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1.
J Biopharm Stat ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779700

RESUMO

The self-controlled case series is an important method in the studies of the safety of biopharmaceutical products. It uses the conditional Poisson model to make comparison within persons. In models without adjustment for age (or other time-varying covariates), cases who are never exposed to the product do not contribute any information to the estimation. We provide analytic proof and simulation results that the inclusion of unexposed cases in the conditional Poisson model with age adjustment reduces the asymptotic variance of the estimator of the exposure effect and increases power. We re-analysed a vaccine safety dataset to illustrate.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20850, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675297

RESUMO

Abnormalities of red blood cell (RBC) indices may affect glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. We assessed the influence of haemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) on the performance of HbA1c in detecting dysglycaemia among reproductive aged women planning to conceive. Women aged 18-45 years (n = 985) were classified as normal (12 ≤ Hb ≤ 16 g/dL and 80 ≤ MCV ≤ 100 fL) and abnormal (Hb < 12 g/dL and/or MCV < 80 fL). The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC) curve was used to determine the performance of HbA1c in detecting dysglycaemic status (prediabetes and diabetes). There were 771 (78.3%) women with normal RBC indices. The AUROCs for the normal and abnormal groups were 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 0.81) and 0.80 (0.70, 0.90), respectively, and were not statistically different from one another [difference 0.04 (- 0.16, 0.08)]. Further stratification by ethnicity showed no difference between the two groups among Chinese and Indian women. However, Malay women with normal RBC indices displayed lower AUROC compared to those with abnormal RBC indices (0.71 (0.55, 0.87) vs. 0.98 (0.93, 1.00), p = 0.002). The results suggest that the performance of HbA1c in detecting dysglycaemia was not influenced by abnormal RBC indices based on low Hb and/or low MCV. However, there may be ethnic variations among them.

3.
Stat Med ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655097

RESUMO

We consider five asymptotically unbiased estimators of intervention effects on event rates in non-matched and matched-pair cluster randomized trials, including ratio of mean counts r 1 , ratio of mean cluster-level event rates r 2 , ratio of event rates r 3 , double ratio of counts r 4 , and double ratio of event rates r 5 . In the absence of an indirect effect, they all estimate the direct effect of the intervention. Otherwise, r 1 , r 2 , and r 3 estimate the total effect, which comprises the direct and indirect effects, whereas r 4 and r 5 estimate the direct effect only. We derive the conditions under which each estimator is more precise or powerful than its alternatives. To control bias in studies with a small number of clusters, we propose a set of approximately unbiased estimators. We evaluate their properties by simulation and apply the methods to a trial of seasonal malaria chemoprevention. The approximately unbiased estimators are practically unbiased and their confidence intervals usually have coverage probability close to the nominal level; the asymptotically unbiased estimators perform well when the number of clusters is approximately 32 or more per trial arm. Despite its simplicity, r 1 performs comparably with r 2 and r 3 in trials with a large but realistic number of clusters. When the variability of baseline event rate is large and there is no indirect effect, r 4 and r 5 tend to offer higher power than r 1 , r 2 , and r 3 . We discuss the implications of these findings to the planning and analysis of cluster randomized trials.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258866, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679110

RESUMO

AIM: The long-term stress, anxiety and job burnout experienced by healthcare workers (HCWs) are important to consider as the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic stresses healthcare systems globally. The primary objective was to examine the changes in the proportion of HCWs reporting stress, anxiety, and job burnout over six months during the peak of the pandemic in Singapore. The secondary objective was to examine the extent that objective job characteristics, HCW-perceived job factors, and HCW personal resources were associated with stress, anxiety, and job burnout. METHOD: A sample of HCWs (doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, administrative and operations staff; N = 2744) was recruited via invitation to participate in an online survey from four tertiary hospitals. Data were gathered between March-August 2020, which included a 2-month lockdown period. HCWs completed monthly web-based self-reported assessments of stress (Perceived Stress Scale-4), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), and job burnout (Physician Work Life Scale). RESULTS: The majority of the sample consisted of female HCWs (81%) and nurses (60%). Using random-intercept logistic regression models, elevated perceived stress, anxiety and job burnout were reported by 33%, 13%, and 24% of the overall sample at baseline respectively. The proportion of HCWs reporting stress and job burnout increased by approximately 1·0% and 1·2% respectively per month. Anxiety did not significantly increase. Working long hours was associated with higher odds, while teamwork and feeling appreciated at work were associated with lower odds, of stress, anxiety, and job burnout. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress and job burnout showed a mild increase over six months, even after exiting the lockdown. Teamwork and feeling appreciated at work were protective and are targets for developing organizational interventions to mitigate expected poor outcomes among frontline HCWs.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Singapura/epidemiologia
6.
Appetite ; 168: 105747, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637771

RESUMO

Meal regularity can influence metabolic health. However, habits of skipping and delaying meals are rarely studied among pregnant women. This study examined the incidence of maternal meal skipping and meal delaying, and their associated lifestyle patterns during pregnancy. Pregnant women in the second trimester (18-24 weeks' gestation; n = 90) were recruited from the antenatal clinics in KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, 2019-2020. Data on sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary habits were collected. Firstly, principal component analysis was used to identify lifestyle patterns. Subsequently, multiple logistic regression model was used to examine the association of lifestyle patterns with meal skipping and delaying. In total, 32 (35.6%) women had irregular meals, in which 25 (27.8%) and 26 (28.9%) women reported meal skipping and meal delaying for at least 3 times a week, respectively. Women with 'poor sleep and emotion' pattern as characterized by higher scores for poor sleep, depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms were associated with higher odds of meal skipping (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.13, 3.53) and meal delaying (2.50; 1.31, 4.79). 'Sedentary' pattern, as characterized by greater daily time spent on television and screen electronic devices, and 'weight and inactivity' pattern, as characterized by higher BMI and physical inactivity level, were not associated with meal regularity. In this study, almost one-third of women reporting meal irregularities during pregnancy. 'Poor sleep and emotion' pattern is associated with a higher incidence of meal skipping and delaying. These findings suggest the need to address sleep and emotional health in interventions promoting healthy nutrition specifically regular eating in pregnancy.

7.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 16: 100273, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590071

RESUMO

Background: This study investigated the immunogenicity and impact on nasopharyngeal carriage of a single dose of PCV10 given to 18-month-old Vietnamese children. This information is important for countries considering catch-up vaccination during PCV introduction and in the context of vaccination during humanitarian crises. Methods: Two groups of PCV-naïve children within the Vietnam Pneumococcal Project received PCV10 (n=197) or no PCV (unvaccinated; n=199) at 18 months of age. Blood samples were collected at 18, 19, and 24 months of age, and nasopharyngeal swabs at 18 and 24 months of age. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring serotype-specific IgG, opsonophagocytosis (OPA) and memory B cells (Bmem). Pneumococci were detected and quantified using real-time PCR and serotyped by microarray. Findings: At 19 months of age, IgG and OPA responses were higher in the PCV10 group compared with the unvaccinated group for all PCV10 serotypes and cross-reactive serotypes 6A and 19A. This was sustained out to 24 months of age, at which point PCV10-type carriage was 60% lower in the PCV10 group than the unvaccinated group. Bmem levels increased between 18 and 24 months of age in the vaccinated group. Interpretation: We demonstrate strong protective immune responses in vaccinees following a single dose of PCV10 at 18 months of age, and a potential impact on herd protection through a substantial reduction in vaccine-type carriage. A single dose of PCV10 in the second year of life could be considered as part of catch-up campaigns or in humanitarian crises to protect children at high-risk of pneumococcal disease.

8.
Palliat Med ; 35(8): 1578-1589, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of specialist palliative care for cancer inpatients is established, but the best method to deliver specialist palliative care is unknown. AIM: To compare a consult model versus a co-rounding model; both provide the same content of specialist palliative care to individual patients but differ in the level of integration between palliative care and oncology clinicians. DESIGN: An open-label, cluster-randomized trial with stepped-wedge design. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay; secondary outcomes were 30-day readmissions and access to specialist palliative care. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT03330509. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Cancer patients admitted to the oncology inpatient service of an acute hospital in Singapore. RESULTS: A total of 5681 admissions from December 2017 to July 2019 were included, of which 5295 involved stage 3-4 cancer and 1221 received specialist palliative care review. Admissions in the co-rounding model had a shorter hospital length of stay than those in the consult model by 0.70 days (95%CI -0.04 to 1.45, p = 0.065) for all admissions. In the sub-group of stage 3-4 cancer patients, the length of stay was 0.85 days shorter (95%CI 0.05-1.65, p = 0.038). In the sub-group of admissions that received specialist palliative care review, the length of stay was 2.62 days shorter (95%CI 0.63-4.61, p = 0.010). Hospital readmission within 30 days (OR1.03, 95%CI 0.79-1.35, p = 0.822) and access to specialist palliative care (OR1.19, 95%CI 0.90-1.58, p = 0.215) were similar between the consult and co-rounding models. CONCLUSIONS: The co-rounding model was associated with a shorter hospital length of stay. Readmissions within 30 days and access to specialist palliative care were similar.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Cuidados Paliativos , Hospitais , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
9.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 5(1): 56, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Singapore Caregiver Quality of Life Scale - Dementia (SCQOLS-D), developed based on the Singapore Caregiver Quality of Life Scale (SCQOLS), comprises 5 domains and 63 items. It has been shown to be a valid and reliable measurement scale. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a short form of the SCQOLS-D. METHODS: Data were collected from 102 family caregivers of person with dementia in Singapore. Candidate items were shortlisted by factor analysis, correlation and best subset regression. Shortlisted items with the best measurement properties including correlations with the long form and other established measures, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were identified. Their properties were compared with the corresponding domain scores in the long form of SCQOLS-D and a short form of the SCQOLS. A total score based on the average of the domain scores was also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of fifteen items, two to four items per domain, were selected. The total and domain scores generated from these items strongly correlated with the corresponding score of the long form (correlation coefficients: 0.83-0.97). The short and long forms had comparable correlation coefficients with Negative Personal Impact and Positive Personal Impact measures. The short form showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.84-0.92) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.72-0.93). These 15 items form the SCQOLS-D-15, an abbreviated version of the SCQOLS-D. CONCLUSION: The SCQOLS-D-15 showed acceptable measurement properties. This serves as an alternative to the SCQOLS-D to provide rapid assessment of the overall and domain-specific quality of life of caregivers of persons with dementia.

10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 444, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a prevalent problem, affecting up to 41% of reproductive aged women worldwide. However, the association between female sexual function (FSF) and fecundability in women attempting to conceive remains unclear. We aimed 1) to examine the association between FSF in reproductive-aged preconception Asian women and fecundability, as measured by time-to-pregnancy in menstrual cycles, and 2) to examine lifestyle and behavioral factors associated with FSF. METHODS: From the Singapore PREconception Study of long-Term maternal and child Outcomes (S-PRESTO) prospective cohort, we evaluated FSF using the 6-item Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-6) and ascertained time-to-pregnancy within a year of baseline assessment. We estimated fecundability ratio (FR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the discrete-time proportional hazards model, accounting for left-truncation and right censoring. We used multivariable logistic and linear regression models to identify potential factors related to FSF. RESULTS: Among 513 participants, 58.9% had low FSF as defined by a total FSFI-6 score at or below the median value of 22. Compared to women with high FSF, those with low FSF had a 27% reduction in fecundability (FR 0.73; 95% CI 0.54, 0.99), with adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, parity and body mass index. Overall, the FRs generally reduced with decreasing FSFI-6 scores. Physical activity, obesity, absence of probable depression and anxiety were independently associated with reduced odds of low FSF and increased FSFI-6 scores, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Low FSF is associated with a longer time-to-pregnancy. Early evaluation and optimization of FSF through increased physical activity and optimal mental health may help to improve female fecundity. The finding of obese women having improved FSF remains uncertain which warrants further investigations on plausibly mechanisms. In general, the current finding highlights the importance of addressing FSF in preconception care service for general women, which is currently lacking as part of the fertility promotion effort in the country.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilidade , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/epidemiologia , Tempo para Engravidar , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Gravidez , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia , Singapura , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Health Psychol ; : 13591053211025601, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187220

RESUMO

Many patients with advanced illness have unrealistic survival expectations, largely due to cognitive biases. Studies suggests that when people are motivated to be accurate, they are less prone to succumb to these biases. Using a randomized survey design, we test whether offering advanced cancer patients (n = 200) incentives to estimate their prognosis improves accuracy. We also test whether presenting treatment benefits in terms of a loss (mortality) rather than a gain (survival) reduces willingness to take up a hypothetical treatment. Results are not consistent with the proposed hypotheses for either accuracy incentives or framing effects.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12111, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103654

RESUMO

Spontaneous miscarriage is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. Even though some risk factors are well documented, there is a paucity of risk scoring tools during preconception. In the S-PRESTO cohort study, Asian women attempting to conceive, aged 18-45 years, were recruited. Multivariable logistic regression model coefficients were used to determine risk estimates for age, ethnicity, history of pregnancy loss, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake and dietary supplement intake; from these we derived a risk score ranging from 0 to 17. Miscarriage before 16 weeks of gestation, determined clinically or via ultrasound. Among 465 included women, 59 had miscarriages and 406 had pregnancy ≥ 16 weeks of gestation. Higher rates of miscarriage were observed at higher risk scores (5.3% at score ≤ 3, 17.0% at score 4-6, 40.0% at score 7-8 and 46.2% at score ≥ 9). Women with scores ≤ 3 were defined as low-risk level (< 10% miscarriage); scores 4-6 as intermediate-risk level (10% to < 40% miscarriage); scores ≥ 7 as high-risk level (≥ 40% miscarriage). The risk score yielded an area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.74 (95% confidence interval 0.67, 0.81; p < 0.001). This novel scoring tool allows women to self-evaluate their miscarriage risk level, which facilitates lifestyle changes to optimize modifiable risk factors in the preconception period and reduces risk of spontaneous miscarriage.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Risco , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Comportamento , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(5): e701-e710, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865475

RESUMO

Evaluating whether an intervention works when trialled in groups of individuals can pose complex challenges for clinical research. Cluster randomised controlled trials involve the random allocation of groups or clusters of individuals to receive an intervention, and they are commonly used in global health research. In this paper, we describe the potential reasons for the increasing popularity of cluster trials in low-income and middle-income countries. We also draw on key areas of global health research for an assessment of common trial planning practices, and we address their methodological shortcomings and pitfalls. Lastly, we discuss alternative approaches for population-level intervention trials that could be useful for research undertaken in low-income and middle-income countries for situations in which the use of cluster randomisation might not be appropriate.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Psychooncology ; 30(5): 780-788, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many patients with advanced illness are unrealistically optimistic about their prognosis. We test for the presence of several cognitive biases, including optimism bias, illusion of superiority, self-deception, misattribution, and optimistic update bias, that could explain unrealistically optimistic prognostic beliefs among advanced cancer patients and quantifies the extent to which hope exacerbates these biases. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 200 advanced cancer patients with physician-estimated prognoses of one year or less. Hope was measured using the Herth Hope Index (HHI). Hypotheses were tested using linear and logistic regressions and a structural-equation model. RESULTS: Results are consistent with the presence of optimism bias, illusion of superiority, self-deception, and misattribution. All of these biases are amplified by higher levels of hope. Each 1-point higher HHI is associated with a 6% (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) greater odds of believing their illness is curable, a 0.33-year (95% CI: 0.17-0.49) longer expected survival, a 6% (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02-1.11) higher probability of believing that survival outcomes are better than the average patient, a 5% higher odds of believing primary intent of treatment is curative (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00-1.10), and a 12% (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.05-1.17) higher odds of believing they are well-informed. Mediation analyses revealed that hope significantly mediates the effect of mental-well-being and loneliness on expected survival. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest advanced cancer patients succumb to several cognitive biases which are exacerbated by greater levels of hope. As a result, they are susceptible to possible over-treatment and regret.


Assuntos
Motivação , Neoplasias , Viés , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Otimismo
16.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 40, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750367

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Measurement of patient-centred outcomes enables clinicians to focus on patient and family priorities and enables quality of palliative care to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the English and translated Chinese versions of the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale (IPOS) among advanced cancer patients in Singapore. METHODS: IPOS was forward and backward translated from English into Chinese. Structural validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis; known-group validity by comparing inpatients and community patients; construct validity by correlating IPOS with Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised (ESAS-r) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G); internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha; inter-rater reliability between patient and staff responses; test-retest reliability of patient responses between two timepoints. RESULTS: One hundred eleven English-responding and 109 Chinese-responding patients participated. The three-factor structure (Physical Symptoms, Emotional Symptoms and Communication and Practical Issues) was confirmed with Comparative Fit Index and Tucker-Lewis-Index > 0.9 and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation < 0.08. Inpatients scored higher than outpatients as hypothesised. Construct validity (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r ≥ |0.608|) was shown between the related subscales of IPOS and FACT-G and ESAS-r. Internal consistency was confirmed for total and subscale scores (Cronbach's alpha≥0.84), except for the Communication and Practical Issues subscale (Cronbach's alpha = 0.29-0.65). Inter-rater reliability (Intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≤ 0.43) between patient and staff responses was insufficient. Test-retest reliability was confirmed with Intra-class correlation coefficient ICC = 0.80 (English) and 0.88 (Chinese) for IPOS Total. CONCLUSION: IPOS in English and Chinese showed good validity, good internal consistency, and good test-retest reliability, except for the Communication and Practical Issues subscale. There was poor inter-rater reliability between patients and staff.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , China , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 5(1): 17, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512596

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 15- and 10-item short forms of the Singapore Caregiver Quality of Life Scale (SCQOLS-15 and SCQOLS-10) were recently developed as a quick assessment of caregiver quality of life. Reference values describing the distribution of the total and domain scores are available for the full-length version, but they are not yet available for the short forms. This study aimed to estimate the reference values for the short forms. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional survey of 612 family caregivers of patients with advanced cancer in Singapore were fitted in quantile regression models. Percentiles were estimated by regressing the short forms' scores on caregiver characteristics. Classification by the reference values for the short forms and the full-length version were compared and agreement was evaluated. RESULTS: The caregiver's role in caring for the patient and the patient's performance status were associated with the percentiles of the total scores and most domain scores (each Bonferroni-adjusted p-value, PB, < 0.05). Higher-educated caregivers were categorized into higher percentiles according to the SCQOLS-15 and SCQOLS-10 total scores and the SCQOLS-15 Mental Well-being and Financial Well-being domain scores (each PB < 0.05). Ethnicity was associated with the SCQOLS-15 Physical Well-being and Experience & Meaning domains (each PB < 0.05). The percentiles for the short forms showed moderate to substantial agreement with those for the full-length version in terms of classifying caregivers into percentile intervals (quadratic-weighted Kappa = 0.72 to 0.92). CONCLUSION: Reference values for the SCQOLS-15 and SCQOLS-10 were estimated in relation to caregiver characteristics to facilitate interpretation of the short form scores.

18.
Fertil Steril ; 115(1): 138-147, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between plasma glycemia in women attempting to conceive and fecundability, as measured by time to pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective preconception population-based study. SETTING: Hospital. PATIENT(S): Asian preconception women, 18-45 years old, attempting conception for ≤12 cycles at study entry. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We ascertained time to pregnancy within a year of glycemic assessment in menstrual cycles. We estimated fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% confidence intervals using discrete-time proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, body mass index, and cycle regularity and accounting for left truncation and right censoring. RESULT(S): We studied a population sample of 766 women from the Singapore Preconception Study of Long-Term Maternal and Child Outcomes prospective cohort. Compared with women with normoglycemia, women with dysglycemia (prediabetes and diabetes, defined by the American Diabetes Association) had a lower FR (0.56). Compared with the respective lowest quintiles, women in the highest quintile of fasting glucose (≥5.1 mmol/L) had an FR of 0.60, while women in the highest 2-hour postload glucose quintile (≥6.9 mmol/L) had an FR of 0.66. Overall, the FRs decreased generally across the range of fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose. Glycated hemoglobin was not associated with fecundability. CONCLUSION(S): Increasing preconception plasma glucose is associated with reduced fecundability, even within the normal range of glucose concentrations. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03531658.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/sangue , Infertilidade Feminina/epidemiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Singapura/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 57(3): 388-394, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112481

RESUMO

AIM: This study was designed to determine whether faecal regenerating 1B protein (REG1B) concentration is associated with physical growth among 6-30-month-old children in rural Malawi. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi in which we followed-up 790 live-born infants from birth to 30 months of age. We collected anthropometric data at the age of 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. We measured faecal REG1B concentration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using stool samples collected at 6, 18 and 30 months of age. We assessed the association between faecal REG1B concentration and children's physical growth using linear regression and longitudinal data analysis. RESULTS: Of 790 live-born infants enrolled, 694 (87%) with at least one faecal REG1B concentration measurement were included in the analysis. Faecal REG1B concentration was not associated with the children's concurrent length-for-age z-score (LAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) and mid-upper arm circumference-for-age z-score (MUACZ) at any time point (P > 0.05), nor with a change in their anthropometric indices in the subsequent 6-month period (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Faecal REG1B concentration is not associated with LAZ, WAZ, WLZ and MUACZ among 6-30-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.


Assuntos
Estatura , Litostatina , População Rural , Antropometria , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes , Feminino , Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui , Masculino , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 99(2): e144-e153, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602252

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of posterior staphyloma using wide-field optical coherence tomography (WF-OCT) in adults with high myopia in Singapore. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: Adults with spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ -5D in either eye at the first visit of Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study and Singapore Prospective Study Program study were recruited. Posterior staphyloma was diagnosed using WF-OCT (PLEX® Elite9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec). Myopic macular degeneration (MMD), myopic traction maculopathy (MTM) and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) were assessed using fundus photographs, DRI-Triton OCT (Topcon) and the Impact of Vision Impairment (IVI) questionnaire, respectively. Factors associated with posterior staphyloma were identified with multilevel, multivariable logistic regression. Impact of posterior staphyloma on MMD, MTM and visual function was analysed with multilevel, multivariable logistic regression and linear mixed model, respectively. RESULTS: Among the 225 eyes [mean SE = -6.5 ± 2.2 D, mean axial length (AL) = 26.2 ± 1.5 mm] of 117 participants (mean age = 60.3 ± 7.1 years), posterior staphyloma was detected in 47 (20.9%) eyes of 38 (32.5%) participants. Older age [odds ratio (OR), 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.26], more myopic SE (0.63; 0.51-0.77) and increased AL (2.51; 1.69-3.73) were associated with higher prevalence of posterior staphyloma (all p < 0.001). Adults with posterior staphyloma had higher odds of MMD (2.67; 1.23-5.82; p = 0.013), MTM (3.79; 1.13-12.68; p = 0.031) and worse IVI Reading (ß = -1.44; -2.31 to 0.58; p = 0.001) scores. CONCLUSIONS: About one in three adults with high myopia had posterior staphyloma, which was associated with increased odds of having myopic maculopathy and a detrimental impact on VRQoL.


Assuntos
Miopia Degenerativa/complicações , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Esclera/patologia , Doenças da Esclera/epidemiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia Degenerativa/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Doenças da Esclera/diagnóstico , Singapura/epidemiologia
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