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1.
Schizophr Bull ; 48(4): 860-870, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524755

RESUMO

Negative symptoms, particularly the motivation and pleasure (MAP) deficits, are associated with impaired social functioning in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). However, previous studies seldom examined the role of the MAP on social functioning while accounting for the complex interplay between other psychopathology. This network analysis study examined the network structure and interrelationship between negative symptoms (at the "symptom-dimension" and "symptom-item" levels), other psychopathology and social functioning in a sample of 269 patients with SCZ. The psychopathological symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Social functioning was evaluated using the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). Centrality indices and relative importance of each node were estimated. The network structures between male and female participants were compared. Our resultant networks at both the "symptom-dimension" and the "symptom-item" levels suggested that the MAP factor/its individual items were closely related to social functioning in SCZ patients, after controlling for the complex interplay between other nodes. Relative importance analysis showed that MAP factor accounted for the largest proportion of variance of social functioning. This study is among the few which used network analysis and the CAINS to examine the interrelationship between negative symptoms and social functioning. Our findings supported the pivotal role of the MAP factor to determine SCZ patients' social functioning, and as a potential intervention target for improving functional outcomes of SCZ.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Prazer , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Interação Social
2.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 83(2)2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143123

RESUMO

Background: Prospective memory (PM) impairment is associated with impaired social functioning, but evidence is limited to chronic schizophrenia samples and cross-sectional design. The aim of this study was to utilize network analysis to address the complex interplay between PM, psychopathology, and functional outcome.Methods: This longitudinal study recruited 119 people with first-episode DSM-IV schizophrenia and followed up with them for 2 to 6 years. PM and working memory were assessed at baseline (in 2010-2015) using valid computerized tasks and the Letter-Number Span Test, respectively. Psychopathology and social functioning were assessed at endpoint (in 2016-2017) using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), respectively. Network analysis examined the effect of baseline PM on SOFAS while accounting for the effects of psychopathology.Results: The resultant network showed that social functioning, PANSS positive symptoms, and PANSS general symptoms clustered together, whereas time-based and event-based PM and working memory formed another cluster. Time-based PM linked event-based PM and working memory with social functioning. Time-based PM (expected influence [EI] = 0.69), event-based PM (EI = 0.65), and working memory (EI = 0.83) demonstrated high values of expected influence, but social functioning (variance explained = 0.685) and PANSS negative (variance explained = 0.657) and general (variance explained = 0.583) subscales demonstrated high values of predictability.Conclusions: Time-based PM is the central node linking neurocognitive functions with social functioning. PM and working memory are "target" nodes for interventions bringing changes to the network, whereas social functioning and psychopathology are "malleable" nodes. PM and working memory are promising intervention targets for functional recovery in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Interação Social , Adulto , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Modelos Psicológicos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35079855

RESUMO

Unwillingness to exert effort for rewards has been found in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder (BD), but the underlying shared and distinct reward neural mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to compare the neural correlates of such impairments across different diagnoses. The neural responses in an effort-expenditure for reward task (EEfRT) were assessed in 20 SCZ patients, 23 MDD patients, 17 BD patients, and 30 healthy controls (HC). The results found shared activation in the cingulate gyrus, the medial frontal gyrus, and the middle frontal gyrus during the EEfRT administration. Compared to HC, SCZ patients exhibited stronger variations of functional connectivity between the right caudate and the left amygdala, the left hippocampus and the left putamen, with increase in reward magnitude. In MDD patients, an enhanced activation compared to HC in the right superior temporal gyrus was found with the increase of reward magnitude. The variations of functional connectivity between the caudate and the right cingulate gyrus, the left postcentral gyrus and the left inferior parietal lobule with increase in reward magnitude were weaker than that found in HC. In BD patients, the degree of activation in the left precuneus was increased, but that in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was decreased with increase in reward probability compared to HC. These findings demonstrate both shared and distinct reward neural mechanisms associated with EEfRT in patients with SCZ, MDD, and BD, implicating potential intervention targets to alleviate amotivation in these clinical disorders.

4.
Psych J ; 11(3): 317-326, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35037406

RESUMO

It is important for positive well-being and social engagement to understand how people predict future emotions, an ability known as affective forecasting. However, mechanisms underpinning the change to affective forecasting are not well understood in people with subclinical psychiatric symptoms. The current study differentiated components that comprise affective forecasting and investigated how non-clinical features relate to these. We recruited 319 participants to complete the social affective forecasting task and respond to questionnaires that captured schizotypal and autistic traits as well as depressive symptoms. Associations between affective forecasting and subclinical features were investigated using correlations, regression, and structure equation modeling. Results showed that interpersonal features of schizotypal traits negatively predicted anticipated emotions in positive social conditions via in-the-moment feelings but not via mental simulation. Findings highlight that in-the-moment feelings may be an intervention target to help people who have difficulties with social interactions to anticipate more pleasure for future social events.


Assuntos
Emoções , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Prazer , Psicopatologia , Interação Social
5.
Psych J ; 11(2): 232-234, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783123

RESUMO

This study constructed the network structure of social anhedonia, emotion processing, and executive function in college students using network analysis. We calculated the strength of each node in the network. The results suggest that social anhedonia had negative effects on executive function, emotion experience, and emotion expression.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Função Executiva , Emoções , Humanos , Estudantes
6.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 272(2): 301-312, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389057

RESUMO

The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia patients is as around 30%. Evidence suggested that mild OCS could reduce symptoms of schizophrenia, supporting the presence of compensatory functions. However, severe OCS could aggravate various impairments in schizophrenia patients, supporting the "double jeopardy hypothesis". Patients with schizo-obsessive comorbidity, schizophrenia patients and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients have been found to have similarities in executive dysfunctions and altered resting-state functional connectivity within the executive control network (ECN). Executive functions could be associated with the ECN. However, little is known as to whether such overlap exists in the subclinical populations of individuals with schizo-obsessive traits (SOT), schizotypal individuals and individuals with high levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). In this study, we recruited 30 schizotypal individuals, 25 individuals with OCS, 29 individuals with SOT and 29 controls for a resting-state ECN-related functional connectivity (rsFC) and a go/shift/no-go task. We found that individuals with SOT exhibited increased rsFC within the ECN compared with controls, while schizotypal individuals exhibited the opposite. Individuals with OCS exhibited decreased rsFC within the ECN and between the ECN and the default mode network (DMN), relative to controls. No significant correlational results between altered rsFC related to the ECN with executive function performance were found after corrections for multiple comparisons in three subclinical groups. Our findings showed that individuals with SOT had increased rsFC within the ECN, while schizotypal individuals and individuals with OCS showed the opposite. Our findings provide evidence for possible neural substrates of subclinical comorbidity of OCS and schizotypy.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Esquizofrenia , Comorbidade , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
7.
Psychol Med ; 52(5): 834-843, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizotypy refers to schizophrenia-like traits below the clinical threshold in the general population. The pathological development of schizophrenia has been postulated to evolve from the initial coexistence of 'brain disconnection' and 'brain connectivity compensation' to 'brain connectivity decompensation'. METHODS: In this study, we examined the brain connectivity changes associated with schizotypy by combining brain white matter structural connectivity, static and dynamic functional connectivity analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. A total of 87 participants with a high level of schizotypal traits and 122 control participants completed the experiment. Group differences in whole-brain white matter structural connectivity probability, static mean functional connectivity strength, dynamic functional connectivity variability and stability among 264 brain sub-regions of interests were investigated. RESULTS: We found that individuals with high schizotypy exhibited increased structural connectivity probability within the task control network and within the default mode network; increased variability and decreased stability of functional connectivity within the default mode network and between the auditory network and the subcortical network; and decreased static mean functional connectivity strength mainly associated with the sensorimotor network, the default mode network and the task control network. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the specific changes in brain connectivity associated with schizotypy and indicate that both decompensatory and compensatory changes in structural connectivity within the default mode network and the task control network in the context of whole-brain functional disconnection may be an important neurobiological correlate in individuals with high schizotypy.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Substância Branca , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
8.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 27(4): 237-254, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low-pleasure beliefs are found in both patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and individuals with high social anhedonia (SocAnh), and are associated with anhedonia. However, little is known about the development and maintenance of these low-pleasure beliefs in the clinical and subclinical populations. We investigated whether patients with SZ and individuals with high SocAnh have deficits in updating their beliefs, which may contribute to the understanding of the formation and maintenance of low-pleasure beliefs. METHODS: The Modified Belief Updating Task was administered to assess belief-updating patterns in a clinical sample (36 SZ patients and 30 matched controls) and a subclinical sample (27 individuals with high SocAnh and 30 matched controls). RESULTS: We found that compared with controls, SZ patients updated their beliefs to a greater extent and more frequently when receiving bad news for positive life events, but not for negative life events. Moreover, individuals with high SocAnh also exhibited similar patterns in updating their beliefs for positive life events after controlling depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that negative belief-updating patterns for positive events may play an important role in the formation and maintenance of low-pleasure beliefs in patients with SZ and individuals with high SocAnh.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Prazer , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
9.
Schizophr Res ; 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grey matter abnormalities and neurological soft signs (NSS) have been found in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected relatives. Evidence suggested that NSS are associated with grey matter morphometrical alterations in multiple regions in schizophrenia. However, the association between NSS and structural abnormalities at network level remains largely unexplored, especially in the schizophrenia and unaffected siblings. METHOD: We used source-based morphometry (SBM) to examine the association of structural brain network characteristics with NSS in 62 schizophrenia patients, 25 unaffected siblings, and 60 healthy controls. RESULTS: Two components, namely the IC-5 (superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus and insula network) and the IC-10 (parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform, thalamus and insula network) showed significant grey matter reductions in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls and unaffected siblings. Further association analysis demonstrated separate NSS-related grey matter covarying patterns in schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy controls. Specifically, NSS were negatively associated with IC-1 (hippocampus, caudate and thalamus network) and IC-5 in schizophrenia, but with IC-3 (caudate, superior and middle frontal cortices network) in unaffected siblings and with IC-5 in healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed the key cortical and subcortical network abnormalities and NSS-related grey matter covarying patterns in the schizophrenia and unaffected siblings. Our findings suggest that brain regions implicating genetic liability to schizophrenia are partly separated from brain regions implicating neural abnormalities.

10.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(8): 807-814, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843287

RESUMO

Prospection refers to the ability to mentally construct future events, which is closely related to motivation and anhedonia. The neural underpinning of impaired prospection in psychiatric populations remains unclear. We recruited 34 individuals with autistic traits (AT), 27 individuals with schizotypal traits (ST), 31 individuals with depressive symptoms (DS), and 35 controls. Participants completed a prospection task while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We found that regions of the "default mode network" including the medial frontal gyrus, the posterior cingulate cortex, the precuneus and the parahippocampus were activated; and regions of the "task-positive network" including the inferior parietal lobe, the inferior frontal gyrus and the precentral gyrus were deactivated during prospection in controls. Compared with controls, AT, ST, and DS showed comparable behavioral performance on prospection. However, reduced activation in anterior cingulate cortex and frontal gyrus was found in AT individuals relative to controls during prospection. ST individuals showed hyperactivation in the caudate relative to controls when processing positive emotion, while DS individuals and controls showed similar neural responses during prospection. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Depressão , Giro do Cíngulo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Parietal
11.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 317: 111390, 2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537603

RESUMO

Social anhedonia (SA) impairs social functioning in schizophrenia. Previous evidence suggested that certain brain regions predict longitudinal change of real-world social outcomes, yet previous study designs have failed to capture the corresponding functional connectivity among the brain regions involved. This study measured the real-world social network in 22 pairs of individuals with high and low levels of SA, and followed up them for 21 months. We further explored whether resting-state social brain network characteristics could predict the longitudinal variations of real-world social network. Our results showed that social brain network characteristics could predict the change of real-world social networks in both the high SA and low SA groups. However, the results differed between the two groups, i.e., the topological characteristics of the social brain network predicted real-world social network change in the high SA group; whereas the functional connectivity within the social brain network predicted real-world social network change in the low SA group. Principal component analysis and linear regression analysis on the entire sample showed that the functional connectivity component centered at the right orbital inferior frontal gyrus could best predict social network change. Our findings support the notion that social brain network characteristics could predict social network development.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Esquizofrenia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Social
12.
Schizophr Bull ; 47(6): 1524-1533, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420057

RESUMO

Amotivation is related to value representation. A comprehensive account of amotivation requires a mechanistic understanding of how the brain exploits external information to represent value. To achieve maximal value discriminability, brain valuation system will dynamically adapt its coding sensitivity to the range of values available in any given condition, so-called range adaptive coding. We administered an experimental task to 30 patients with chronic schizophrenia (C-SCZ), 30 first-episode schizophrenia (FE-SCZ), 34 individuals with high social anhedonia (HSoA), and their paired controls to assess range adaptation ability. C-SCZ patients exhibited over-adaptation and their performances were negatively correlated with avolition symptoms and positive symptoms and positively correlated with blunted-affect symptoms and self-reported consummatory interpersonal pleasure scores, though the results were non-significant. FE-SCZ patients exhibited reduced adaptation, which was significantly and negatively correlated with avolition symptoms and positively correlated with the overall proportion of choosing to exert more effort. Although HSoA participants exhibited comparable range adaptation to controls, their performances were significantly and negatively correlated with the proportion of choosing to exert more effort under the lowest value condition. Our results suggest that different stages of schizophrenia spectrum showed distinct range adaptation patterns. Range adaptation impairments may index a possible underlying mechanism for amotivation symptoms in FE-SCZ and more complicated and pervasive effects on clinical symptoms in C-SCZ.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Anedonia/fisiologia , Apatia/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudo de Prova de Conceito
13.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 316: 111344, 2021 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358964

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is characterized by both disrupted neurodevelopmental processes and abnormal brain connectivity. However, few studies have examined the atypical features of brain network topography associated with schizophrenia during childhood and adolescence. We used graph theory to compare the grey matter structural networks of individuals (aged 10-15 years) with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) (n = 25) and a typically-developing (TD) comparison group (n = 31). Compared with the TD group, EOS patients showed significantly increased clustering and local efficiency across a range of network densities (0.3 - 0.4). The network of EOS patients also had more modules (6 modules in EOS vs. 3 modules in controls), indicating a more segregated network at the cost of functional integration. Although our results were preliminary and failed to survive corrections for multiple comparisons, EOS patients might be characterized by altered nodal centrality in several higher-order associative regions including the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus and the cerebellum. The EOS structural network also lacked the typical left-hemispheric-dominant hub distribution compared with the TD group. These findings suggest that brain structural network was not only globally but also regionally altered in EOS patients.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282469

RESUMO

Empathy is the ability to generate emotional responses (i.e., cognitive empathy) and to make cognitive inferences (i.e., affective empathy) to other people's emotions. Empirical evidence suggests that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) exhibit impairment in cognitive empathy, but findings on affective empathy are inconsistent. Few studies have examined the neural mechanisms of cognitive and affective empathy in patients with BD. In this study, we examined the empathy-related resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in BD patients. Thirty-seven patients with BD and 42 healthy controls completed the self-report Questionnaires of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE), the Yoni behavioural task, and resting-sate fMRI brain scans. Group comparison of empathic ability was conducted. The interactions between group and empathic ability on seed-based whole brain rsFC were examined. BD patients scored lower on the Online Simulation subscale of the QCAE and showed positive correlations between cognitive empathy and the rsFC of the dorsal Medial Prefrontal Cortex (dmPFC) with the lingual gyrus. The correlations between cognitive empathy and the rsFC of the temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) with the fusiform gyrus, the cerebellum and the parahippocampus were weaker in BD patients than that in healthy controls. These findings highlight the underlying neural mechanisms of empathy impairments in BD patients.

15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 138: 607-614, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004397

RESUMO

Schizophrenia patients exhibit subtle and non-localizing neurological abnormalities, known as neurological soft signs (NSS). Life-span evidence suggests that NSS vary along the course of schizophrenia. An association between NSS and treatment response has been proposed, suggesting that NSS reflect the underlying neuropathology development in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between NSS and treatment resistance in first-episode schizophrenia patients. We conducted a longitudinal study on 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients, who were assessed at baseline, the sixth month, and the fifth year using the abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. The trajectories of NSS between 29 treatment-responsive patients (with full symptomatic remission) and 23 treatment-resistant patients (who received clozapine) were compared using mixed model ANOVA. We also controlled for the effect of age and estimated IQ, using a mixed ANCOVA model. Although the two schizophrenia groups had comparable NSS at the baseline, their trajectories of NSS differed significantly. Compared with their treatment-responsive counterparts, treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients had worsening of NSS over time. Our findings support the potential utility of NSS in identifying treatment resistance in first-episode schizophrenia. Progressive worsening of NSS in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients may reflect the development of underlying neuropathology. Further studies using large samples of treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Indução de Remissão , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 61: 102680, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000499

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Negative symptoms are associated with poor outcomes and functioning. Latent structure of negative symptoms is important for identifying potential intervention targets for novel treatments. Self-report instruments have been developed to measure negative symptoms. Previous findings on latent structure of negative symptoms are inconsistently and mainly rely on clinician-rated instruments. METHOD: We aimed to explore the latent structure of the Self-Evaluation of Negative Symptoms Scale (SNS) in 204 clinically-stable outpatients with schizophrenia. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to compare the competing models (i.e., one-factor, two-factor and five-factor models), and estimated goodness-of-fit indexes. Other clinician-rated scales for psychopathology and medication side-effects were also collected. RESULTS: The CFA found the five-factor model performing best, with a comparative fit index (CFI) of > 0.95, a Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) of > 0.95, and a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of < 0.06. The robust chi-square difference test for the weighted least squares with mean and variance adjusted estimation (WLSMV) also indicated a significant better fit for the five-factor model. DISCUSSION: Our preliminary findings support a five-factor latent structure of self-report negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Further research in this area should utilize multiple clinician-rated and self-report measures, and recruit large and homogeneous samples with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Autorrelato
17.
Schizophr Res ; 232: 77-84, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044349

RESUMO

Social behaviour requires the brain to efficiently integrate multiple social processes, but it is not clear what neural substrates underlie general social behaviour. While psychosis patients and individuals with subclinical symptoms are characterized by social dysfunction, the neural mechanisms underlying social dysfunctions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders remains unclear. We first constructed a general social brain network (SBN) using resting-state functional connectivity (FC) with regions of interest based on the automatic meta-analysis results from NeuroSynth. We then examined the general SBN and its relationship with social network (SN) characteristics in 30 individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 33 individuals with social anhedonia (SA). We found that patients with SCZ exhibited deficits in their SN, while SA individuals did not. SCZ patients showed decreased segregation and functional connectivity in their SBN, while SA individuals showed a reversed pattern with increased segregation and functional connectivity of their SBN. Sparse canonical correlation analysis showed that both SCZ patients and SA individuals exhibited reduced correlation between SBN and SN characteristics compared with their corresponding healthy control groups. These preliminary findings suggest that both SCZ and SA participants exhibit abnormality in segregation and functional connectivity within the general SBN and reduced correlation with SN characteristics. These findings could guide the development of non-pharmacological interventions for social dysfunction in SCZ spectrum disorders.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Anedonia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Social
18.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 60: 102644, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive insight refers to the ability to distance oneself from and evaluate one's own beliefs and interpretations. Little is known about whether cognitive insight could influence medication adherence in schizophrenia patients. This study examined the role of cognitive insight in medication adherence and how it would interact with neuropsychological functions. METHODS: Ninety clinically-stable schizophrenia patients completed the Beck's Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and tasks measuring prospective (PM) and other neurocognitive functions. Medication adherence was estimated using a multi-axial method comprising interview, clinician-rating, pharmacy refill record and pill counting. Correlational and regression analyses were conducted to examine whether cognitive insight and PM would be associated with mediation adherence. Post-hoc mediational analysis was performed to examine the interplay between cognitive insight, PM and medication adherence. RESULTS: Clinical insight and cognitive insight together significantly influenced participants' medication adherence, after neurocognitive functions and psychopathology were accounted for. Time-based PM, compared with other neurocognitive functions, affected medication adherence more strongly. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive insight complements clinical insight in affecting medication adherence in schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Esquizofrenia , Cognição , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Prospectivos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 26(3): 166-182, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706673

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is a typical psychosocial stress. Schizotypal traits are attenuated features of schizophrenia in the general population. According to the diathesis-stress model, schizotypal traits and psychosocial stress contribute to the onset of schizophrenia. However, few studies examined the effects of these factors on brain alterations. This study aimed to examine relationships between ERI, schizotypal traits and brain structures and functions. METHODS: We recruited 37 (13 male, 24 female) participants with high levels of schizotypal traits and 36 (12 male, 24 female) participants with low levels of schizotypal traits by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). The Chinese school version of the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (C-ERI-S) was used to measure ERI. We conducted the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and whole brain resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis using reward or stress-related regions as seeds. RESULTS: Participants with high levels of schizotypal traits were more likely to perceive ERI. The severity of ERI was correlated with grey matter volume (GMV) reduction of the left pallidum and altered rsFC among the prefrontal, striatum and cerebellum in participants with high levels of schizotypal traits. CONCLUSION: ERI is associated with GMV reduction and altered rsFC in individuals with high levels of schizotypal traits.


Assuntos
Recompensa , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticipatory pleasure deficits are closely correlated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and may be found in both clinical and subclinical populations along the psychosis continuum. Prospection, which is an important component of anticipatory pleasure, is impaired in individuals with social anhedonia (SocAnh). In this study, we examined the neural correlates of envisioning positive future events in individuals with SocAnh. METHODS: Forty-nine individuals with SocAnh and 33 matched controls were recruited to undergo functional MRI scanning, during which they were instructed to simulate positive or neutral future episodes according to cue words. Two stages of prospection were distinguished: construction and elaboration. RESULTS: Reduced activation at the caudate and the precuneus when prospecting positive (v. neutral) future events was observed in individuals with SocAnh. Furthermore, compared with controls, increased functional connectivity between the caudate and the inferior occipital gyrus during positive (v. neutral) prospection was found in individuals with SocAnh. Both groups exhibited a similar pattern of brain activation for the construction v. elaboration contrast, regardless of the emotional context. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide further evidence on the neural mechanism of anticipatory pleasure deficits in subclinical individuals with SocAnh and suggest that altered cortico-striatal circuit may play a role in anticipatory pleasure deficits in these individuals.

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