbonate concentration is normal. Adequately powered trials testing this hypothesis have not been conducted, partly because the best dose for testing is unknown. METHODS: This multicenter pilot trial assessed the safety, tolerability, adherence, and pharmacodynamics of two doses of NaHCO3 over 28 weeks in adults with eGFR 20-44 or 45-59 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with urinary albumin/creatinine (ACR) ≥50 mg/g and serum bicarbonate 20-28 meq/L. We randomly assigned 194 participants from ten clinical sites to receive higher-dose (HD-NaHCO3; 0.8 meq/kg of lean body wt per day; n=90) or lower-dose (LD-NaHCO3; 0.5 meq/kg of lean body wt per day; n=52) NaHCO3 or matching placebo (n=52). The dose was adjusted depending on side effects. The prescribed dose at week 28 was the primary outcome; a dose was considered acceptable for a full-scale trial if ≥67% of participants were on full-dose and ≥80% were on ≥25% of the per-protocol dose. RESULTS: Mean±SD baseline eGFR was 36±9 ml/min per 1.73 m2, serum bicarbonate was 24±2 meq/L, and median (IQR) ACR was 181 (25-745) mg/g. Both doses were well tolerated without significant changes in BP, weight, or serum potassium. The proportions of adverse events and hospitalizations were similar across the groups. Consequently, 87% in HD-NaHCO3, 96% in LD-NaHCO3, and 87% in placebo were on full dose at week 28; and 91% in HD-NaHCO3, 98% in LD-NaHCO3, and 92% in placebo were on ≥25% of the per-protocol dose. Mean urinary ammonium excretion was 25% lower and serum bicarbonate concentration was 1.3 meq/L higher in HD-NaHCO3 compared with LD-NaHCO3 at week 28. However, mean ACR increased by 12% in the lower-dose group and 30% in the higher-dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Both NaHCO3 doses were well tolerated over 28 weeks with no significant difference in adverse events or hospitalization compared with placebo. The higher dose lowered urinary ammonium excretion and increased serum bicarbonate more than the lower dose but was associated with a greater increase in ACR. The higher 0.8 meq/kg of lean body wt per day dose of NaHCO3 may be a reasonable choice for future trials.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacocinética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Bicarbonato de Sódio/efeitos adversos
7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(3): 496-504, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) control in older adults with hypertension, considering cognitive and physical function. DESIGN: Secondary analysis. SETTING: Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) PARTICIPANTS: Adults 80 years or older. INTERVENTION: Participants with hypertension but without diabetes (N = 1167) were randomized to an SBP target below 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment) vs a target below 140 mm Hg (standard treatment). MEASUREMENTS: We measured the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality, changes in renal function, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), probable dementia, and serious adverse events. Gait speed was assessed via a 4-m walk test, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to quantify baseline cognitive function. RESULTS: Intensive treatment led to significant reductions in cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR] = .66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .49-.90), mortality (HR = .67; 95% CI = .48-.93), and MCI (HR = .70; 95% CI = .51-.96). There was a significant interaction (P < .001) whereby participants with higher baseline scores on the MoCA derived strong benefit from intensive treatment for a composite of CVD and mortality (HR = .40; 95% CI = .28-.57), with no appreciable benefit in participants with lower scores on the MoCA (HR = 1.33 = 95% CI = .87-2.03). There was no evidence of heterogeneity of treatment effects with respect to gait speed. Rates of acute kidney injury and declines of at least 30% in estimated glomerular filtration rate were increased in the intensive treatment group with no between-group differences in the rate of injurious falls. CONCLUSION: In adults aged 80 years or older, intensive SBP control lowers the risk of major cardiovascular events, MCI, and death, with increased risk of changes to kidney function. The cardiovascular and mortality benefits of intensive SBP control may not extend to older adults with lower baseline cognitive function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01206062. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:496-504, 2020.

8.
JAMA ; 322(6): 524-534, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408137

RESUMO

Importance: The effect of intensive blood pressure lowering on brain health remains uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the association of intensive blood pressure treatment with cerebral white matter lesion and brain volumes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A substudy of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of hypertensive adults 50 years or older without a history of diabetes or stroke at 27 sites in the United States. Randomization began on November 8, 2010. The overall trial was stopped early because of benefit for its primary outcome (a composite of cardiovascular events) and all-cause mortality on August 20, 2015. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a subset of participants at baseline (n = 670) and at 4 years of follow-up (n = 449); final follow-up date was July 1, 2016. Interventions: Participants were randomized to a systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal of either less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment, n = 355) or less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment, n = 315). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in total white matter lesion volume from baseline. Change in total brain volume was a secondary outcome. Results: Among 670 recruited patients who had baseline MRI (mean age, 67.3 [SD, 8.2] years; 40.4% women), 449 (67.0%) completed the follow-up MRI at a median of 3.97 years after randomization, after a median intervention period of 3.40 years. In the intensive treatment group, based on a robust linear mixed model, mean white matter lesion volume increased from 4.57 to 5.49 cm3 (difference, 0.92 cm3 [95% CI, 0.69 to 1.14]) vs an increase from 4.40 to 5.85 cm3 (difference, 1.45 cm3 [95% CI, 1.21 to 1.70]) in the standard treatment group (between-group difference in change, -0.54 cm3 [95% CI, -0.87 to -0.20]). Mean total brain volume decreased from 1134.5 to 1104.0 cm3 (difference, -30.6 cm3 [95% CI, -32.3 to -28.8]) in the intensive treatment group vs a decrease from 1134.0 to 1107.1 cm3 (difference, -26.9 cm3 [95% CI, 24.8 to 28.8]) in the standard treatment group (between-group difference in change, -3.7 cm3 [95% CI, -6.3 to -1.1]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among hypertensive adults, targeting an SBP of less than 120 mm Hg, compared with less than 140 mm Hg, was significantly associated with a smaller increase in cerebral white matter lesion volume and a greater decrease in total brain volume, although the differences were small. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01206062.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(16): e013098, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423869

RESUMO

Background We conducted a post hoc analysis of the SPS3 (Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes) Trial to examine the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with recurrent stroke, and to assess whether baseline renal function modifies the effects of intensive systolic blood pressure control in patients with previous stroke. Methods and Results A total of 3020 patients with recent magnetic resonance imaging-defined symptomatic lacunar infarctions were randomized to a systolic blood pressure target of <130 mm Hg versus 130 to 149 mm Hg. Predefined primary outcomes were (all-recurrent) stroke and a composite of stroke, acute myocardial infarction, or all-cause death; secondary outcomes were acute myocardial infarction, all-cause death, and intracerebral hemorrhage individually. Among 3017 patients with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate measurements, we evaluated, using Cox proportional hazards models, the association of CKD with recurrent stroke and effects of the blood pressure targets on outcomes using baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate both as a categorical and linear variable. Regardless of the randomized treatment, CKD at baseline was significantly associated with an increased risk of the primary cardiovascular composite outcome (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1), and all-recurrent stroke (1.5; 1.1-2.0). However, the effects of the lower systolic blood pressure intervention on the primary outcome were not influenced by baseline CKD status (P for interaction=0.62). Conclusions CKD increases the risk of recurrent stroke by 50% in patients with previous lacunar stroke. We found no definitive evidence that renal dysfunction modifies the effects of systolic blood pressure control in patients with previous stroke. Conclusive evidence for this will require adequately powered studies with moderate-to-advanced CKD. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00059306.

10.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 872-879, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378102

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but clinical kidney measures (estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria) do not fully reflect the multiple aspects of kidney tubules influencing cardiovascular health. Applied methods are needed to integrate numerous tubule biomarkers into useful prognostic scores. In SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) participants with chronic kidney disease at baseline (estimated glomerular filtration ratecr&cys <60 mL/minute per 1.73 m2), we measured 8 biomarkers from urine (α1M [α1M microglobulin], ß2M [ß2M microglobulin], umod [uromodulin], KIM-1 [kidney injury molecule-1], MCP-1 [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1], YKL-40 [chitinase-3-like protein-1], NGAL [neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin], and IL-18 [interleukin 18]) and 2 biomarkers from serum (intact parathyroid hormone, iFGF-23 [intact fibroblast growth factor-23]). We used an unsupervised method, exploratory factor analysis, to create summary scores of tubule health dimensions. Adjusted Cox models evaluated each tubule score with CVD events, heart failure, and all-cause mortality. We examined CVD discrimination using Harrell C-statistic. Factor analysis of 10 biomarkers from 2376 SPRINT-chronic kidney disease participants identified 4 unique dimensions of tubular health: tubule injury/repair (NGAL, IL-18, YKL-40), tubule injury/fibrosis (KIM-1, MCP-1), tubule reabsorption (α1M, ß2M), and tubular reserve/mineral metabolism (umod, intact parathyroid hormone, iFGF-23). After adjustment for CVD risk factors, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio, 2 of the 4 tubule scores were associated with CVD (hazard ratio per SD; reabsorption, 1.21 [1.06-1.38]; reserve, 1.24 (1.08-1.38]), 1 with heart failure (reserve, 1.41 [1.13-1.74]), and none with mortality. Compared with a base model (C-statistic=0.674), adding estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin-to-creatinine ratio improved the C-statistic (C=0.704; P=0.001); further adding tubule scores additionally improved the C-statistic (C=0.719; P=0.009). In the setting of chronic kidney disease, dimensions of tubule health quantified using factor analysis improved CVD discrimination beyond contemporary kidney measures. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01206062.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/metabolismo , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 470-479, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262489

RESUMO

Urine markers can quantify tubular function including reabsorption (α-1 microglobulin [α1m]) and ß-2-microglobulin [ß2m]) and protein synthesis (uromodulin). Individuals with tubular dysfunction may be less able to compensate to insults than those without, despite similar estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria. Among Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) participants with an eGFR under 60 ml/min/1.73m2, we measured urine markers of tubular function and injury (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1], interleukin-18 [IL-18], monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and chitinase-3-like protein [YKL-40]) at baseline. Cox models evaluated associations with subsequent acute kidney injury (AKI) risk, adjusting for clinical risk factors, baseline eGFR and albuminuria, and the tubular function and injury markers. In a random subset, we remeasured biomarkers after four years, and compared changes in biomarkers in those with and without intervening AKI. Among 2351 participants, 184 experienced AKI during 3.8 years mean follow-up. Lower uromodulin (hazard ratio per two-fold higher (0.68, 95% confidence interval [0.56, 0.83]) and higher α1m (1.20; [1.01, 1.44]) were associated with subsequent AKI, independent of eGFR and albuminuria. None of the five injury markers were associated with eventual AKI. In the random subset of 947 patients with repeated measurements, the 59 patients with intervening AKI versus without had longitudinal increases in urine NGAL, IL-19, and YKL-40 and only 1 marker of tubule function (α1m). Thus, joint evaluation of tubule function and injury provided novel insights to factors predisposing to AKI, and responses to kidney injury.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 40(42): 3486-3493, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257404

RESUMO

AIMS: Biomarkers of kidney tubule injury, inflammation and fibrosis have been studied extensively and established as risk markers of adverse kidney and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. However, associations of markers of kidney tubular function with adverse clinical events have not been well studied, especially in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a sample of 2377 persons with CKD at the baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) visit, we evaluated the association of three urine tubular function markers, alpha-1 microglobulin (α1m), beta-2 microglobulin (ß2m), and uromodulin, with a composite CVD endpoint (myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, acute decompensated heart failure, or death from cardiovascular causes) and mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria, and CVD risk factors. In unadjusted analysis, over a median follow-up of 3.8 years, α1m and ß2m had positive associations with composite CVD events and mortality, whereas uromodulin had an inverse association with risk for both outcomes. In multivariable analysis including eGFR and albuminuria, a two-fold higher baseline concentration of α1m was associated with higher risk of CVD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.45] and mortality (HR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.10-1.46), whereas ß2m had no association with either outcome. A two-fold higher uromodulin concentration was associated with lower CVD risk (HR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.90) but not mortality (HR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.73-1.01) after adjusting for similar confounders. CONCLUSION: Among non-diabetic persons with CKD, biomarkers of tubular function are associated with CVD events and mortality independent of glomerular function and albuminuria.

13.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(12): 1170-1177, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than one-third of US adults have prediabetes, which is typically accompanied by hypertension. METHODS: We examined whether prediabetes modified the effects of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) events in a post-hoc analysis of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Diabetes was a SPRINT exclusion criterion. We defined normoglycemia and prediabetes as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl and ≥100 mg/dl, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 9,323 participants included in this analysis, 3,898 (41.8%) had prediabetes and the rest (5,425) had normoglycemia. In participants with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2, incident CKD was defined as a ≥30% decline in eGFR to below 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 with repeat confirmation. AKI events were identified clinically. In the non-CKD participants (n = 6,678), there were 164 incident CKD events. The hazard ratios (HRs) for incident CKD for intensive SBP goal (<120 mm Hg) vs. standard SBP goal (<140 mm Hg) in the normoglycemia (HR: 3.25, 95% CI: 2.03, 5.19) and prediabetes (HR: 3.90, 95% CI: 2.17, 7.02) groups were similar (interaction P value 0.64). In the entire analytic cohort (N = 9,323), there were 310 AKI events. AKI HRs for intensive vs. standard SBP in the normoglycemia (HR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.15) and prediabetes (HR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.48) groups were also similar (interaction P value 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: Prediabetes was highly prevalent, but there was no evidence that prediabetes modified the effects of SPRINT intervention on kidney events.CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATIONNCT01206062.

14.
Kidney Int ; 96(3): 750-760, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345582

RESUMO

Iron parameters have not been well characterized in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it remains unclear if abnormal iron balance is associated with increased mortality. Therefore, we performed a historical cohort study using data from the Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse to evaluate the relationship between iron status and mortality. We identified a pre-dialysis CKD cohort with at least one set of iron indices between 2006-2015. The cohort was divided into four iron groups based on the joint quartiles of serum transferrin saturation (percent) and ferritin concentration (ng/ml): reference (16-28%, 55-205 ng/ml), low iron (0.4-16%, 0.4-55 ng/ml), high iron (28-99.6%, 205-4941 ng/ml), and function iron deficiency (0.8-16%, 109-2783 ng/ml). We compared mortality risk between the iron groups using matching weights based on multinomial propensity score models and Poisson rate-based regression. We also evaluated if the association between iron groups and mortality differs between the diabetic and non-diabetic subgroups. Of the 80,067 eligible veterans, 32,489 were successfully matched. During the mean follow-up period of 4.0 years, adjusted relative rate (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality in three abnormal iron groups were increased compared to the reference: functional iron deficiency [1.21 (1.17, 1.25)], low iron [1.10 (1.07, 1.14)], and high iron [1.09 (1.06, 1.13)]. The mortality risk was similar between diabetic and non-diabetic subgroups for each iron group. Thus, an abnormal iron balance, particularly functional iron deficiency, is associated with increased mortality in CKD.

15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(8): 1523-1533, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Systolic BP Intervention Trial (SPRINT) found that intensive versus standard systolic BP control (targeting <120 or <140 mm Hg, respectively) reduced the risks of death and major cardiovascular events in persons with elevated cardiovascular disease risk. However, the intensive intervention was associated with an early decline in eGFR, and the clinical implications of this early decline are unclear. METHODS: In a post hoc analysis of SPRINT, we defined change in eGFR as the percentage change in eGFR at 6 months compared with baseline. We performed causal mediation analyses to separate the overall effects of the randomized systolic BP intervention on the SPRINT primary cardiovascular composite and all-cause mortality into indirect effects (mediated by percentage change in eGFR) and direct effects (mediated through pathways other than percentage change in eGFR). RESULTS: About 10.3% of the 4270 participants in the intensive group had a ≥20% eGFR decline versus 4.4% of the 4256 participants in the standard arm (P<0.001). After the 6-month visit, there were 591 cardiovascular composite events during 27,849 person-years of follow-up. The hazard ratios for total effect, direct effect, and indirect effect of the intervention on the cardiovascular composite were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.56 to 0.78), 0.68 (95% CI, 0.57 to 0.79), and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.03), respectively. All-cause mortality results were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Although intensive systolic BP lowering resulted in greater early decline in eGFR, there was no evidence that the reduction in eGFR owing to intensive systolic BP lowering attenuated the beneficial effects of this intervention on cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/terapia , Sístole , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(6): e005875, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163986

RESUMO

Background In EMPA-REG OUTCOME (Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients) empagliflozin significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease. Post hoc, we evaluated empagliflozin on kidney outcomes in patients with or without heart failure (HF). Methods and Results Individuals were randomized to empagliflozin 10 mg, 25 mg, or placebo. Prespecified analyses by baseline HF status included risk of incident or worsening nephropathy and estimated glomerular filtration rate slope analyses. Cox proportional hazards models assessed consistency of treatment effect across subgroups. Safety evaluations included kidney-related adverse events. At baseline, 244 (10.5%) and 462 (9.9%) patients had HF in the placebo and empagliflozin groups, respectively. Overall, the incidence of kidney outcome events was numerically higher in patients with than without HF. In the HF group, empagliflozin reduced risk of incident or worsening nephropathy or cardiovascular death by 43% (hazard ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.42-0.77]) and progression to macroalbuminuria by 50% (hazard ratio, 0.50 [0.33-0.75]). After an initial transient decrease, estimated glomerular filtration rate stabilized over time with empagliflozin but gradually declined with placebo. Kidney effects in patients with HF were consistent with those in the overall study population (all P values for interaction >0.05). Across groups, the incidence rate of kidney-related adverse events/100 patient-years was higher in patients with than without HF; however, overall rates were comparable between groups. Conclusions These findings from EMPA-REG OUTCOME support the hypothesis that empagliflozin could reduce the risk of clinically relevant kidney events and may slow progression of chronic kidney disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus regardless of HF status. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01131676.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
17.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(9): 816-823, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In chronic kidney disease, intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) control reduces mortality at a cost of greater acute kidney injury risk. Kidney transplantation involves implantation of denervated kidneys and immunosuppressive medications that increase acute kidney injury risk. The optimal blood pressure (BP) target in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) is uncertain. Prior observational studies from the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) trial demonstrate associations of lower SBP levels and reduced mortality risk, but the relationship of BP with kidney allograft function remains unknown. Thus, in FAVORIT, we investigated the relationship of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with risk of kidney allograft failure and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope among stable KTRs. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards and multivariable linear regression models adjusted for demographics, transplant characteristics, comorbidities, baseline eGFR, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio were used to determine associations of SBP and DBP with time to a composite kidney outcome of ≥50% eGFR decline or dialysis dependence, and with annualized eGFR change, respectively. Multivariable restricted cubic spline plots were developed to evaluate the functional form of the relationships. RESULTS: Among 3,598 KTRs, mean age was 52 ± 9 years, SBP was 136 ± 20 mm Hg, DBP was 79 ± 12 mm Hg, and eGFR was 49 ± 18 ml/minute/1.73 m2. There were 369 events of ≥50% eGFR decline or dialysis dependence during a mean follow-up of 4.0 ± 1.5 years. There was no association of either SBP (compared with SBP 120 to <130 mm Hg, hazard ratio (HR) for the SBP < 110 was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 1.70) and 130 to <140 was 0.89 (0.64 to 1.24)) or DBP (compared with DBP 70 to <80 mm Hg, HR for the DBP 60 to <70 was 1.00 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.34) and 80 to <90 was 0.90 (0.68 to 1.18)) with the kidney failure outcome or annualized eGFR slope, and, when examined using restricted cubic splines, there was no evidence of "J"- or "U"-shaped relationships. CONCLUSIONS: In a large sample of stable KTRs, we found no evidence of thresholds at which lower BPs were related to higher risk of allograft failure or eGFR decline. In light of prior findings of mortality benefit at low SBP, these observational findings suggest lower BP may be beneficial in KTRs. This important question requires confirmation in future randomized trials in KTRs.

18.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(6): 1096-1108, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher serum phosphate and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) levels may be modifiable to prevent cardiovascular disease in CKD. Short-term studies have reported modest efficacy in phosphate and FGF23 reduction with intestinal phosphate binders in CKD. METHODS: To investigate effects of lanthanum carbonate (LC; a phosphate binder) and/or nicotinamide (NAM; an inhibitor of active intestinal phosphate transport) on serum phosphate and FGF23 in stage 3b/4 CKD, we conducted a randomized trial among individuals with eGFR 20-45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 to NAM (750 mg twice daily) plus LC (1000 mg thrice daily), NAM plus LC placebo, LC plus NAM placebo, or double placebo for 12 months. Dual primary end points were change from baseline in serum phosphate and intact FGF23 concentrations. RESULTS: Mean eGFR for the 205 participants was 32ml/min per 1.73 m2. At baseline, serum phosphate was 3.7 mg/dl and median FGF23 was 99 pg/ml (10th, 90th percentiles: 59, 205). Mean rates of change in phosphate increased slightly over 12 months in all groups and did not differ significantly across arms. Similarly, percent changes in FGF23 per 12 months increased for all arms except LC plus placebo, and did not differ significantly across arms. Gastrointestinal symptoms limited adherence. Adverse events rates were similar across arms. CONCLUSIONS: LC and/or NAM treatment did not significantly lower serum phosphate or FGF23 in stage 3b/4 CKD over 12 months. Although these agents appeared safe, intestinal symptoms limited adherence. Reducing phosphate and FGF23 in nondialysis CKD will require new approaches.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Lantânio/administração & dosagem , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Fosfatos/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Am J Nephrol ; 49(5): 346-355, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney tubulointerstitial fibrosis on biopsy is a strong predictor of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, and CKD is associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Tubular health is poorly quantified by traditional kidney function measures, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria. We hypothesized that urinary biomarkers of tubular injury, inflammation, and repair would be associated with higher risk of CVD and mortality in persons with CKD. METHODS: We measured urinary concentrations of interleukin-18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and chitinase-3-like protein-1 (YKL-40) at baseline among 2,377 participants of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial who had an eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. We used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate biomarker associations with CVD events and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean age of participants was 72 ± 9 years, and eGFR was 48 ± 11 mL/min/1.73 m2. Over a median follow-up of 3.8 years, 305 CVD events (3.6% per year) and 233 all-cause deaths (2.6% per year) occurred. After multivariable adjustment including eGFR, albuminuria, and urinary creatinine, none of the biomarkers showed statistically significant associations with CVD risk. Urinary IL-18 (hazard ratio [HR] per 2-fold higher value, 1.14; 95% CI 1.01-1.29) and YKL-40 (HR per 2-fold higher value, 1.08; 95% CI 1.02-1.14) concentrations were each incrementally associated with higher mortality risk. Associations were similar when stratified by randomized blood pressure arm. CONCLUSIONS: Among hypertensive trial participants with CKD, higher urinary IL-18 and YKL-40 were associated with higher risk of mortality, but not CVD.

20.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 57(5): 719-728, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is central to haemodialysis treatment, but up to half of surgically created AVF fail to mature. Chronic kidney disease often leads to mineral metabolism disturbances that may interfere with AVF maturation through adverse vascular effects. This study tested associations between mineral metabolism markers and vein histology at AVF creation and unassisted and overall clinical AVF maturation. METHODS: Concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D metabolites: 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25(OH)2D, 25(OH)D, and bioavailable 25(OH)D were measured in pre-operative serum samples from 562 of 602 participants in the Haemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study, a multicentre, prospective cohort study of patients undergoing surgical creation of an autologous upper extremity AVF. Unassisted and overall AVF maturation were ascertained for 540 and 527 participants, respectively, within nine months of surgery or four weeks of dialysis initiation. Study personnel obtained vein segments adjacent to the portion of the vein used for anastomosis, which were processed, embedded, and stained for measurement of neointimal hyperplasia, calcification, and collagen deposition in the medial wall. RESULTS: Participants in this substudy were 71% male, 43% black, and had a mean age of 55 years. Failure to achieve AVF maturation without assistance occurred in 288 (53%) participants for whom this outcome was determined. In demographic and further adjusted models, mineral metabolism markers were not significantly associated with vein histology characteristics, unassisted AVF maturation failure, or overall maturation failure, other than a biologically unexplained association of higher 24,25(OH)2D with overall failure. This exception aside, associations were non-significant for continuous and categorical analyses and relevant subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentrations of measured mineral metabolites were not substantially associated with major histological characteristics of veins in patients undergoing AVF creation surgery, or with AVF maturation failure, suggesting that efforts to improve AVF maturation rates should increase attention to other processes such as vein mechanics, anatomy, and cellular metabolism among end stage renal disease patients.


Assuntos
Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Minerais/sangue , Diálise Renal/métodos , Remodelação Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Calcificação Fisiológica , Cálcio/sangue , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Fosfatos/sangue , Veias/metabolismo , Veias/patologia , Vitamina D/sangue
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