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JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(235): 243-247, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506437


INTRODUCTION: D-dimer is currently the best available marker for COVID-19 associated hemostatic abnormalities. This study aims to find out the prevelance of elevated D-dimer levels in confirmed COVID-19 cases in intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital of western Nepal. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 95 patients admitted to COVID Intensive Care Unit of a teriary care centre from August 2020 to January 2021 after taking ethical clearence from Institutional Review Committee in order to determine the D-dimer levels in confirmed COVID-19 cases. D-dimer value was measured at the admission and the highest D-dimer value was recorded during the course of hospital stay with the risk of mortality in confirmed COVID-19 cases. The normal range of D-dimer was taken as <0.35 mg/dl as per our hospital laboratory standards. Convenience sampling method was used. Data entry and descriptive analysis were done in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 25.0, point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data. RESULTS: Out of total 95 cases of COVID-19 included in this study, 25 (89.3%) patients with age ≥ 65 years and 42 (62.69%) patients aged <65 years had elevated D-dimer on admission. Data showed that 29 (67.4%) patients having elevated D-dimer at admission had mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated D-dimer levels was frequently seen in patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit with COVID-19. Our study suggested that measurement of D-dimer may guide in clinical decision making.

COVID-19 , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(240): 783-786, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508474


INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormones have a major influence on synthesis, mobilization and metabolism of lipids. Hypothyroidism accounts for a notable cause of secondary dyslipidemia. This can increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to find out the prevalence of lipid profile abnormalities in newly diagnosed primary hypothyroid states. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 71 patients in the context of newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism patients visiting outpatient department of internal medicine from 9th December 2018 to 30th June 2020 after taking ethical clearance from Institutional Review Committee. Case screening for lipid profile changes was performed at the time of diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. A convenience sampling method was used. Data entry and descriptive analysis were done in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. Point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data. RESULTS: In this study including 71 cases of newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism, 49 (69.0%) (95% Confidence Interval= 58.24-79.76) had abnormal lipid profiles. Among them, 5 (38.5%) out of 13 (18.3%) cases of subclinical hypothyroidism and 44 (75.9%) out of 58 (81.7%) cases of overt hypothyroidism had abnormal lipid profiles. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of abnormal lipid profile parameters was similar to the study done in various studies in similar settings except for high-density lipid which showed both similarity and dissimilarity with other studies. Our study suggested that all newly diagnosed cases of primary hypothyroidism are to be investigated for dyslipidemia thus ensuring early treatment and prevention of complications.

Hipotireoidismo , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Lipídeos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
Dent Traumatol ; 37(1): 103-107, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946680


BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the position and presence of mandibular third molars is associated with a high risk of mandibular angle fractures. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the position and presence of mandibular third molars and mandibular angle fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study consisting of 256 patients who were admitted for treatment of mandibular fractures between January 2016 and January 2018 was undertaken. Patients' data and orthopantomogram radiographs were obtained from their medical record. The predictor variable was the presence and position of mandibular third molars. The position of the third molars was grouped based on the Pell and Gregory classification. The outcome variable was the presence of an angle fracture. Other study variables included age, gender, mechanism of injury, and fracture location. RESULTS: Patients with mandibular third molars had a 2.7 times greater chance of an angle fracture than patients without third molars. Patients with their third molars present at occlusal position C and ramus position level 3 had a higher risk of angle fracture in comparison with other groups. There was a statistically significant variation in the risk of an angle fracture, depending on mandibular third molar position (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Patients with mandibular third molars have an increased risk of angle fractures. The risk for an angle fracture varied depending on the third molar position.

Fraturas Mandibulares , Dente Impactado , Humanos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Mandibulares/epidemiologia , Dente Serotino/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Dente Impactado/diagnóstico por imagem
Adv Prev Med ; 2020: 8872119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145112


Background: Adolescent girls in developing countries do not have proper information, and proper information is covered up by sociocultural boundaries resulting in various morbidities. This study aimed to determine level of knowledge and its associated factors regarding menstrual hygiene amongst adolescent school girls in Dang district, Nepal. Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2019 among 406 adolescent girls studying in grades 8-10 between ages of 10-19 years in Dang district, Nepal. From a total of 10 local units, 5 were selected randomly. Out of the selected 5 units, 10 schools consisting of 5 government and 5 private schools were selected through disproportionate stratified random sampling. A further 406 students were then selected randomly from the 10 selected schools. Bivariate analysis was used primarily to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. Variables which were associated with bivariate analysis were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model to identify associated factors of menstrual hygiene practice. Results: The mean age and family size were 15.13 ± 1.19 and 5.58 ± 1.81, respectively. A total of 87.7% of adolescents had good knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene. Adolescents living in rural area (AOR = 0.27, CI: 0.12-0.61, p ≤ 0.001), private schools (AOR = 6.10, CI: 1.58-23.46, p ≤ 0.001), mothers who can read and write (AOR = 0.22, CI: 0.07-0.64, p ≤ 0.001), fathers who have up-to-grade-10 education (AOR = 5.15, CI: 1.84-14.39, p ≤ 0.001), and living only with mothers (AOR = 0.29, CI: 0.12-0.69, p ≤ 0.018) were significantly associated with level of knowledge of menstrual hygiene. Conclusions: Though the majority of respondents had a good level of knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene, there was a knowledge gap in specific areas. The level of knowledge was significantly poor among adolescents in rural areas and those living only with mothers. Thus, this study concerns the need for policy makers to focus on specific education regarding menstrual hygiene in rural areas including both parents.