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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(8): e198420, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390031

RESUMO

Importance: Preventive surgery is strongly recommended for individuals with a BRCA mutation at a young age to prevent ovarian cancer and improve overall survival. The overall effect of early surgical menopause on various health outcomes, including bone health, has not been clearly elucidated. Objective: To evaluate the association of prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with bone mineral density (BMD) loss among individuals with a BRCA mutation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study of participants with a BRCA mutation who underwent oophorectomy through the University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, recruited participants from January 2000 to May 2013. Eligibility criteria included having a BRCA mutation, at least 1 ovary intact prior to surgery, and no history of any cancer other than breast cancer. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry before and after surgery. Data analysis began in December 2018 and finished in January 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The annual change in BMD from baseline to follow-up was calculated for the following 3 anatomical locations: (1) lumbar spine, (2) femoral neck, and (3) total hip. Results: A total of 95 women had both a baseline and postsurgery BMD measurement with a mean (SD) follow-up period of 22.0 (12.7) months. The mean (SD) age at oophorectomy was 48.0 (7.4) years. Among women who were premenopausal at time of surgery (50 [53%]), there was a decrease in BMD from baseline to follow-up across the lumbar spine (annual change, -3.45%; 95% CI, -4.61% to -2.29%), femoral neck (annual change, -2.85%; 95% CI, -3.79% to -1.91%), and total hip (annual change, -2.24%; 95% CI, -3.11% to -1.38%). Self-reported hormone therapy use was associated with significantly less bone loss at the lumbar spine (-2.00% vs -4.69%; P = .02) and total hip (-1.38% vs -3.21; P = .04) compared with no hormone therapy use. Among postmenopausal women at time of surgery (45 [47%]), there was also a significant decrease in BMD across the lumbar spine (annual change, -0.82%; 95% CI, -1.42% to -0.23%) and femoral neck (annual change, -0.68%; 95% CI, -1.33% to -0.04%) but not total hip (annual change, -0.18%; 95% CI, -0.82% to 0.46%). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that oophorectomy was associated with postoperative bone loss, especially among women who were premenopausal at the time of surgery. Targeted management strategies should include routine BMD assessment and hormone therapy use to improve management of bone health in this population.

3.
J Clin Densitom ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377055

RESUMO

The 2019 International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) Position Development Conference Task Force for monitoring with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) identified detection of atypical femur fractures (AFFs) as an important topic and established this working group to answer key questions in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and deliberated on proposed ISCD positions, which were then reviewed by an external expert panel and vetted at the 2019 ISCD Position Development Conference in Kuala Lumpur on March 23, 2019. This paper summarizes the final ISCD positions and the rationale for supporting these positions. Default-length femur imaging or extended-length femur imaging as well as full-length femur imaging (FFI), both single-energy and dual-energy scans, by DXA can detect abnormalities in the spectrum of AFF. It is important to visually inspect all DXA scans of the hip and femur, and report on findings of focal periosteal and endosteal thickening at the lateral cortex (grade: Good, A, W). FFI is the preferred DXA scan mode for detecting abnormalities in the spectrum of AFF. The FFI report should state the absence or presence of abnormalities in the spectrum of AFF. If focal thickening is present on the lateral cortex, the report should state whether a lucent line is seen (grade: Fair, C, W). The ISCD recommends considering the use of bilateral FFI in patients who are currently or have been in the past year on potent antiresorptive therapy (ie, oral or intravenous bisphosphonate or subcutaneous denosumab therapy) for a cumulative period of 3 or more years, especially those on long-term glucocorticoid therapy (grade: Fair, B, W). More research is needed to determine the role of repeat testing and the optimal time interval for follow-up DXA scans, whether an automated measuring tool would perform better than visual inspection, whether FFI would change patient management and outcomes, and the cost-effectiveness of FFI.

4.
Arch Osteoporos ; 14(1): 67, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243557

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to explore whether vertebral fracture characteristics or posture is independently associated with physical performance. Posture was significantly associated with physical performance but fracture characteristics were not, suggesting posture should be the focus of physical performance variance. PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to explore whether vertebral fracture characteristics (number, severity, location) or occiput-to-wall distance (OWD) is independently associated with physical performance. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial, of community-dwelling women aged 65 years and older with a suspected vertebral fragility fracture. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were used to determine the number, location, and severity of fracture. The dependent variables were timed up and go (TUG), five times sit-to-stand, four-meter walk, and step test. The independent variables were number, severity, location of fracture, and OWD. Pain during movement and age were covariates. Multivariable regression analyses determined the association between each of the dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: Participants' (n = 158) mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 75.9 (6.5) years. They had a mean (SD) BMI, OWD, and number of fractures of 26.7 (5.3) kg/m2, 5.7 (4.6) cm, and 2.2 (1.8), respectively. OWD was independently associated with TUG (estimated coefficient [B] = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16, 0.42), five times sit-to-stand (B = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.55), four-meter walk (B = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.13), and step test (B = - 0.36, 95% CI = - 0.50, - 0.23) in the unadjusted model. OWD was independently associated with TUG (B = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.38), five times sit-to-stand (B = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.07, 0.50), four-meter walk (B = 0.08, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.12), and step test (B = - 0.22, 95% CI = - 0.47, - 0.19) in the adjusted model. CONCLUSION: OWD was significantly associated with physical performance but fracture characteristics were not. These analyses were exploratory and require replication in future studies.

5.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081876

RESUMO

Importance: The risk for low-trauma fracture is increased by more than 30% after ischemic stroke, but existing fracture risk scores do not account for history of stroke as a high-risk condition. Objective: To derive a risk score to predict the probability of fracture within 1 year after ischemic stroke and validate it in a separate cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prognostic study of a cohort from the Ontario Stroke Registry, a population-based sample of adults in Ontario, Canada, who were hospitalized with ischemic stroke from July 1, 2003, to March 31, 2012, with 1 year of follow-up. A population-based validation cohort consisted of a sample of 13 698 consecutive stroke admissions captured across 5 years: April 2002 to March 2003, April 2004 to March 2005, April 2008 to March 2009, April 2010 to March 2011, and April 2012 to March 2013. Exposures: Predictor variables were selected based on biological plausibility and association with fracture risk. Age, sex, and modified Rankin score were abstracted from the medical records part of the Ontario Stroke Audit, and other characteristics were abstracted from administrative health data. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of low-trauma fracture within 1 year of discharge, based on administrative health data. Results: The Fracture Risk after Ischemic Stroke (FRAC-Stroke) Score was derived in 20 435 patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke (mean [SD] age, 71.6 [14.0] years; 9564 [46.8%] women) from the Ontario Stroke Registry discharged from July 1, 2003, to March 31, 2012, using Fine-Gray competing risk regression. Low-trauma fracture occurred within 1 year of discharge in 741 of the 20 435 patients (3.6%) in the derivation cohort. Age, discharge modified Rankin score (mRS), and history of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, falls, and previous fracture were associated with the cumulative incidence of low trauma fracture in the derivation cohort. Model discrimination in the validation cohort (n = 13 698) was good (C statistic, 0.70). Discharge mRS was an important discriminator of risk (relative integrated discrimination improvement, 8.7%), with highest risk in patients with mRS 3 and 4 but lowest in bedbound patients (mRS 5). From the lowest to the highest FRAC-Stroke quintile, the cumulative incidence of 1-year low-trauma fracture increased from 1.3% to 9.0% in the validation cohort. Predicted and observed rates of fracture were similar in the external validation cohort. Analysis was conducted from July 2016 to January 2019. Conclusions and Relevance: The FRAC-Stroke score allows the clinician to identify ischemic stroke survivors at higher risk of low-trauma fracture within 1 year of hospital discharge. This information might be used to select patients for interventions to prevent fractures.

6.
Stroke ; 50(6): 1564-1566, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018778

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Stroke is a risk factor for subsequent osteoporosis and fractures. We sought to understand current rates and predictors of screening and treatment for bone loss after stroke. Methods- Using the Ontario Stroke Registry from July 1, 2003 to March 31, 2013, we identified patients ≥65 years who were seen in the emergency department or hospitalized with stroke at 11 regional stroke centers in Ontario, Canada and discharged alive. We calculated the cumulative incidence of (1) screening with bone mineral density testing and (2) treatment with medications for fracture prevention, within 1 year after the index stroke, accounting for the competing risk of death. We then used cause-specific hazard models to estimate the effect of various covariates on the cause-specific hazard of bone mineral density testing and osteoporosis pharmacotherapy. Results- In the sample of 16 581 patients, 5.1% overall and 2.9% of those without prior testing underwent screening bone mineral density testing, and 15.5% overall and 3.2% of those not previously on treatment were prescribed medications for fracture prevention within 1 year after stroke. Results were similar in all subgroups of patients. Female sex, prestroke osteoporosis, and poststroke falls and fractures were associated with increased rates of osteoporosis pharmacotherapy. Conclusions- Patients with recent stroke are infrequently screened and treated for osteoporosis, which may increase the risk of fractures. Future work should focus on identifying and treating patients who are at increased risk of fractures after stroke.

7.
Arch Osteoporos ; 14(1): 27, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820733

RESUMO

This study of women with a suspected vertebral fracture determined the association between vertebral fracture characteristics and posture. The number of fractures was associated with posture. Severity of fracture was associated with posture when adjusting for pain. Fracture characteristics explain some variability in posture in women with a suspected vertebral fracture. PURPOSE: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. An accumulation of vertebral fractures may lead to forward head posture, which has been independently associated with mortality. It is unclear how fracture characteristics, including the number, severity, and location of fracture, contribute to occiput-to-wall distance (OWD). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional secondary data analysis using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial, in community-dwelling women aged 65 years and older with a suspected vertebral fragility fracture. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were used to determine the number, location, and severity of fracture. Occiput-to-wall distance (OWD) was used to assess forward head posture. Pain during movement (0-10 scale) and age were considered as confounding variables. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate relationships between fracture variables and OWD. RESULTS: Participants (n = 158) were of mean age 75.9 (SD 6.5) years with a mean (SD) BMI = 26.7 (5.3) kg/m2, OWD = 5.7 (4.6) cm, and number of fractures = 2.4 (2.4). In unadjusted analyses, the number of fractures (B = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.04, 1.59) was associated with OWD. When adjusting for pain, severity of fractures (B = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.001, 2.15) was independently associated with OWD. Location was not associated with OWD in any of the models. CONCLUSIONS: The number of fractures was significantly associated with OWD in the unadjusted model, explaining more of the variability in OWD than other fracture characteristics. Severity of fracture was associated with OWD in the adjusted model. However, pain may confound the relationship between OWD and fracture characteristics.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(5): 1595-1622, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective is to formulate clinical practice guidelines for the pharmacological management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from clinical trials and insights from clinical experience with pharmacologic therapies for osteoporosis were critically evaluated in formulating this guideline for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patient preferences, data on adherence and persistence, and risks and benefits from the patient and provider perspectives were also considered in writing committee deliberations. A consensus by the Writing Committee members was achieved for four management principles: (i) The risk of future fractures in postmenopausal women should be determined using country-specific assessment tools to guide decision-making. (ii) Patient preferences should be incorporated into treatment planning. (iii) Nutritional and lifestyle interventions and fall prevention should accompany all pharmacologic regimens to reduce fracture risk. (iv) Multiple pharmacologic therapies are capable of reducing fracture rates in postmenopausal women at risk with acceptable risk-benefit and safety profiles.

9.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(5): 838-848, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723960

RESUMO

Although the short-term impact of incident fragility fractures on health-related quality of life (HRQL) of older people has been confirmed, we lack long-term evidence. We explored the impact of incident fragility fractures on HRQL, among people aged 50 years and older, using 10-year prospective data from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). This study was based on data from 7753 (2187 men and 5566 women) participants of CaMos. The HRQL, measured through the Health Utility Index (HUI), was captured at baseline and year 10. The incident fragility fractures were recorded over 10 years of follow-up at spine, hip, rib, shoulder, pelvis, or forearm. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to measure the mean difference, termed as deficit, in the HUI scores for participants with and without fractures. We examined the effects of single or multiple fragility fractures, time (fractures that occurred between year 1 to 5 and 6 to 10) and recovery to the prefracture level. Incident spine and hip fractures were associated with significant deficits (varied from -0.19 to -0.07) on the HUI scores. Hip and spine fractures were associated with negative impact on mobility, self-care, and ambulation. Fractures that occurred closer to the follow-up assessment were associated with significant impact on HRQL compared to fractures occurring a long time before it, except for hip fracture (deficits lasted 5 years or longer). Similarly, multiple hip (-0.14), spine (-0.16), and rib (-0.21) fractures significantly impacted the HRQL of women. Women with a hip fracture never recovered to their prefracture level score (OR = 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19 to 0.98). Our analysis suggests that single and multiple hip fractures as well as multiple spine and rib fractures strongly impact the HRQL of older people over a prolonged period of time. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

10.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(3): 409-418, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645770

RESUMO

Until recently there has been little evidence available to validate any method by which to make an accurate diagnosis of an osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) from plain radiographs. In part this reflects a lack of a completely satisfactory "gold standard," but primarily it relates to the absence of well-designed prospective studies in this context. Historically, OVFs were recognized by evidence of macroscopic structural failure in vertebrae using the criteria applied elsewhere in the skeleton. This comprised altered alignment, fragmentation, cortical disruptions, and breaks, among other changes. However, these morphological criteria were replaced by vertebral morphometry, referring to the use of quantitative or quasi-quantitative measurement tools for fracture diagnosis. Vertebral morphometry emerged as an understanding of and treatment for osteoporosis evolved, mainly in response to the need for expeditious assessments of large numbers of spine images for epidemiological and pharmaceutical purposes. Although most of the descriptions of such morphometric tools have stressed that they were not to be applied to clinical diagnosis with respect to individual patients, this constraint has been widely disregarded. Here we review the major attempts to develop a diagnostic strategy for OVF and describe their characteristics in adults and children. Recent evidence suggests that morphometric (quantitative; ie, based on measurement of dimensions and shape description) criteria are inferior to morphologic (qualitative; ie, based on structural integrity) vertebral damage assessment in identifying people with low bone density and at an increased risk of future fracture. Thus there is now an evidentiary basis for suggesting that morphological assessment is the preferred strategy for use in diagnosing OVF from radiographs. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

11.
J Clin Densitom ; 2018 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352783

RESUMO

The accumulation of INTERmuscular fat and INTRAmuscular fat (IMF) has been a hallmark of individuals with diabetes, those with mobility impairments such as spinal cord injuries and is known to increase with aging. An elevated amount of IMF has been associated with fractures and frailty, but the imprecision of IMF measurement has so far limited the ability to observe more consistent clinical associations. Magnetic resonance imaging has been recognized as the gold standard for portraying these features, yet reliable methods for quantifying IMF on magnetic resonance imaging is far from standardized. Previous investigators used manual segmentation guided by histogram-based region-growing, but these techniques are subjective and have not demonstrated reliability. Others applied fuzzy classification, machine learning, and atlas-based segmentation methods, but each is limited by the complexity of implementation or by the need for a learning set, which must be established each time a new disease cohort is examined. In this paper, a simple convergent iterative threshold-optimizing algorithm was explored. The goal of the algorithm is to enable IMF quantification from plain fast spin echo (FSE) T1-weighted MR images or from water-saturated images. The algorithm can be programmed into Matlab easily, and is semiautomated, thus minimizing the subjectivity of threshold-selection. In 110 participants from 3 cohort studies, IMF area measurement demonstrated a high degree of reproducibility with errors well within the 5% benchmark for intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest analyses; in contrast to manual segmentation which already yielded over 20% error for intraobserver analysis. This algorithm showed validity against manual segmentations (r > 0.85). The simplicity of this technique lends itself to be applied to fast spin echo images commonly ordered as part of standard of care and does not require more advanced fat-water separated images.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861446

RESUMO

Women's hot flushes and night sweats, collectively called vasomotor symptoms (VMS), are maximal (79%) in late perimenopause. The evidence describing whether VMS are associated with loss of areal bone mineral density (BMD) is mixed. We examined baseline and 2-year data for 1570 randomly selected women aged 43⁻63 in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), a prospective Canada-wide study; we used linear regression to assess the relationship of night sweats (VMSn) with BMD and its changes. Clinically important VMSn occurred for 12.2%. Women with VMSn were slightly younger (54.5 vs. 55.3 years, p = 0.02) and less likely to use sex steroid therapies (39.8% vs. 51.4%, p < 0.05). BMD at the lumbar spine (L1-4), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) were similar between those with/without VMSn. In adjusted models, we did not find a significant association between VMSn and 2-year change in L1-4, FN and TH BMD. Age, reproductive status, weight, sex steroid therapy and smoking status were associated with 2-year change in BMD. Incident fractures over 2 years also did not differ by VMSn. Our analyses were restricted to VMSn and may not truly capture the relationship between VMS and BMD. Additional research involving VMS, bone loss and fracture incidence is needed.

15.
Arch Osteoporos ; 13(1): 7, 2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29372344

RESUMO

Recommendations suggest a multicomponent exercise for people with osteoporosis. We identified rehabilitation professionals' barriers and facilitators to implementing exercise recommendations with people with osteoporosis, and used those to make suggestions for targeted knowledge translation interventions. Future work will report on development and evaluation of the interventions informed by our study. PURPOSE: Rehabilitation professionals can help people with osteoporosis to engage in a multicomponent exercise program and perform activities of daily living safely. However, rehabilitation professional face barriers to implementing exercise evidence, especially for specific disease conditions like osteoporosis. We performed a behavioural analysis and identified rehabilitation professionals' barriers to and facilitators of implementing disease-specific physical activity and exercise recommendations (Too Fit to Fracture recommendations), and used the Behaviour Change Wheel to select interventions. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with rehabilitation professionals, including physical therapists, kinesiologists, and occupational therapists, and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers coded data and identified emerging themes. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel framework, themes were categorized into capability, opportunity, and motivation, and relevant interventions were identified. RESULTS: Ninety-four rehabilitation professionals (mean age 40.5 years, 88.3% female) participated. Identified barriers were as follows: capability-lack of training in behaviour change, how to modify recommendations for physical and cognitive impairments; opportunity-lack of resources, time, and team work; motivation-lack of trust between providers, fear in providing interventions that may cause harm. Interventions selected were as follows: education, training, enablement, modelling and persuasion. Policy categories are communication/marketing, guidelines, service provision and environmental/social planning. CONCLUSIONS: Key barriers to implementing the recommendations are rehabilitation professionals' ability to use behaviour change techniques, to modify the recommendations for physical and cognitive limitations and to feel comfortable with delivering challenging but safe interventions for people with osteoporosis, and lacking trust and team work across sectors. Future work will report on development and evaluation of knowledge translation interventions informed by our study.

16.
Med Phys ; 45(1): 81-91, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080282

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard technique to measure areal bone mineral density (aBMD) for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Because DXA relies on the attenuation of photon to estimate aBMD, deposition of bone-seeking metallic elements such as strontium, lead, and aluminum that differ in atomic numbers from calcium can cause inaccurate estimation of aBMD. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is another technique available to assess bone health by measuring broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and an empirically derived quantity called stiffness index (SI). Because the acoustic properties are not prone to significant change due to changes in microscopic atomic composition of bone, it is hypothesized that QUS is unaffected by the presence of bone-seeking elements in the bone. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of strontium, lead, and aluminum on DXA-derived aBMD and QUS parameters using bone-mimicking phantoms compatible with both techniques. METHODS: Bone-mimicking phantoms were produced by homogeneously mixing finely powdered hydroxyapatite compounds that contain varying concentrations of strontium, lead, or aluminum with porcine gelatin solution. Seven strontium-substituted phantoms were produced with varying molar ratio of Sr/(Sr + Ca) ranging from 0% to 2%. Four lead-doped phantoms and four aluminum-doped phantoms were constructed with the respective analyte concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 ppm. An additional 0 ppm phantom was produced to be used as a baseline for the lead and aluminum phantom measurements. All phantoms had uniform volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) of 200 mg/cm3 , and were assessed using a Hologic Horizon® DXA device and a Hologic Sahara® QUS device. Furthermore, theoretical aBMD bias for mol/mol% substitution of calcium with the three bone-seeking elements was calculated. RESULTS: Strong positive linear relationship was found between aBMD measured by DXA and strontium concentration (P < 0.001, r = 0.995). From the measurement of lead and aluminum phantoms using DXA, no statistically significant relationship was observed between aBMD and the analyte concentrations. For the QUS system, with an exception of BUA and lead concentration that exhibited statistically significant relationship (P < 0.038, r = 0.899), no statistically significant change was observed in all QUS parameters with respect to the clinically relevant concentration of all three elements. The calculated theoretical aBMD bias induced by 1 mol/mol% substitution of calcium with strontium, lead, and aluminum were 10.8%, 4.6%, and -0.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: aBMD measured by DXA was prone to overestimation in the presence of strontium, but acoustic parameters measured by QUS are independent of strontium concentration. The deviation in aBMD induced by the clinically relevant concentrations of lead and aluminum under 200 ppm could not be detected using the Hologic Horizon® DXA device. Furthermore, the SI measured by the QUS system was not affected by lead or aluminum concentrations used in this study.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/instrumentação , Alumínio , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Chumbo , Imagens de Fantasmas , Estrôncio , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia
17.
Cancer ; 124(6): 1132-1140, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies to improve bone health care in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are not consistently implemented. The authors conducted a phase 2 randomized controlled trial of 2 education-based models-of-care interventions to determine their feasibility and ability to improve bone health care. METHODS: A single-center parallel-group randomized controlled trial of men with prostate cancer who were receiving ADT was performed. Participants were randomized 1:1:1 to 1) a patient bone health pamphlet and brief recommendations for their family physician (BHP+FP); 2) a BHP and support from a bone health care coordinator (BHP+BHCC); or 3) usual care. The primary efficacy outcome was receipt of a bone mineral density (BMD) test within 6 months. Secondary efficacy outcomes included guideline-appropriate calcium and vitamin D use and bisphosphonate prescriptions for men at high fracture risk. Feasibility endpoints included recruitment, retention, satisfaction, contamination, and outcome capture. The main analysis used logistic regression with a 1-sided P of .10. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier NCT02043236). RESULTS: A total of 119 men were recruited. The BHP+BHCC strategy was associated with a greater percentage of men undergoing a BMD test compared with the usual-care group (78% vs 36%; P<.001). BMD ordering also was found to be increased with the BHP+FP strategy (58% vs 36%; P = .047). Both strategies were associated with higher percentages of patients using calcium and vitamin D, but only the BHP+FP arm was statistically significant (P = .039). No men were detected to be at high fracture risk. All but one feasibility endpoint was met. CONCLUSIONS: Educational strategies to improve bone health care appear feasible and are associated with improved BMD ordering in men receiving ADT. Cancer 2018;124:1132-40. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

18.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(4): 569-579, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722766

RESUMO

We compared two methods for osteoporotic vertebral fracture (VF) assessment on lateral spine radiographs, the Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) technique and a modified algorithm-based qualitative (mABQ) approach. We evaluated 4465 women and 1771 men aged ≥50 years from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study with available X-ray images at baseline. Observer agreement was lowest for grade 1 VFs determined by GSQ. Among physician readers, agreement was greater for VFs diagnosed by mABQ (ranging from 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00-1.00] to 0.88 [0.76-1.00]) than by GSQ (ranging from 0.38 [0.17-0.60] to 0.69 [0.54-0.85]). GSQ VF prevalence (16.4% [95% CI 15.4-17.4]) and incidence (10.2/1000 person-years [9.2; 11.2]) were higher than with the mABQ method (prevalence 6.7% [6.1-7.4] and incidence 6.3/1000 person-years [5.5-7.1]). Women had more prevalent and incident VFs relative to men as defined by mABQ but not as defined by GSQ. Prevalent GSQ VFs were predominantly found in the mid-thoracic spine, whereas prevalent mABQ and incident VFs by both methods co-localized to the junction of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Prevalent mABQ VFs compared with GSQ VFs were more highly associated with reduced adjusted L1 to L4 bone mineral density (BMD) (-0.065 g/cm2 [-0.087 to -0.042]), femoral neck BMD (-0.051 g/cm2 [-0.065 to -0.036]), and total hip BMD (-0.059 g/cm2 [-0.076 to -0.041]). Prevalent mABQ VFs compared with prevalent GSQ were also more highly associated with incident VF by GSQ (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3 [2.2-5.0]), incident VF by mABQ (9.0 [5.3-15.3]), and incident non-vertebral major osteoporotic fractures (1.9 [1.2-3.0]). Grade 1 mABQ VFs, but not grade 1 GSQ VFs, were associated with incident non-vertebral major osteoporotic fractures (OR = 3.0 [1.4-6.5]). We conclude that defining VF by mABQ is preferred to the use of GSQ for clinical assessments. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

19.
Bone ; 103: 47-54, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614701

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine how appendicular lean mass index (ALMI), and whole body lean (LMI) and fat mass indices (FMI) associate with estimated bone strength outcomes at the distal radius and tibia in adults aged 40 years and older. METHODS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed to determine body composition, including whole body lean and fat mass, and appendicular lean mass. ALMI (appendicular lean mass/height2), LMI (lean tissue mass/height2) and FMI (fat mass/height2) were calculated. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) scans were performed to assess bone structural properties at the distal radius and tibia. Using finite element analysis, failure load (N), stiffness (N/mm), ultimate stress (MPa), and cortical-to-trabecular load ratio were estimated from HRpQCT scans. The associations between body composition (ALMI, LMI, FMI) and estimated bone strength were examined using bivariate and multivariable linear regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, and other confounding variables. RESULTS: In 197 participants (127 women; mean±SD, age: 69.5±10.3y, body mass index: 27.95±4.95kg/m2, ALMI: 7.31±1.31kg/m2), ALMI and LMI were significantly associated with failure load at the distal radius and tibia (explained 39%-48% of the variance) and remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables and multiple testing (R2=0.586-0.645, p<0.001). ALMI, LMI, and FMI did not have significant associations with ultimate stress in our multivariable models. FMI was significantly associated with cortical-to-trabecular load ratio at the distal radius and tibia (explained 6%-12% of the variance) and remained significant after adjusting for confounders and multiple testing (R2=0.208-0.243, p<0.001). FMI was no longer significantly associated with failure load after adjusting for confounders. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that ALMI and LMI are important determinants of estimated bone strength, particularly failure load, at the distal radius and tibia, and may contribute to preservation of bone strength in middle-to-late adulthood.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; 46(1): 181-192, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28131131

RESUMO

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with microarchitectural deterioration and increased risk of fracture. Osteoporosis therapy effectively reduces the risk of vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fracture and has been associated with increased survival. Currently approved treatments for osteoporosis include bisphosphonates, denosumab, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. This article reviews the adverse events of therapy associated with these medical interventions. Hormone replacement therapy is not included, because it is no longer indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis in all countries. Calcitonin and strontium ranelate are also not included, because their indication for osteoporosis has recently been limited or withdrawn.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Denosumab/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Teriparatida/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Humanos
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