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1.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829812

RESUMO

The multi-domain non-structural protein 3 (NSP3) is an oncogenic molecule that has been concomitantly implicated in the progression of coronavirus infection. However, its oncological role in lung cancer and whether it plays a role in modulating the tumor immune microenvironment is not properly understood. In the present in silico study, we demonstrated that NSP3 (SH2D3C) is associated with advanced stage and poor prognoses of lung cancer cohorts. Genetic alterations of NSP3 (SH2D3C) co-occurred inversely with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) alterations and elicited its pathological role via modulation of various components of the immune and inflammatory pathways in lung cancer. Our correlation analysis suggested that NSP3 (SH2D3C) promotes tumor immune evasion via dysfunctional T-cell phenotypes and T-cell exclusion mechanisms in lung cancer patients. NSP3 (SH2D3C) demonstrated a high predictive value and association with therapy resistance in lung cancer, hence serving as an attractive target for therapy exploration. We evaluated the in silico drug-likeness and NSP3 (SH2D3C) target efficacy of six organosulfur small molecules from Allium sativum using a molecular docking study. We found that the six organosulfur compounds demonstrated selective cytotoxic potential against cancer cell lines and good predictions for ADMET properties, drug-likeness, and safety profile. E-ajoene, alliin, diallyl sulfide, 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin, allicin, and S-allyl-cysteine docked well into the NSP3 (SH2D3C)-binding cavity with binding affinities ranging from -4.3~-6.70 A and random forest (RF) scores ranging from 4.31~5.26 pKd. However, S-allyl-cysteine interaction with NSP3 (SH2D3C) is unfavorable and hence less susceptible to NSP3 ligandability. In conclusion, our study revealed that NSP3 is an important onco-immunological biomarker encompassing the tumor microenvironment, disease staging and prognosis in lung cancer and could serve as an attractive target for cancer therapy. The organosulfur compounds from A. sativum have molecular properties to efficiently interact with the binding site of NSP3 and are currently under vigorous preclinical study in our laboratory.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830455

RESUMO

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic malignancy characterized by the presence of the BCR-ABL oncogene. Therapeutic regimens with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) specifically targeting BCR-ABL have greatly improved overall survival of CML. However, drug intolerance and related toxicity remain. Combined therapy is effective in reducing drug magnitude while increasing therapeutic efficacy and, thus, lowers undesired adverse side effects. The p38 MAPK activity is critically linked to the pathogenesis of a number of diseases including hematopoietic diseases; however, the role of each isozyme in CML and TKI-mediated effects is still elusive. In this study, we used specific gene knockdown to clearly demonstrate that the deficiency of p38α greatly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy in growth suppression and cytotoxicity of TKIs, first-generation imatinib, and second generation dasatinib by approximately 2.5-3.0-fold in BCR-ABL-positive CML-derived leukemia K562 and KMB5 cells. Knockdown of p38ß, which displays the most sequence similarity to p38α, exerted distinct and opposite effects on the TKI-mediated therapeutic efficacy. These results show the importance of isotype-specific intervention in enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of TKI. A highly specific p38α inhibitor, TAK715, also significantly enhanced the imatinib- and dasatinib-mediated therapeutic efficacy, supporting the feasibility of p38α deficiency in future clinic application. Taken together, our results demonstrated that p38α is a promising target for combined therapy with BCR-ABL-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors for future application to increase therapeutic efficacy.

3.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827109

RESUMO

The efficient discovery of anticancer targets with minimal side effects is a major challenge in drug discovery and development. Early prediction of side effects is key for reducing development costs, increasing drug efficacy, and increasing drug safety. This study developed a fuzzy optimization framework for Identifying AntiCancer Targets (IACT) using constraint-based models. Four objectives were established to evaluate the mortality of treated cancer cells and to minimize side effects causing toxicity-induced tumorigenesis on normal cells and smaller metabolic perturbations. Fuzzy set theory was applied to evaluate potential side effects and investigate the magnitude of metabolic deviations in perturbed cells compared with their normal counterparts. The framework was applied to identify not only gene regulator targets but also metabolite- and reaction-centric targets. A nested hybrid differential evolution algorithm with a hierarchical fitness function was applied to solve multilevel IACT problems. The results show that the combination of a carbon metabolism target and any one-target gene that participates in the sphingolipid, glycerophospholipid, nucleotide, cholesterol biosynthesis, or pentose phosphate pathways is more effective for treatment than one-target inhibition is. A clinical antimetabolite drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been used to inhibit synthesis of deoxythymidine-5'-triphosphate for treatment of colorectal cancer. The computational results reveal that a two-target combination of 5-FU and a folate supplement can improve cell viability, reduce metabolic deviation, and reduce side effects of normal cells.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed patient preferences in emergent surgical decision making. AIM OF THE STUDY: Analyzing patient preferences for hand trauma reconstruction to propose a decision-making model. METHODS: A conjoint analysis survey was developed with Sawtooth Software. Three common flaps-i.e., a cross-finger flap (CFF), a dorsal metacarpal artery perforator flap (DMAPF), and an arterialized venous flap (AVF)-were listed as treatment alternatives. Five attributes corresponding to these flaps were recovery time, total procedure, postoperative care methods, postoperative scar condition, and complication rate. Utility and importance scores were generated from the software, and preference characteristics were evaluated using cluster analysis. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 197 participants with hand trauma. Complication risk received the highest importance score (42.87%), followed by scar condition (21.55%). Cluster analysis classified the participants as "conservative," "practical," and "dual-concern". The dual-concern and conservative groups had more foreign laborers and highly educated participants, respectively, than the other groups. Most participants in the conservative and practical groups preferred DMAPF, whereas those in the dual-concern group favored CFF. Our proposed model consisted of shared decision-making and treatment recommendation pathways. CONCLUSION: Incorporating patient preferences into the decision-making model can strengthen patient-centered care. Further research on the applications of the proposed model is warranted.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Preferência do Paciente , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 275, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with lower esophageal sphincter (LES) incompetence. In some patients, GERD is refractory to acid reduction therapy which is the main treatment for GERD. So far, medications that can increase LES tone are few. Arecae pericarpium (A. pericarpium) is a medication in Traditional Chinese Medicine known to promote intestinal motility. METHODS: We investigated the effect of A. pericarpium extracts on porcine LES motility. In addition, we used tetrodotoxin (TTX) and atropine to study the underlying mechanism of A. pericarpium extracts-induced contractions of LES. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that A. pericarpium extracts and their main active ingredient, arecoline, can induce the contractions of porcine LES sling and clasp muscles in a dose-response manner. TTX did not have an inhibitory effect on the contractions induced by A. pericarpium extracts and arecoline in LES. However, atropine significantly inhibited A. pericarpium extracts- and arecoline-induced contractions of LES. CONCLUSION: A. pericarpium extracts can induce the contractions of porcine LES in a dose dependent manner, possibly through muscarinic receptors, and hence, may be worth developing as an alternative therapy for GERD.

7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 173(Pt B): 113118, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763183

RESUMO

Levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and PBDEs, were measured in sediment collected from along the Taiwan coast and compared to previous studies. The dominant POPs were PAHs, followed by PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs. The highest levels of PAHs and PCBs were found in sediment from harbors in southern Taiwan, which are surrounded by densely populated areas and affected by multiple industrial activities. In contrast, significantly higher levels of PBDEs were found at the northern coastline, which has a higher population and includes the metropolitan Taipei area. Using diagnostic PAH ratios, the predominant sources of PAHs in coastal Taiwan was determined to be pyrolytic-related activities. The main component of each POP was low- to moderately-chlorinated congeners, p,p'-DDE and BDE209, respectively. Further studies are required to assess the impact of these POPs on marine and coastal ecosystem.

8.
Oral Oncol ; 123: 105593, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prognosis of pN3b oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) remains heterogeneous. We sought to improve the prognostic stratification of patients with pN3b OCSCC through a combined analysis of FDG-PET parameters and clinicopathological risk factors (RFs). METHODS: From 2001 to 2019, complete data on maximum standardized uptake values derived from FDG-PET of neck metastatic nodes (SUV-nodal-max) and clinicopathological RFs were available for 257 patients with pN3b disease. RESULTS: Using the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) as the outcome of interest, the optimal cutoff points for SUV-nodal-max and lymph node ratio (LNR) were 15.9 and 0.17, respectively. The 5-year DFS rates/(number of cases) for patients with pN3b disease were as follows: SUV-nodal-max < 15.9 versus ≥ 15.9, 49%(226)/21%(31), p = 0.000003; LNR < 0.17 versus ≥ 0.17, 49%(230)/17%(27), p = 0.000117; absence versus presence of neck level IV/V metastases, 49%(230)/15%(27), p = 0.000004. Multivariable analyses revealed that SUV-nodal-max ≥ 15.9, LNR ≥ 0.17, and level IV/V metastases were independent prognosticators for 5-year distant metastases (DM), DFS, disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) rates. Based on these variables, we devised a scoring system that identified three distinct prognostic subgroups at low (score 0, n = 190), intermediate (score 1, n = 51), and high (scores 2-3, n = 16) risk. The 5-year rates of patients with pN3b disease deemed to be at low/intermediate/high risk were as follows: DM, 31%/52%/89%; DFS, 54%/26%/0%; DSS, 59%/36%/8%; OS, 42%/31%/6%, respectively; all p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: A scoring system based on SUV-nodal-max, LNR, and level IV/V metastases improves the prognostic stratification of OCSCC patients with pN3b disease.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 839-845, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated factors associated with vulnerability to the psychological impact of celebrity suicide news reporting after the suicide of an emerging Taiwanese novelist, Ms Yi-Han Lin. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey. Participants completed a questionnaire which asked whether they were affected by the media coverage of Lin's suicide and whether they would seek help if affected. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with being affected by the celebrity suicide media reporting and, among those affected, factors associated with feeling suicidal or not seeking help. RESULTS: A total of 1258 respondents (81% females) completed the survey. Affected individuals (n=907; 70%) were more likely to be females, younger (age < 40 years), have past psychiatric treatment, and show increased interest in the incident (e.g., spending more time on reading the celebrity suicide news) than non-affected individuals. Among those affected, negative views of the media reporting impact, pessimistic attitude toward both depression treatment and suicide prevention, and having a history of past psychiatric treatment were associated with feeling suicidal, while low education attainment, increased interest in the celebrity suicide, and permissive attitude toward inappropriate media reporting were additionally associated with not seeking help. LIMITATIONS: Selection bias of participants through internet-based surveying should be considered. CONCLUSION: Individuals affected by the media coverage of celebrity suicide showed similar demographic and mental health characteristics as those of the deceased celebrity. Poor mental health and suicide prevention literacy may increase the risk of psychological impact and not seeking help. Future interventions could target at enhancing mental health literacy and help seeking intention in vulnerable individuals.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Suicídio , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Clin Nutr ; 40(10): 5407-5416, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A rise of endogenous oxytocin (OT) is associated with anxiety and meal size reduction, and the effects of intranasal OT (INOT) have been examined in the management of food intake and craving. However, the discrepancy INOT effects in different disease populations are not entirely clear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Updated systematic review and meta-analysis. By systematically searching the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library, we obtained 12 controlled trials. We performed meta-analyses to examine food intake, craving, anxiety or stress reduction on INOT administration, using standard mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and a random-effects model. RESULTS: This study examined 12 trials with 266 non-psychiatric and 157 psychiatric participants. The pooled results showed that single-dose INOT induced a significant lesser food intake in non-psychiatric subjects (SMD: -0.66 [95% CI: -1.18, -0.14]), but no effects was found in anorexia nervosa (AN) (SMD: 0.17 [95% CI: -0.32, 0.66]), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) (SMD: -0.41 [95% CI: -0.94, 0.11]), and schizophrenia (SMD: 0.04 [95% CI: -0.94, 1.02] subjects. Further analysis on leisure food also indicated an inhibition of consumption of chocolate biscuits in non-psychiatric subjects. Neither the non-psychiatric (SMD: -0.08 [95% CI: -0.50, 0.33]) nor the BN and BED (SMD: -0.08 [95% CI: -0.72, 0.88]) and schizophrenia subjects (SMD: -0.07 [95% CI: -1.05, 0.91]) demonstrated a difference in food craving or hunger compared with placebo. Anxiety or stress level was not influenced by INOT in any subgroup (non-psychiatric, SMD: 0.19 [95% CI: -0.22, 0.60]; AN, SMD: -0.01 [95% CI: -0.28, 0.88]; BN and BED: SMD: 0.00 [95% CI: -0.80, 0.80]). CONCLUSIONS: Single-dose INOT significantly reduces food intake in nonpsychiatric subjects, and further studies are necessary to assess the long-term effects and safety in obese patients. Whether INOT could be a treatment option for patients with eating disorders remains to be investigated.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681803

RESUMO

A neuropeptide (Sco-CHH-L), belonging to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) superfamily and preferentially expressed in the pericardial organs (POs) of the mud crab Scylla olivacea, was functionally and structurally studied. Its expression levels were significantly higher than the alternative splice form (Sco-CHH) in the POs, and increased significantly after the animals were subjected to a hypo-osmotic stress. Sco-CHH-L, but not Sco-CHH, significantly stimulated in vitro the Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the posterior (6th) gills. Furthermore, the solution structure of Sco-CHH-L was resolved using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that it has an N-terminal tail, three α-helices (α2, Gly9-Asn28; α3, His34-Gly38; and α5, Glu62-Arg72), and a π-helix (π4, Cys43-Tyr54), and is structurally constrained by a pattern of disulfide bonds (Cys7-Cys43, Cys23-Cys39, and Cys26-Cys52), which is characteristic of the CHH superfamily-peptides. Sco-CHH-L is topologically most similar to the molt-inhibiting hormone from the Kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus with a backbone root-mean-square-deviation of 3.12 Å. Ten residues of Sco-CHH-L were chosen for alanine-substitution, and the resulting mutants were functionally tested using the gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity assay, showing that the functionally important residues (I2, F3, E45, D69, I71, and G73) are located at either end of the sequence, which are sterically close to each other and presumably constitute the receptor binding sites. Sco-CHH-L was compared with other members of the superfamily, revealing a folding pattern, which is suggested to be common for the crustacean members of the superfamily, with the properties of the residues constituting the presumed receptor binding sites being the major factors dictating the ligand-receptor binding specificity.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the in vitro susceptibilities of carbapenem-non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CNSPA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CNSAB) isolates to cefiderocol, novel ß-lactamase inhibitor (BLI) combinations, new tetracycline analogues, and other comparative antibiotics. METHODS: In total, 405 non-duplicate bacteremic CNSPA (n = 150) and CNSAB (n = 255) isolates were collected from 16 hospitals in Taiwan between 2018 and 2020. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method, and susceptibilities were interpreted according to the relevant guidelines or in accordance with results of previous studies and non-species-related pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data. RESULTS: Among the isolates tested, cefiderocol demonstrated potent in vitro activity against CNSPA (MIC50/90, 0.25/1 mg/L; 100% of isolates were inhibited at ≤4 mg/L) and CNSAB (MIC50/90, 0.5/2 mg/L; 94.9% of isolates were inhibited at ≤4 mg/L) isolates. More than 80% of CNSPA isolates were susceptible to cefiderocol, ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, and amikacin, based on breakpoints established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Activities of new BLI combinations varied significantly. Tetracycline analogues, including tigecycline (MIC50/90, 1/2 mg/L; 92.5% of CNSAB isolates were inhibited at ≤2 mg/L) and eravacycline (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 mg/L; 99.6% of CNSAB isolates were inhibited at ≤2 mg/L) exhibited more potent in vitro activity against CNSAB than omadacycline (MIC50/90, 4/8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The spread of CNSPA and CNSAB poses a major challenge to global health. Significant resistance be developed even before a novel agent becomes commercially available. The development of on-site antimicrobial susceptibility tests for these novel agents is of great clinical importance.

13.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 4510-4516, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471496

RESUMO

TSNAD is a one-stop software solution for predicting neoantigens from the whole genome/exome sequencing data of tumor-normal pairs. Here we present TSNAD v2.0 which provides several new features such as the function of RNA-Seq analysis including gene expression and gene fusion analysis, the support of different versions of the reference genome. Most importantly, we replace the NetMHCpan with DeepHLApan we developed previously, which considers both the binding between peptide and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and the immunogenicity of the presented peptide-MHC complex (pMHC). TSNAD v2.0 achieves good performamce on a standard dataset. For better usage, we provide the Docker version and the web service of TSNAD v2.0. The source code of TSNAD v2.0 is freely available at https://github.com/jiujiezz/tsnad. And the web service of TSNAD v2.0 is available at http://biopharm.zju.edu.cn/tsnad/.

14.
iScience ; 24(9): 103082, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585120

RESUMO

The new generation, i.e., second- and third-generation, drug-eluting stents (DESs) remain a risk of in-stent restenosis (ISR). We evaluated the power of a genetic risk score (GRS) model to identify high-risk populations for new generation DES ISR. We enrolled patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with new generations DESs by a single-center cohort study in Taiwan and evaluated their genetic profile. After propensity score matching, there were 343 patients and 153 patients in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Five selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., SNPs in CAMLG, GALNT2, C11orf84, THOC5, and SAMD11, were included to calculate the GRS for new generation DES ISR. In the derivation and the validation cohorts, patients with a GRS greater than or equal to 3 had significantly higher new generation DES ISR rates. We provide biological information for interventional cardiologists prior to percutaneous coronary intervention by specific five SNP-derived GRS.

15.
Cancer Med ; 10(19): 6627-6641, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533269

RESUMO

METHODS: We sought to compare the prognostic impact of tumor differentiation with respect to adverse risk factors (RFs) identified by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines--including extranodal extension (ENE), positive/close margins, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, and vascular invasion--in patients with locally advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). RESULTS: Between 1996 and 2018, 1179 consecutive patients with first primary pT3-4 OCSCC were included. A three-level grading system was adopted--in which the final classification was assigned according to the most prevalent tumor grade. We identified 382/669/128 patients with well/moderately/poorly differentiated tumors, respectively. Compared with well/moderately differentiated tumors, poorly differentiated OCSCC had a higher prevalence of the following variables: female sex (4%/6%/11%), ENE, (14%/36%/61%), positive margins (0.5%/2%/4%), close margins (10%/14%/22%), perineural invasion (22%/50%/63%), lymphatic invasion (2%/9%/17%), vascular invasion (1%/4%/10%), and adjuvant therapy (64%/80%/87%). The 5-year rates of patients with well/moderately/poorly differentiated OCSCC were as follows: local control (LC, 85%/82%/84%, p = 0.439), neck control (NC, 91%/83%/70%, p < 0.001), distant metastases (DM, 6%/18%/40%, p < 0.001), disease-free survival (DFS, 78%/63%/46%, p < 0.001), disease-specific survival (DSS, 85%/71%/49%, p < 0.001), and overall survival (OS, 68%/55%/39%, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis identified the following variables as independent prognosticators for 5-year outcomes: ENE (LC/NC/DM/DFS/DSS/OS), poorly differentiated tumors (NC/DM/DFS/DSS/OS), positive margins (LC/DFS), lymphatic invasion (DFS/DSS/OS), perineural invasion (DM), and age ≥65 years (OS). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to ENE, poor tumor differentiation was identified as the second most relevant adverse RF for patients with pT3-4 OCSCC. We suggest that the NCCN guidelines should include poor tumor differentiation as an adverse RF to refine and tailor clinical management.

16.
Cancer Med ; 10(20): 6947-6958, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared the clinical outcomes of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) with cN+pN0 versus cN0pN0 disease. METHODS: A total of 1309 OCSCC patients with pN0 disease were included. Of them, 1019 and 290 cases had cN0pN0 and cN+pN0 disease, respectively. For comparison purposes, we also examined 799 patients with pN+disease (cN0pN+/cN+pN+, n = 239/560). Subgroup analysis was performed in a propensity score-matched cohort with cN0pN0 and cN+pN0 disease (n = 284 each). RESULTS: Compared with cN0pN0, patients with cN+pN0 had a higher prevalence of the following variables: betel chewing, pT3-4, depth ≥10 mm, perineural invasion, and treatment with surgery and adjuvant therapy. The prognosis of patients with cN+pN0 (mean: 52 nodes) and cN0pN0 (mean: 39 nodes) disease was similar both in the original cohort and after propensity score matching. However, the 5-year outcomes were more favorable for cN+pN0/cN0pN0 compared with cN0pN+/cN+pN+ (local control, 88%/88%/83%/81%; neck control, 94%/93%/82%/76%; distant metastases, 4%/3%/13%/31%; disease-free survival, 84%/83%/68%/52%; disease-specific survival, 92%/92%/77%/57%; overall survival, 81%/82%/59%/42%; all p values <0.001; cN+pN0 versus cN0pN0, all p values >0.05). cN+pN0 disease (vs. cN0pN0) was not significantly associated with local control, neck control, distant metastases, and survivals either in univariable or multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a higher risk factor burden, the prognosis of patients with cN+pN0 disease did not differ from that of cases with cN0pN0. The higher nodal yield and the more frequent use of adjuvant therapy in cN+pN0 disease may explain the lack of significant differences in terms of neck control compared with cN0pN0 disease.

17.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 690752, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336952

RESUMO

Background: The Edwards INTUITY rapid deployment valve was anchored on the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) by radial force akin to transcatheter balloon-expandable valves. This design feature facilitates minimally invasive and complex procedures but comes at the price of compressing the atrioventricular conduction bundle and potential requirement for pacemaker implantation. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted on 30 consecutive patients who received the INTUITY valve at our institution from August 2018 to January 2021. Demographical, clinical, and echocardiographic parameters were collected for 90 days post-operatively. The diameter of the native LVOT at the landing site of the sub-annular stent was retrospectively measured using archived trans-esophageal echocardiographic images. A line was drawn from the inner edge of the septal endocardium to the inner edge of the anterior mitral leaflet in mid-systole, parallel to the aortic annulus, 6-8 mm apical to the aortic annulus depending on the valve size and the corresponding stent length. Risk factors associated with new onset conduction disturbances, defined as the occurrence of bundle branch block or complete heart block, were analyzed. Results: Operative mortality was 3.3%. Pre-operatively, permanent pacemakers were required for two patients who were excluded from the subsequent analysis. New onset conduction disturbances occurred in four of the remaining 28 patients (14.3%). This included two incidences of persistent left bundle branch block and two incidences of permanent pacemaker implantation due to complete heart block. Univariate analysis identified over-sizing of the native LVOT by 5 mm or more as a significant risk factor associated with conduction disturbance. Conclusion: During INTUITY vale implantation, in addition to the aortic annulus, the landing site of the sub-annular stent within the native LVOT should also be sized pre-bypass. Over-sizing the native LVOT by 5 mm or more was associated with an increased risk of new onset conduction disturbances and should be avoided.

18.
Crisis ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427456

RESUMO

Background: The differences in emotional reactions toward media reports of celebrity suicides between distressed and non-distressed individuals have rarely been explored. Aim: We aimed to explore differences in reaction patterns to the news coverage of a celebrity's suicide between distressed and nondistressed individuals in Taiwan. Method: We conducted an Internet survey to assess the impact of the news coverage of a celebrity's suicide. A series of χ2 tests, Spearman's rank correlations, and logistic regression analyses were performed to compare the differences in emotional involvement and psychological impact after exposure to suicide news between distressed and nondistressed individuals. Results: A total of 1,258 Internet users responded to the survey (236 men and 1,020 women). Compared with nondistressed individuals, distressed individuals (n = 537) were more likely to feel suicidal (11% vs. 2%, p < .001) after reading the news. They were less willing to seek help when in need (62% vs. 77%, p < .001). All the variables remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic variables in regression analyses. Limitations: The Internet-based survey may suffer from selection bias. Conclusion: Extensive media reporting of suicide stories has a profound impact on readers, particularly on vulnerable groups. Responsible reporting of suicide incidents is crucial for suicide prevention.

19.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440089

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the bile duct. The current standard first-line treatment for advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma is gemcitabine and cisplatin. However, few effective treatment choices exist for refractory cholangiocarcinoma, and additional therapeutic drugs are urgently required. Our previous work demonstrated that the ALDH isoform 1A3 plays a vital role in the malignant behavior of cholangiocarcinoma and may serve as a new therapeutic target. In this study, we found a positive correlation between ALDH1A3 protein expression levels and the cell migration abilities of three cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, which was verified using ALDH1A3-overexpressing and ALDH1A3-knockdown clones. We also used ALDH1A3-high and ALDH1A3-low populations of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines from the library of integrated network-based cellular signatures (LINCS) program and assessed the effects of ruxolitinib, a commercially available JAK2 inhibitor. Ruxolitinib had a higher cytotoxic effect when combined with gemcitabine. Furthermore, the nuclear translocation STAT1 and STAT3 heterodimers were markedly diminished by ruxolitinib treatment, possibly resulting in decreased ALDH1A3 activation. Notably, ruxolitinib alone or combined with gemcitabine led to significantly reduced tumor size and weight. Collectively, our studies suggest that ruxolitinib might suppress the ALDH1A3 activation through the JAK2/STAT1/3 pathway in cholangiocarcinoma, and trials should be undertaken to evaluate its efficacy in clinical therapy.

20.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 26: 308-316, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the trends in serotypes and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) to dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline and other comparator antibiotics from 2017-2020 following implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. METHODS: During the study period, 237 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from non-duplicate patients, covering 15.0% of IPD cases in Taiwan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a Sensititre® system. A latex agglutination method (ImmuLex™ Pneumotest Kit) was used to determine serotypes. RESULTS: Susceptibility rates were high for vancomycin (100%), teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%), followed by ceftaroline (non-meningitis) (98.3%), moxifloxacin (94.9%) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (89.9%). MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline and omadacycline were generally low. Non-vaccine serotype 23A was the leading cause of IPD across the adult age range. Isolates of serotype 15B were slightly fewer than those of PCV-13 serotypes in patients aged ≥65 years. The overall case fatality rate was 15.2% (36/237) but was especially high for non-PCV-13 serotype 15B (21.4%; 3/14). Vaccine coverage was 44.7% for PCV-13 and 49.4% for the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23), but was 57% for both PCV-13 and PPSV-23. CONCLUSION: The incidence of IPD was stationary after PCV-13 introduction and only dramatically decreased in the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline were generally low for S. pneumoniae causing adult IPD.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adulto , Aminoglicosídeos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Lipoglicopeptídeos , Oxazolidinonas , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sorogrupo , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Teicoplanina/análogos & derivados , Teicoplanina/farmacologia , Tetraciclinas , Tetrazóis
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