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1.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105163, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are ubiquitously exposed to organic solvents, such as glycol ethers. Several studies suggest potential developmental neurotoxicity following exposure to glycol ethers with a lack of clarity of possible brain mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between urinary levels of glycol ethers of women during early pregnancy and motor inhibition function of their 10- to 12-year-old children by behavioral assessment and brain imaging. METHODS: Exposure to glycol ethers was assessed by measuring six metabolites in urine (<19 weeks of gestation) of 73 pregnant women of the PELAGIE mother-child cohort (France). Maternal urinary levels were classified as low, medium, or high. Children underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations during which motor inhibition function was assessed with a Go/No-Go task. Analyses were performed using linear regression for task performance and generalized linear mixed-effect models for brain activation, FWER-corrected for multiple testing at the spatial cluster level. Confounders were considered by restriction and a priori adjustment. RESULTS: Higher maternal butoxyacetic acid (BAA) urinary concentrations were associated with poorer child performance (ß = -1.1; 95% CI: -1.9, -0.2 for high vs low). There was also a trend for ethoxyacetic acid (EAA) towards poorer performance (ß = -0.3; 95% CI: -0.7, 0.01). Considering inhibition demand, there were increased activity in occipital regions in association with moderate EAA (left cuneus) and moderate methoxyacetic acid (MAA) (right precuneus). When children succeeded to inhibit, high ethoxyethoxyacetic acid (EEAA) and moderate phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA) levels were associated with differential activity in frontal cortex, involved in inhibition network. DISCUSSION: Prenatal urinary levels of two glycol ether metabolites were associated with poorer Go/No-Go task performance. Differential activations were observed in the brain motor inhibition network in relation with successful inhibition, but not with cognitive demand. Nevertheless, there is no consistence between performance indicators and cerebral activity results. Other studies are highly necessary given the ubiquity of glycol ether exposure.

2.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(9): 672-679, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prenatal occupational exposure to pesticides has been associated with male reproductive tract abnormalities. Little is known about the possible impact of non-occupational pesticide exposure on fetal and child development in the general population. Using data from a nationwide birth cohort, we aimed to assess the association between residential sources of prenatal pesticide exposure and the risks of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. METHODS: Of the 9281 boys in ELFE (French Longitudinal Study of Children), the national French birth cohort, 53 were diagnosed with hypospadias and 137 with cryptorchidism. We assessed residential exposure sources from self-reported domestic use of eight types of pesticide products and French spatial land use data with acreage within a 1000 m radius around each family's home for 21 crop types. We used logistic regression modelling, adjusted for possible confounders that included estimated dietary pesticide intake. Multiple imputations were used to handle missing data. RESULTS: An increased risk of hypospadias was associated with domestic pesticide use against fleas and ticks (OR=2.28, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.75); no associations were found between cryptorchidism and any domestic pesticide use. Slightly increased risks of cryptorchidism were observed in association with all crop acreages near homes during pregnancy, especially for orchards, and no association was observed for hypospadias. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a possible increased risk of hypospadias associated with prenatal use of some domestic pesticide products, likely to contain insecticides, and of cryptorchidism with nearby orchard acreage (crops repeatedly sprayed with pesticides). This work is limited by its modest number of cases.

3.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 29(1): 29, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346177

RESUMO

Childhood asthma and allergies are particularly prevalent diseases. Our objective is to identify respiratory and allergic phenotypes from birth to 6 years of age, and to explore their environmental determinants, especially those related to the home environment. Data on respiratory and allergic health outcomes and domestic environmental exposure were collected for 935 mother-infant pairs from a longitudinal mother-child cohort based on mothers, included before 19 weeks of gestation in Brittany between 2002 and 2006. Information was obtained by self-administered questionnaires completed by parents at inclusion, delivery, and when the child was 2 and 6 years old. Kml3D clustering was used to describe profiles of children who shared similar trajectories of symptoms as phenotypes. Association with environmental determinants was estimated by polytomous logistic regression. Five phenotypes were identified: a reference group characterized by low symptom levels (31.1%), a transient cough phenotype (36.5%), an eczema/cough phenotype (12.3%), a wheeze/cough phenotype (11.8%), and finally a mixed phenotype (8.0%). The wheeze/cough profile was associated with postnatal exposure to glues used in renovation activities (aOR 2.3 [1.2-4.7]), and the mixed phenotype with postnatal exposure to paint (aOR 2.1 [1-4.5]). The phenotypes observed showed some consistencies with those seen in previous studies. Some exposures associated with respiratory/allergic phenotypes observed in this study are avoidable. If confirmed by further research including interventional trials, home-based environmental counseling could be a possible prevention target for primary care professionals.

4.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
5.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. METHODS: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

6.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 71, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180859

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the author asked to replace Table 2 with the correct version.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267227

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of pesticides is predominant in agriculture, inducing environmental contamination, and has been extended to the domestic sphere. In France, > 500 pesticides were authorized for use in 2009; given their various toxicological properties, there are legitimate concerns about the possible consequences for child health. This review summarizes the recent French studies of good quality dealing with pesticides and child health. RECENT FINDINGS: Three cohorts (mother-child, retrospective) and two case-control studies have been conducted in the last decade. Using various instruments for exposure assessment including biomarkers, they have suggested alterations of subclinical health parameters at birth, increased risk of otitis at age 2, and increased risk of several types of childhood cancer. However, there were no adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 6 years of age following prenatal exposure to pesticides. Both agricultural and domestic pesticides might be involved in such adverse health outcomes. Similar studies are lacking in Europe. Studies on fungicides and child health are scarce.

8.
Environ Int ; 120: 43-53, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to pesticides might impair fetal development. Nonetheless, knowledge about pesticide exposure of pregnant women, especially in Europe, is largely restricted to a limited panel of molecules. AIM: To characterize the concentration of 140 pesticides and metabolites in hair strands from women in the ELFE French nationwide birth cohort. METHODS: Among cohort members who gave birth in northeastern and southwestern France in 2011, we selected those with a sufficient available mass of hair (n = 311). Bundles of hair 9 cm long were collected at delivery. We screened 111 pesticides and 29 metabolites, including 112 selected a priori based on their reported usage or detection in the French environment. The bundles of hair from 47 women were split into three segments to explore the intraindividual variability of the exposure. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed for the chemicals with a detection frequency >70%. RESULTS: We detected a median of 43 chemicals per woman (IQR 38-47). Overall, 122 chemicals (>20 chemical families) were detected at least once, including 28 chemicals detected in 70-100% of hair samples. The highest median concentrations were observed for permethrin (median: 37.9 pg/mg of hair), p-nitrophenol (13.2 pg/mg), and pentachlorophenol (10.0 pg/mg). The ICCs for the 28 chemicals studied ranged from 0.59 to 0.94. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women are exposed to multiple pesticides simultaneously from various chemical families, including chemicals suspected to be reproductive toxicants or endocrine disruptors. The ICCs suggest that the intraindividual variability of pesticide concentrations in hair is lower than its interindividual variability.

9.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 63, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous industries use organic solvents, and many workers from various occupational sectors are exposed to these known neurotoxicants, including pregnant women. Our objective is to explore whether occupational exposure of pregnant women to solvents may impair the neurodevelopment of their babies and consequently affect their behavior in childhood. METHODS: Within the French birth cohort PELAGIE, parents assessed their children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors using items from the Child Behavior Checklist and the Preschool Social Behavior Questionnaire at age 2, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at age 6. The occupational exposure to solvents of the pregnant women was self-reported prospectively at the beginning of their pregnancy (N = 715). We applied structural equation modeling to capture the longitudinal association of prenatal exposure to solvents with children's behavioral traits at 2 and 6 years. RESULTS: Increased externalizing behavior score at age 2 was associated with prenatal exposure to solvents (standardized score: 0.34 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.57) for occasional exposure and 0.26 (0.05, 0.48) for regular exposure). This association was attenuated at age 6 (0.22 (- 0.02, 0.47) for occasional exposure and 0.07 (- 0.14, 0.28) for regular exposure). No association was observed for internalizing behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women's occupational exposure to solvents may affect their children's behavior in early childhood. This effect may be attenuated with aging or diluted by the effects of other postnatal predictors.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(4): 1082-1097, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912347

RESUMO

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing worldwide for reasons largely unknown and environmental chemicals with neurotoxic properties, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been proposed to play a role. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153), p-p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and ADHD in childhood. Methods: We pooled seven European birth cohort studies encompassing 4437 mother-child pairs from the general population with concentrations of PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB measured in cord blood, maternal blood or milk. We then calculated prenatal (birth) and postnatal (3, 6, 12 and 24 months) POP concentrations using a pharmacokinetic model. The operational definition of ADHD varied across cohorts and ranged from doctor diagnosis obtained from patient registries to maternal or teachers reports. We used multilevel (mixed) logistic regression models to estimate the associations between exposure to POPs at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months and ADHD. Results: The global prevalence of ADHD in our study was 6%. The mean age at assessment of ADHD was 5.8 years (range: 3.8-9.5 years). We found no association between exposure to PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB at any age point between birth and 24 months and ADHD, in the pooled analyses (pooled odds ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.01). A number of sensitivity analyses gave basically the same results. Conclusions: In the largest study to date of 4437 children in seven European birth cohorts, we did not observe any association between either pre- or postnatal exposure (up to 24 months) to PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB and the risk of ADHD before the age of 10 years.

11.
Neurotoxicology ; 67: 161-168, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803634

RESUMO

Human exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OP) is widespread. Several studies suggest that OP prenatal exposure alters the development of cognitive and behavioural functions in children, but the effects of OP prenatal exposure on child sensory functions are largely unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between OP prenatal exposure and visual processing in school-aged children from the mother-child PELAGIE cohort (France). OP biomarkers of exposure were measured in maternal urine samples at the beginning of pregnancy. The Functional Acuity Contrast Test (FACT) was used to assess visual contrast sensitivity in 180 children at 6 years of age. Linear regression models were performed on all children, and separately for boys and girls, taking into account various potential confounders, including maternal education and breastfeeding. No associations were observed in the whole sample, while maternal OP urinary metabolite levels were associated with a decrease of FACT scores in boys. These findings indicate that OP prenatal exposure might impair visual processing later in life in boys only.

12.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 475: 54-73, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605460

RESUMO

Many rodent studies and a few non-human primate data report impairments of spatial and non-spatial memory induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), which are associated with neural modifications, particularly in processes involved in synaptic plasticity. BPA-induced alterations involve disruption of the estrogenic pathway as established by reversal of BPA-induced effects with estrogenic receptor antagonist or by interference of BPA with administered estradiol in ovariectomized animals. Sex differences in hormonal impregnation during critical periods of development and their influence on maturation of learning and memory processes may explain the sexual dimorphism observed in BPA-induced effects in some studies. Altogether, these data highly support the plausibility that alteration of learning and memory and synaptic plasticity by BPA is essentially mediated by disturbance of the estrogenic pathways. As memory function in humans involves similar signaling pathways, this mode of action of BPA has the potential to alter human cognitive abilities.

13.
Environ Int ; 115: 267-278, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have developmental effects at environmental concentrations. We investigated whether some EDCs are associated with the adverse birth outcome Small for Gestational Age (SGA). METHODS: We used PCB 153, p,p'-DDE, HCB, PFOS and PFOA measured in maternal, cord blood or breast milk samples of 5446 mother-child pairs (subset of 693 for the perfluorinated compounds) from seven European birth cohorts (1997-2012). SGA infants were those with birth weight below the 10th percentile for the norms defined by gestational age, country and infant's sex. We modelled the association between measured or estimated cord serum EDC concentrations and SGA using multiple logistic regression analyses. We explored effect modification by child's sex and maternal smoking during pregnancy. RESULTS: Among the 5446 newborns, 570 (10.5%) were SGA. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in PCB 153 was associated with a modestly increased risk of SGA (odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 [95% CI: 1.04-1.07]) that was stronger in girls (OR of 1.09 [95% CI: 1.04-1.14]) than in boys (OR of 1.03 [95% CI: 1.03-1.04]) (p-interaction = 0.025). For HCB, we found a modestly increased odds of SGA in girls (OR of 1.04 [95% CI: 1.01-1.07] per IQR increase), and an inverse association in boys (OR of 0.90 [95% CI: 0.85-0.95]) (p-interaction = 0.0003). Assessment of the HCB-sex-smoking interaction suggested that the increased odds of SGA associated with HCB exposure was only in girls of smoking mothers (OR of 1.18 [95% CI: 1.11-1.25]) (p-interaction = 0.055). Higher concentrations of PFOA were associated with greater risk of SGA (OR of 1.64 [95% CI: 0.97-2.76]). Elevated PFOS levels were associated with increased odds of SGA in newborns of mothers who smoked during pregnancy (OR of 1.63 [95% CI: 1.02-2.59]), while an inverse association was found in those of non-smoking mothers (OR of 0.66 [95% CI: 0.61-0.72]) (p-interaction = 0.0004). No significant associations were found for p,p'-DDE. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal environmental exposure to organochlorine and perfluorinated compounds with endocrine disrupting properties may contribute to the prevalence of SGA. We found indication of effect modification by child's sex and smoking during pregnancy. The direction of the associations differed by chemical and these effect modifiers, suggesting diverse mechanisms of action and biological pathways.

14.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 475: 10-28, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577943

RESUMO

Proper cyclicity is essential to reach successful optimal fertility. In rats and mice, BPA exposure is repeatedly and reliably reported to show an adverse effect on the estrous cycle after exposures at different life stages. In humans, a possible association between modifications of menstrual cycle characteristics (e.g. length of the cycle, duration of menstrual bleeding) and sub-fecundity or spontaneous abortion has been observed. Alterations of ovarian cyclicity can therefore be definitely considered as an adverse health outcome. As a prerequisite for the EU REACH regulation to identify a substance as an endocrine disruptor and a SVHC,1 the proof has to be established that the substance can have deleterious health effects resulting from an endocrine mode of action. This review provides an overview of the currently available data allowing to conclude that the adverse effects of BPA exposure on ovarian cyclicity is mediated by an endocrine mode of action.

15.
Bioinformatics ; 34(12): 2116-2122, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385404

RESUMO

Motivation: At the same time that toxicologists express increasing concern about reproducibility in this field, the development of dedicated databases has already smoothed the path toward improving the storage and exchange of raw toxicogenomic data. Nevertheless, none provides access to analyzed and interpreted data as originally reported in scientific publications. Given the increasing demand for access to this information, we developed TOXsIgN, a repository for TOXicogenomic sIgNatures. Results: The TOXsIgN repository provides a flexible environment that facilitates online submission, storage and retrieval of toxicogenomic signatures by the scientific community. It currently hosts 754 projects that describe more than 450 distinct chemicals and their 8491 associated signatures. It also provides users with a working environment containing a powerful search engine as well as bioinformatics/biostatistics modules that enable signature comparisons or enrichment analyses. Availability and implementation: The TOXsIgN repository is freely accessible at http://toxsign.genouest.org. Website implemented in Python, JavaScript and MongoDB, with all major browsers supported. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

16.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 475: 4-9, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426018

RESUMO

BPA is one of the most investigated substances for its endocrine disruptor (ED) properties and it is at the same time in the center of many ED-related controversies. The analysis on how BPA fits to the regulatory identification as an ED is a challenge in terms of methodology. It is also a great opportunity to test the regulatory framework with a uniquely data-rich substance and learn valuable lessons for future cases. From this extensive database, it was considered important to engage in a detailed analysis so as to provide specific and strong evidences of ED while reflecting accurately the complexity of the response as well the multiplicity of adverse effects. An appropriate delineation of the scope of the analysis was therefore critical. Four effects namely, alterations of estrous cyclicity, mammary gland development, brain development and memory function, and metabolism, were considered to provide solid evidence of ED-mediated effects of BPA.

17.
Environ Int ; 113: 66-73, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycol ethers (GEs) are oxygenated solvents widely found in occupational and consumer water-based products. Some of them are well-known reproductive and developmental toxicants. OBJECTIVES: To study the variations in circulating sex steroid hormones, measured in cord blood, according to biomarkers of prenatal GE exposure. METHODS: The study population comes from the PELAGIE mother-child cohort, which enrolled pregnant women from Brittany (France, 2002-2006). Maternal urine samples were collected from a random subcohort (n = 338) before 19 weeks' gestation, from which we measured 8 alkoxycarboxylic metabolites of GEs. We subsequently measured 13 sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in cord blood samples. Linear regressions adjusted for potential confounders were used, and nonlinear dose-response associations were investigated. RESULTS: The detection rates of GE metabolites ranged from 4% to 98%; only the 5 most detected (>20%) metabolites were investigated further. Phenoxyacetic acid (detection rate > 95%) was associated with lower levels of SHBG and various steroids (17-alpha-hydroxy-Pregnenolone, delta-5-androstenediol, and dehydroepiandrosterone) among boys and higher SHBG and 16-alpha-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone levels among girls. The two other highly detected metabolites, methoxyetoxyacetic acid and butoxyacetic acid, were associated with variations in estradiol. Butoxyacetic acid was associated with higher delta-5-androstenediol levels while detectable levels of methoxyacetic acid were associated with lower levels of this hormone. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that prenatal exposure to GE may affect endocrine response patterns, estimated by determining blood levels of sex steroid hormones in newborns. These results raise questions about the potential role of these changes in the pathways between prenatal GE exposure and previously reported adverse developmental outcomes, including impaired neurocognitive performance.

18.
Environ Int ; 104: 76-82, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453973

RESUMO

Pyrethroids are insecticides frequently used in agriculture and in the home; exposure occurs through dietary and non-dietary pathways, including indoor and outdoor environmental contamination. Our objective was to study the potential determinants of pyrethroid metabolite concentrations measured in children's urine samples and in the dust of their homes. Specifically, we measured urinary metabolites from morning spot samples of 245 six-year-old children living in Brittany (France) in 2009-2012 and from dust vacuumed from the floor of their homes. Mothers reported home insecticide use, dietary habits, sociodemographic data; residential and school proximity to agricultural crops was assessed with spatialized data. The metabolites cis-DBCA, trans-DCCA, cis-DCCA, 3-PBA, and F-PBA were detected in 84, 95, 64, 63, and 16% of the urine samples, respectively. Permethrin, cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, and tetramethrin pyrethroids were detected in 100, 56, 9, 15, and 26% of the dust samples, respectively. Multiple regression analysis suggested diet plays a role in children's exposure, in particular, the food groups "pasta, rice or semolina" (for cis-DCCA and F-PBA), fruit (3-PBA), "breakfast cereals and whole grain bread" (cis-DBCA), and the global proportion of organic food in diet (for cis-DBCA, trans-DCCA). Children with a parent occupationally exposed to pesticides were about 3-times more likely to have higher urinary concentrations of 3-PBA (OR=2.8, 95% CI [1.2; 6.5]). Dust content was correlated mainly with household insecticide use: higher mean concentrations of permethrin (ß=0.8 [0.3; 1.3], in µg/g) and an increased risk of a detectable level of cyfluthrin (OR=4.7 [1.7; 12.9]) were observed in home dust, for indoor use of at least twice a year. Outdoor insecticide use at least once a year was associated with detection in dust of cypermethrin (OR=3.0 [1.3; 6.7]) and tetramethrin (OR=3.7 [1.6; 8.3]). Three positive and one negative correlations (out of 11) between urinary metabolite concentrations and home dust contents of their possible corresponding parent compounds were observed. The strength of this study lies in its concurrent use of biomarkers, environmental measurements, and potential sources of exposure. Its limitations include the use of a single urine sample and imprecise data about pyrethroid use in local agriculture.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Agricultura , Criança , Dieta , Poeira/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , França , Habitação , Humanos , Inseticidas/urina , Masculino , Piretrinas/urina , Análise de Regressão
19.
Occup Environ Med ; 74(4): 275-281, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28250046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The potential impact of environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides on child neurodevelopment has only just started to receive attention despite their widespread use. We investigated the associations between prenatal and childhood exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and behavioural skills in 6-year-olds. METHODS: The PELAGIE cohort enrolled 3421 pregnant women from Brittany, France between 2002 and 2006. 428 mothers were randomly selected for the study when their children turned 6, and 287 (67%) agreed to participate. Children's behaviour was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Three subscales (prosocial behaviour, internalising disorders and externalising disorders) were considered. Five pyrethroid metabolites were measured in maternal and child urine samples collected between 6 and 19 gestational weeks and at 6 years of age, respectively. Logistic regression and reverse-scale Cox regression models were used to estimate the associations between SDQ scores and urinary pyrethroid metabolite concentrations, adjusting for organophosphate metabolite concentrations and potential confounders. RESULTS: Increased prenatal cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCCA) concentrations were associated with internalising difficulties (Cox p value=0.05). For childhood 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) concentrations, a positive association was observed with externalising difficulties (Cox p value=0.04) and high ORs were found for abnormal or borderline social behaviour (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.27 to 6.78, and OR 1.91, 95% CI 0.80 to 4.57, for the intermediate and highest metabolite categories, respectively). High childhood trans-DCCA concentrations were associated with reduced externalising disorders (Cox p value=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that exposure to certain pyrethroids, at environmental levels, may negatively affect neurobehavioral development by 6 years of age.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Piretrinas/urina
20.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44184, 2017 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28281692

RESUMO

Among pregnant women ibuprofen is one of the most frequently used pharmaceutical compounds with up to 28% reporting use. Regardless of this, it remains unknown whether ibuprofen could act as an endocrine disruptor as reported for fellow analgesics paracetamol and aspirin. To investigate this, we exposed human fetal testes (7-17 gestational weeks (GW)) to ibuprofen using ex vivo culture and xenograft systems. Ibuprofen suppressed testosterone and Leydig cell hormone INSL3 during culture of 8-9 GW fetal testes with concomitant reduction in expression of the steroidogenic enzymes CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and HSD17B3, and of INSL3. Testosterone was not suppressed in testes from fetuses younger than 8 GW, older than 10-12 GW, or in second trimester xenografted testes (14-17 GW). Ex vivo, ibuprofen also affected Sertoli cell by suppressing AMH production and mRNA expression of AMH, SOX9, DHH, and COL2A1. While PGE2 production was suppressed by ibuprofen, PGD2 production was not. Germ cell transcripts POU5F1, TFAP2C, LIN28A, ALPP and KIT were also reduced by ibuprofen. We conclude that, at concentrations relevant to human exposure and within a particular narrow 'early window' of sensitivity within first trimester, ibuprofen causes direct endocrine disturbances in the human fetal testis and alteration of the germ cell biology.


Assuntos
Feto/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Organogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/embriologia , Feminino , Feto/patologia , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Gravidez , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/metabolismo
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