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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112244, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601193

RESUMO

This study tested the hypothesis that Entresto (En) therapy protected the cardiomyocytes and heart function in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) rats fed with high-protein diet (HPD) through regulating the oxidative-stress and Mfn2-mediated mitochondrial functional integrity. En (12.5 µM for the in-vitro study) protected the H9C2-cells against H2O2-induced cell apoptosis, whereas stepwise-increased H2O2 concentrations induced a significant increase in protein expressions of Mfn2/phosphorylated (p)-DRP1/mitochondrial-Bax in H9C2-cells. En downregulated H2O2-induced mitochondrial fission/upregulated mitochondrial fusion and deletion of Mfn2 gene (i.e., shMfn2) to significantly reduce H2O2-induced ROS production. En significantly suppressed and shMfn2 further significantly suppressed both H2O2-reduced mitochondrial-membrane potential and H2O2-induced ROS production/cell apoptosis/mitochondrial damage/mitochondrial-Bax released from mitochondria in H9C2 cells. En significantly reduced protein expressions of Mfn2 and p-DRP1. Additionally, En significantly suppressed and shMfn2 further significantly suppressed the protein expressions of mitochondrial-damaged (DRP1)/oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2)/apoptosis (mitochondrial-Bax/caspase-3/PARP)/autophagic (LC3B-II/LC3B-I) biomarkers (all p < 0.01). Rats were categorized into group 1 [sham-control + high-protein-diet (HPD)], group 2 (CRS + HPD) and group 3 (CRS+ HPD + En/100 mg/kg/day). By day 63 after CRS induction, the LVEF was significantly lower in group 3 and more significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1, whereas the protein expressions of oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/p22phox/oxidized protein)/apoptotic (mitochondrial-Bax/caspase-3/PARP), fibrotic (Smad-3/TGF-ß), autophagic (Beclin-1/Atg5/ratio of LC3B-II/LC3B-I) and mitochondrial-damaged (DRP1/cyclophilin-D/cytosolic-cytochrome-C) biomarkers exhibited an opposite pattern of LVEF among the groups. Downregulation of Mfn2 by En or shMfn2 in cardiomyocytes avoided H2O2 damage and En improved the cardiac function in HPD-feeding CRS rat via adjusting Mfn2-mediated mitochondrial functional integrity.

2.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680479

RESUMO

This study tested whether extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) supported-exogenous mitochondria (Mito) into adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) would preserve left-ventricular-ejection-fraction (LVEF) in doxorubicin/12 mg/kg-induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) rat. Adult-male-SD rats were equally categorized into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (DCM), group 3 (DCM + ECSW/1.5 mJ/mm2 for 140 shots/week × 3 times/since day 14 after DCM induction), group 4 (DCM + ECSW/1.5 mJ/mm2/100 shots-assisted mito delivery (500 µg) into ADMSCs/1.2 × 106 cells, then implanted into LV myocardium day 14 after DCM induction) and group 5 (DCM + ECSW-assisted mito delivery into ADMSCs/1.2 × 106 cells, then implanted into LV, followed by ECSW/1.5 mJ/mm2 for 140 shots/week × 3 times/since day 14 after DCM induction) and euthanized by day 49. Microscopic findings showed mitochondria were abundantly enhanced by ECSW into H9C2 cells. The q-PCR showed a significant increase in relative number of mitDNA in mitochondrial-transferred H9C2 cells than in control group (p < 0.01). The angiogenesis/angiogenesis factors (VEGF/SDF-1α/IG-F1) in HUVECs were significantly progressively increased by a stepwise-increased amount of ECSW energy (0.1/0.25/0.35 mJ/mm2) (all p < 0.001). The 49-day LVEF was highest in group 1 and significantly progressively increased from groups 2 to 5 (all p < 0.0001). Cardiomyocyte size/fibrosis exhibited an opposite pattern of LVEF, whereas cellular/protein levels of angiogenesis factors (VEGF/SDF-1α) in myocardium were significantly progressively increased from groups 1 to 5 (all p < 0.0001). The protein expressions of apoptotic/mitochondrial (cleaved-caspase-3/cleaved-PARP/mitochondrial-Bax/cytosolic-cytochrome-C), fibrotic (p-Smad3/TGF-ß), oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2) and pressure-overload/heart failure (BNP/ß-MHC) biomarkers exhibited an opposite pattern of LVEF among the five groups (all p < 0.0001). ECSW-assisted mitochondrial-delivery into ADMSCs plus ECSW offered an additional benefit for preserving LVEF in DCM rat.

3.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680507

RESUMO

This study tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal-shock-wave (ECSW) protected the functional and anatomical integrity of rat urinary-bladder against ketamine-induced damage. In in vitro study, the rat bladder smooth muscle cells (RBdSMCs) were categorized into G1 (sham-control), G2 (RBdSMCs + menadione), G3 (RBdSMCs + ECSW) and G4 (RBdSMCs + menadione + ECSW). The results showed protein expressions of oxidative-stress/mitochondrial-damaged biomarkers (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein/cytosolic-cytochrome-C/cyclophilin-D), inflammatory markers (MyD88/TRAF6/p-IKB-α/NF-κB/TNF-α/IL-6/IL-1ß/MMP-9/iNOS), and cell-stress response signalings (ASK1/p-MKK4/p-MKK7/ERK1/2//p-JNK/p-p38/p-53) were significantly increased in G2 than in G1 and G3, and those were significantly reversed in G4 (all p < 0.0001). Adult-male SD rats (n = 24) were equally categorized into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (ketamine/30 mg/kg/daily i.p. injection for four weeks), group 3 [ketamine/30 mg/kg + ECSW/optimal energy (0.12 mJ/mm2/120 impulses/at 3 h and days 3/7/14/21/28 after ketamine administration)] and group 4 [(ketamine/30 mg/kg + ECSW/higher energy (0.16 mJ/mm2/120 impulses)] and animals were euthanized by day 42. The results showed the urine levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α/IL-6) were lowest in group 1, highest in group 2 and significantly higher in group 3 than in group 4 at days 1/7/14/28 (all p < 0.0001). The duration of urinary bladder contraction was lowest in group 2, highest in group 1 and significantly higher in group 4 than in group 3, whereas the maximal pressure of urinary bladder exhibited an opposite pattern of bladder contraction among the groups (all p < 0.0001). The histopathological findings of fibrosis/inflammation/keratinization and protein expressions of oxidative-stress/mitochondrial-damaged biomarkers (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein/cytosolic-cytochrome-C/cyclophilin-D), and inflammatory (TLR-2/TLR-4/MyD88/TRAF6/p-IKB-α/NF-κB/TNF-α/IL-1ß/MMP-9/iNOS) and cell-stress response (ASK1/p-MKK4/p-MKK7/ERK1/2//p-JNK/p-p38) signalings and apoptotic/fibrotic biomarkers (cleaved-caspas3/cleaved-PARB/Smad3/TFG-ß) exhibited an identical pattern of urine proinflammatory cytokine among the groups (all p < 0.0001). ECSW effectively attenuated ketamine-induced bladder damage and dysfunction.

4.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 526, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study tested whether human induced-pluripotent stem-cell-derived mesenchymal-stem-cells (iPS-MSCs) would offer an additional benefit to the rodent with acute kidney injury (AKI) (ischemia for 1 h followed by reperfusion for 120 h) associated sepsis syndrome (SS) (by cecal-ligation-puncture immediately after AKI-induction) undergoing ciprofloxacin therapy. RESULTS: Male-adult SD rats (n = 80) were categorized into group 1 (sham-operated-control, n = 10), group 2 (AKI + SS, n = 24), group 3 (AKI + SS + ciprofloxacin/3 mg/kg, orally for 120 h, n = 12), group 4 (AKI + SS + iPS-MSCs/1.2 × 106/intravenously administered by 3 h after AKI, n = 12), group 5 (AKI + SS + iPS-MSCs/1.2 × 106/intravenously administered by 18 h after AKI, n = 12), group 6 (AKI + SS + iPS-MSCs/1.2 × 106/intravenously administered by 3 h after AKI induction + ciprofloxacin, n = 10] and euthanized by 120 h. The result showed that the mortality was significantly higher in group 2 than in other groups (all p < 0.01). The creatinine level was highest in group 2, lowest in group 1, significantly lower in group 6 than in groups 3, 4 and 5, (all p < 0.0001), but it showed no difference among the latter 3 groups. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the circulatory inflammatory cells (Ly6G/CD11b/c), early (AN-V+/PI-)/late (AN-V+/PI+) apoptosis, and circulatory/splenic immune cells (CD3+/CD4+, CD3+/CD8a+) were highest in group 2, lowest in group 1, significantly lower in group 6 than in groups 3/4/5 and significantly lower in group 4 than in groups 3/5 (all p < 0.0001), but they showed no difference between groups 3/5. Protein expressions of oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (cleaved-caspase3/cleaved-PARP/mitochondrial-Bax), fibrotic (TGF-ß/Smad3), inflammatory (MMP-9/IL-6/TNF-α) and autophagic (Atg5/Beclin) biomarkers in kidney exhibited an identical pattern of circulatory inflammatory cells (all p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Combined iPS-MSCs-ciprofloxacin therapy was superior to either one alone for protecting AKI complicated by SS.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Sepse , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Animais , Antibacterianos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 141: 111886, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that early administration of SS31 and entresto (En) was superior to either one alone on preserving the heart function in setting of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) induced by doxorubicin (Dox) [accumulated dosage of 12.5 mg/kg/administered by intraperitoneal (IP) at 4 separated time points within 20 days] in rat. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult-male SD rats (n = 40) were equally categorized into groups 1 (sham-control), 2 (DCM), 3 (DCM + SS31/0.7 mg/kg/day/IP, since day-14 after DCM induction to day-60), 4 [DCM + En (30 mg/kg/day/orally since day-14 after DCM induction to day-60)] and 5 (DCM + combined SS31-En), and animals were euthanized by day 60. By day 60, left-ventricular ejection-fraction (LVEF) was highest in group 1, lowest in group 2 and significantly higher in group 5 than in groups 3 and 4 (all p < 0.0001), but it showed no difference between groups 3/4. The microscopic study showed that the fibrosis area/cardiomyocyte size and DNA-damaged (γ-H2AX+)/inflammatory (CD14+//CD68+) markers, and flow analysis of inflammatory (Ly6G+/MPO+/CD11b/c+) and early/late apoptosis (AN-V+/PI-//AN-V+/PI+) cells exhibited an opposite pattern of LVEF among the five groups (all p < 0.0001). The protein expressions of inflammatory upstream (TLR2/TLR4/MyD88/Mal/ TRAF6/IKK-α/IKK-ß) and downstream (p-NF-κb/TNF-α/IL-1ß/MMP-9), oxidative-stress/mitochondrial-damaged (NOX-1/NOX-2/cytosolic cytochrome-C/cyclophilin-D/DRP1) and autophagic/apoptotic (ratio of LC3B-II/LC3B-I and mitochondrial-Bax/caspase3/9) signaling pathways also exhibited an opposite pattern of LVEF among the five groups (all p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Combined SS31-En therapy was superior to either one alone on protecting the heart structural and functional integrities against Dox-induced DCM damage.

6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 112036, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW)-assisted 5-FU therapy effectively suppressed human tongue squamous carcinoma cell line SAS (i.e., SAS cells) proliferation and tumor growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro study showed that as compared with lower ECSW energy (≤0.12 mJ/mm2), higher ECSW energy (≥0.25-035 mJ/mm2) significantly suppressed the SAS cell proliferation and upregulated tumor cell apoptosis/DNA-damage/oxidative-stress, whereas combined higher ECSW energy (0.35 mJ/mm2) and 5-FU (20uM) further significantly altered the expressions of these parameters (all p < 0.001). Adult male nude mice (NM) (n = 36) were equally categorized into group 1 (2.0 × 105 SAS cells were implanted into NM back), group 2 [SAS in NM back + stepwise-increased ECSW energy (from 0.05/0.1/0.3/to 0.5 mJ/mm2)/500 impulses which applied to the tumor at days 9/12/15/21], group 3 (SAS in NM back + 5-FU/i.p./7 mg/kg/every 3-day) and group 4 (SAS in NM back + ECSW + 5-FU) and tumors were removed from each animal by day-28. The result showed that tumor volume and tumor weight were significantly progressively reduced from group 1 to group 4 (all p < 0.0001). The protein expressions of apoptotic (mitochondrial-Bax/cleaved-caspase3/cleaved-PARP/cyclophyllin-D), autophagic (ratio of LC3B-II/LC3B-I) and oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2) biomarkers displayed an opposite pattern of tumor mass among the groups, whereas the cell-stress signaling (p-PI3K/p-Akt/p-m-TOR, and ASK1/MKK4/MKK7/p38/p-JNK/p-c-JUN), MAP kinase family members (RAS/cRAF/KRAS/BRAF/p-ERK1/2), tumor protein (p53) and cellular levels of angiogenesis/DNA-damage (α-SMA+/VEGF+/γ-H2AX+) exhibited an identical pattern of tumor mass among the groups (all p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Combined high-energy ECSW and 5-FU offers an additional benefit for suppressing the cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth.

7.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 370, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that combined melatonin (Mel) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) treatment was superior to either one alone on protecting the testis against acute testicular torsion-induced ischemia-reperfusion (TTIR) injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male adult SD rats (n = 30) were equally categorized into group 1 (sham-operated control), group 2 [TTIR/by torsion of right/left testis (i.e., ischemia) with rotated 720° counterclockwise for 2 h, then detorsion (i.e., reperfusion) to the original position for 72 h], group 3 (TTIR + Mel/intraperitoneal administration/50 mg/kg at 30 min after ischemia, followed by 20 mg at 3 h and days 1/2/3 after TTIR), group 4 (TTIR + ADMSCs/1.2 × 106 cells/by tail-vein administration at 30 min after ischemia, followed by days 1/2 TTIR), and group 5 (TTIR + Mel + ADMSCs/tail-vein administration). The result showed that the protein expressions of oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized-protein), apoptotic/mitochondrial-damaged (mitochondrial-Bax/cleaved-caspase3/cleaved-PARP/cytosolic-cytochrome C), and fibrotic (TGF-ß/Smad3) biomarkers as well as testicular damage scores were lowest in group 1, highest in group 2, and significantly higher in groups 3/4 than in group 5, but they showed no difference between groups 3/4, whereas the protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and vimentin showed an opposite pattern of oxidative stress (all p < 0.0001). The cellular levels of inflammation (MMP-9/MPO/CD68) exhibited an identical pattern, whereas the numbers of Sertoli cells, α-tubulin, AR and vimentin as well as thickness of seminiferous tubule exhibited an opposite pattern of oxidative stress among the groups (all p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Mel-ADMSCs effectively protected the testis against TTIR injury.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Torção do Cordão Espermático , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Torção do Cordão Espermático/complicações , Torção do Cordão Espermático/terapia , Testículo
8.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 371, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that double overexpression of miR-19a and miR-20a (dOex-mIRs) in human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) effectively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (i.e., induced by doxorubicin) rat. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro study was categorized into groups G1 (iPS-MSC), G2 (iPS-MSCdOex-mIRs), G3 (iPS-MSC + H2O2/100uM), and G4 (iPS-MSCdOex-mIRs + H2O2/100uM). The in vitro results showed the cell viability was significantly lower in G3 than in G1 and G2, and that was reversed in G4 but it showed no difference between G1/G2 at time points of 6 h/24 h/48 h, whereas the flow cytometry of intra-cellular/mitochondrial oxidative stress (DCFA/mitoSOX) and protein expressions of mitochondrial-damaged (cytosolic-cytochrome-C/DRP1/Cyclophilin-D), oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX2), apoptotic (cleaved-caspase-3/PARP), fibrotic (p-Smad3/TGF-ß), and autophagic (ratio of LC3B-II/LC3BI) biomarkers exhibited an opposite pattern of cell-proliferation rate (all p< 0.001). Adult-male SD rats (n=32) were equally divided into groups 1 (sham-operated control), 2 (DCM), 3 (DCM + iPS-MSCs/1.2 × 106 cells/administered by post-28 day's DCM induction), and 4 (DCM + iPS-MSCdOex-mIRs/1.2 × 106 cells/administered by post-28 day's DCM induction) and euthanized by day 60 after DCM induction. LV myocardium protein expressions of oxidative-stress signaling (p22-phox/NOX-1/NOX-2/ASK1/p-MMK4,7/p-JNK1,2/p-cJUN), upstream (TLR-4/MAL/MyD88/TRIF/TRAM/ TFRA6/IKKα/ß/NF-κB) and downstream (TNF-α/IL-1ß/MMP-9) inflammatory signalings, apoptotic (cleaved-PARP/mitochondrial-Bax), fibrotic (Smad3/TGF-ß), mitochondrial-damaged (cytosolic-cytochrome-C/DRP1/cyclophilin-D), and autophagic (beclin1/Atg5) biomarkers were highest in group 2, lowest in group 1 and significantly lower in group 4 than in group 3, whereas the LVEF exhibited an opposite pattern of oxidative stress (all p< 0.0001). CONCLUSION: iPS-MSCdOex-mIRs therapy was superior to iPS-MSC therapy for preserving LV function in DCM rat.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , MicroRNAs , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
9.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(16): 7675-7689, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161651

RESUMO

This study tested the hypothesis that therapy with double overexpression of miR-19a-3p and miR-20a-5p (miRDOE ) to human inducible pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPS-MSCs) was superior to iPS-MSCs alone for preserving renal function in rat with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD), followed by ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In vitro study demonstrated that the protein expressions of oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/NOX4/oxidized protein/p22phox), inflammatory downstream signalling (TLR2&4/MyD88/TRAF6/IKK-ß/p-NFκB/IL-1ß/IL-6/MMP-9) and cell apoptosis/death signalling (cleaved caspase-3/mitochondrial Bax/p-ERKs/p-JNK/p-p38) at time-points of 24-hour/48-hour cell cultures were significantly increased in p-Cresol-treated NRK-52E cells than in the control that was significantly reversed by miR-19a-3p-transfected iPS-MSC (all P < .001). Animals were categorized into group 1 (sham-operated control), group 2 (CKD-IR), group 3 (CKD-IR + oligo-miRDOE of iPS-MSCs/6.0 ×105 /intra-renal artery transfusion/3 hours after IR procedure), group 4 (CKD-IR + iPS-MSCs) and group 5 (CKD-IR + miRDOE of iPS-MSCs/6.0 ×105/ intra-renal artery transfusion/3 hour after IR procedure). By day 35, the creatinine/BUN levels were lowest in group 1, highest in group 2 and significantly lower in group 5 than in groups 3 and 4 (all P < .0001) but they showed no difference between the latter two groups. The protein expressions of oxidative stress, inflammatory downstream signalling and cell apoptosis/death signalling exhibited an identical pattern of creatinine level among the five groups (all P < .00001). Also, the microscopic findings demonstrated that the kidney injury score/fibrotic area/number of inflammatory cells (CD14+/CD68+) exhibited an identical pattern of creatine level (all P < .0001). The miRDOE of iPS-MSCs was superior to iPS-MSCs for preserving the residual kidney function and architecture in CKD-IR rat.

10.
FASEB J ; 35(6): e21661, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029398

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly encountered and causes high mortality in hospitalized patients; however, effective therapies for AKI have still not been established. Accordingly, we performed a rodent model with acute renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and tested the hypothesis that combined tacrolimus and melatonin therapy could be superior to either one for protecting the kidney against IR injury. Adult-male SD rat (n = 30) were equally categorized into group 1 (receiving laparotomy only), group 2 (IR treated by 3.0 cc/normal-saline), group 3 [IR + tacrolimus/0.5 mg/kg by intravenous administration at 30 minutes and at days 1/2/3 after IR], group 4 (IR + melatonin/50 mg/kg by intra-peritoneal administration at 30 minutes and 25 mg/kg at days 1/2/3 after IR] and group 5 (IR + tacrolimus +melatonin). By day 3 after IR, the creatinine/BUN levels and ratio of urine protein to urine creatinine were highest in group 2, lowest in group 1 and significantly lower in group 5 than in groups 3/4 (all P < .0001), but they did not differ between the groups 3/4. The protein expressions of oxidative-stress (p47phox/NOX-1/NOX-2/NOX-4), upstream (TLR4/MAL/MyD88/TRAF6/ASK1/MKK4/MKK7/NF-κB) and downstream (IL-6/INF-γ/MMP-9/IL-1ß) inflammatory signaling, MAPK-family-signaling cascades(ERK1/2, JNK/p38/c-JUN), apoptotic/autophagic (p53/caspase 3/mitochondrial-Bax, ratio of LC3B-II/LC3B-I), and mitochondrial-damaged (cyclophilin D/cytochrome C/DRP1) biomarkers, and the expressions of inflammatory-immune cells (F4/80, CD14/CD3/CD8) as well as the kidney injured score exhibited an identical pattern of creatinine level (all P < .0001). In conclusion, combined tacrolimus and melatonin therapy was better than either single one on protecting the kidney functional and anatomical integrity against IR injury through suppressing inflammation and the generation of oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Melatonina/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(12): 5640-5654, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938133

RESUMO

This study tested the hypothesis that combined therapy with human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUCDMSCs) and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) was superior to either one on preserving neurological function and reducing brain haemorrhagic volume (BHV) in rat after acute intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) induced by intracranial injection of collagenase. Adult male SD rats (n = 30) were equally divided into group 1 (sham-operated control), group 2 (ICH), group 3 (ICH +HUCDMSCs/1.2 × 106 cells/intravenous injection at 3h and days 1 and 2 after ICH), group 4 (ICH +HBO/at 3 hours and days 1 and 2 after ICH) and group 5 (ICH +HUCDMSCs-HBO), and killed by day 28 after ICH. By day 1, the neurological function was significantly impaired in groups 2-5 than in group 1 (P < .001), but it did not differ among groups 2 to 5. By days 7, 14 and 28, the integrity of neurological function was highest in group 1, lowest in group 2 and significantly progressively improved from groups 3 to 5 (all P < .001). By day 28, the BHV was lowest in group 1, highest in group 2 and significantly lower in group 5 than in groups 3/4 (all P < .0001). The protein expressions of inflammation (HMGB1/TLR-2/TLR-4/MyD88/TRAF6/p-NF-κB/IFN-γ/IL-1ß/TNF-α), oxidative stress/autophagy (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein/ratio of LC3B-II/LC3B-I) and apoptosis (cleaved-capspase3/PARP), and cellular expressions of inflammation (CD14+, F4/80+) in brain tissues exhibited an identical pattern, whereas cellular levels of angiogenesis (CD31+/vWF+/small-vessel number) and number of neurons (NeuN+) exhibited an opposite pattern of BHV among the groups (all P < .0001). These results indicate that combined HUCDMSC-HBO therapy offered better outcomes after rat ICH.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/terapia , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Inflamação/terapia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Animais , Apoptose , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111593, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemic events, comprising of excitotoxicity, reactive oxygen production, and inflammation, adversely impact the metabolic-redox circuit in highly active neuronal metabolic profile which maintains energy-dependent brain activities. Therefore, we investigated neuro-regenerative potential of melatonin (Mel), a natural biomaterial secreted by pineal gland. METHODS: We specifically determined whether Mel could influence tunneling nanotubes (TNTs)-mediated transfer of functional mitochondria (Mito) which in turn may alter membrane potential, oxidative stress and apoptotic factors. In vitro studies assessed the effects of Mito on levels of cytochrome C, mitochondrial transfer, reactive oxygen species, membrane potential and mass, which were all further enhanced by Mel pre-treatment, whereas in vivo studies examined brain infarct area (BIA), neurological function, inflammation, brain edema and integrity of neurons and myelin sheath in control, ischemia stroke (IS), IS + Mito and IS + Mel-Mito group rats. RESULTS: Results showed that Mel pre-treatment significantly increased mitochondrial transfer and antioxidants, and inhibited apoptosis. Mel-pretreated Mito also significantly reduced BIA with improved neurological function. Apoptotic, oxidative-stress, autophagic, mitochondrial/DNA-damaged biomarkers indices were also improved. CONCLUSION: Conclusively, Mel is a potent biomaterial which could potentially impart neurogenesis through repairing impaired metabolic-redox circuit via enhanced TNT-mediated mitochondrial transfer, anti-oxidation, and anti-apoptotic activities in ischemia.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nanotubos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regulação para Cima
13.
Biomed J ; 44(2): 209-216, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent patent foramen ovale (PFO) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) increase the adult risk of cryptogenic embolic stroke and chronic pulmonary hypertension. To understand the characteristics of PFO and PDA in newborns, we investigated the spontaneous closure rate and derived the determinants for residual defects. METHODS: We utilized the database of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Xiamen ChangGung Memorial Hospital from 2015 to 2017 and allocated 2523 eligible newborns into four groups according to PDA, PFO, both or neither at birth. A total of 574, 1229, 202 and 518 newborns were assigned into the group of PFO and PDA, PFO alone, PDA alone and non-PFO/non-PDA, respectively. Regular echocardiographic follow-ups at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months after birth were performed for evaluating the spontaneous closure rate in the subjects. Regression analysis was carried out to study the risk factors of residual congenital defects. RESULTS: Newborns with PFO alone had the youngest birth age and lowest birth weight among the four groups. About one in four PDA-alone newborns had concomitant small ASD, i.e., <5 mm in diameter. Echocardiographic study showed that 71.3% and 30.8% of CHD newborns had PFO and PDA, respectively, compared to less than 10% of them having ASD or VSD. However, more than 95% of newborns with PFO or PDA closed spontaneously at 6 months, in contrast to about 30% of newborns with ASD or VSD had persistent existence of the intracardiac defects. Complex CHD significantly linked to persistent PFO or PDA at 6 and 12 months, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 9.03 (95% CI 1.97-41.46) and 12.11 (95% CI 2.11-69.72), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese newborns with PFO or PDA expressed differences in characteristics and concomitant congenital defects. Additionally, persistent PFO or PDA is strongly associated with complex CHD and requires long-term regular monitoring for future associated complications.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial , Forame Oval Patente , China , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Forame Oval Patente/complicações , Forame Oval Patente/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e25037, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) tongue diagnosis plays an important role in differentiation of symptoms because the tongue reflects the physiological and pathological condition of the body. The automatic tongue diagnosis system (ATDS), which noninvasively captures tongue images, can provide objective and reliable diagnostic information. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) currently is an important global public health problem and contributor to morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases. Thus, it is interesting to analyze and probe the relationship between tongue examination and CKD. METHODS: This protocol is a cross-sectional, case-controlled observational study investigating the usefulness of the ATDS in clinical practice by examining its efficacy as a diagnostic tool for CKD. Volunteers over 20 years old with and without CKD will be enrolled. Tongue images will be captured and the patients divided into 2 groups: CKD group and healthy group. Nine primary tongue features will be extracted and analyzed, including tongue shape, tongue color, tooth mark, tongue fissure, fur color, fur thickness, saliva, ecchymosis, and red dots. RESULT: The results of this study will systematically evaluate tongue manifestations of patients and examine its efficacy as an early detection and diagnosis of CKD. DISCUSSION: The aim of this protocol is to investigate discriminating tongue features to distinguish between CKD and normal people, and establish differentiating index to facilitate the noninvasive detection of CKD. TRIAL REGISTRIES: ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT04708743.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Doenças da Língua/diagnóstico , Língua/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças da Língua/etiologia , Doenças da Língua/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670232

RESUMO

Fruit maturity is a critical factor in the supply chain, consumer preference, and agriculture industry. Most classification methods on fruit maturity identify only two classes: ripe and unripe, but this paper estimates six maturity stages of papaya fruit. Deep learning architectures have gained respect and brought breakthroughs in unimodal processing. This paper suggests a novel non-destructive and multimodal classification using deep convolutional neural networks that estimate fruit maturity by feature concatenation of data acquired from two imaging modes: visible-light and hyperspectral imaging systems. Morphological changes in the sample fruits can be easily measured with RGB images, while spectral signatures that provide high sensitivity and high correlation with the internal properties of fruits can be extracted from hyperspectral images with wavelength range in between 400 nm and 900 nm-factors that must be considered when building a model. This study further modified the architectures: AlexNet, VGG16, VGG19, ResNet50, ResNeXt50, MobileNet, and MobileNetV2 to utilize multimodal data cubes composed of RGB and hyperspectral data for sensitivity analyses. These multimodal variants can achieve up to 0.90 F1 scores and 1.45% top-2 error rate for the classification of six stages. Overall, taking advantage of multimodal input coupled with powerful deep convolutional neural network models can classify fruit maturity even at refined levels of six stages. This indicates that multimodal deep learning architectures and multimodal imaging have great potential for real-time in-field fruit maturity estimation that can help estimate optimal harvest time and other in-field industrial applications.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Frutas , Imageamento Hiperespectral , Redes Neurais de Computação
16.
Stem Cell Res ; 53: 102264, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell dysfunction plays the crucial role in initiation and propagation of obstructive arteriosclerosis which ultimately causes arterial obstructive syndrome. Additionally, severe endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) dysfunction is always found in those of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. This study tested the hypothesis that a novel method, named "quality and quantity (QQ) culture", could successfully improve the EPC proliferation and function in ESRD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were isolated from age-matched control subjects (i.e., normal renal function) (group 1) and ESRD patients (group 2), followed by culture in either conventional EPC culture for one month or in QQ culture for 7 days, respectively. The result showed that as compared to the conventional EPC culture method, the EPC population and M2-like population/ratio (M2/M1) were significantly enriched in QQ culture both in groups 1 and 2 (all p < 0.001), but these parameters did not differ between the groups. As compared with conventional EPC culture, the angiogenesis capacity and colony formation were significantly increased in QQ culture (all p < 0.001), but they showed no difference between groups 1 and 2. In RAW264.7 macrophages treated by liposaccharide, the gene expressions and ELISA findings of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß/IL-6/TGF-ß) and inflammatory mediator (iNOS) were significantly reduced in QQ culture than in conventional EPC culture in groups 1 and 2 (all p < 0.001), but they showed no difference between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that QQ culture enhanced number, proliferation, and angiogenesis of EPCs and anti-inflammatory capacity in ESRD patients.


Assuntos
Células Progenitoras Endoteliais , Falência Renal Crônica , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Macrófagos
17.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 144, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514826

RESUMO

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) possesses multiple advantages for end stage renal disease. However, long-term PD triggers peritoneal fibrosis (PF). From the nationwide analysis of diabetic PD patients (n = 19,828), we identified the incidence of PD failure was significantly lower in diabetic patients treated with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors. Experimental study further showed high concentration of glucose remarkably enhanced DPP4 to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the mesothelial cells. In chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)-induced PF model of rats, DPP4 expression was enriched at thickening peritoneum. Moreover, as to CG-induced PF model, DPP4 deficiency (F344/DuCrlCrlj strain), sitagliptin and exendin-4 treatments significantly inhibited DPP4 to reverse the EMT process, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammation, resulting in the protection from PF, preservation of peritoneum and the corresponding functional integrity. Furthermore, DPP4 activity was significantly correlated with peritoneal dysfunction. Taken together, DPP4 caused peritoneal dysfunction/PF, whereas inhibition of DPP4 protected the PD patients against PD failure.


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Peritoneal , Fibrose Peritoneal/prevenção & controle , Peritônio/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Diálise Peritoneal/efeitos adversos , Fibrose Peritoneal/enzimologia , Fibrose Peritoneal/patologia , Peritônio/enzimologia , Peritônio/patologia , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Ratos Transgênicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 136: 111266, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study tested whether combined cyclosporin-A (CsA) and melatonin (Mel) was superior to either one on protecting the brain against ischemia (occluded left-middle-cerebral-artery for 90-min)-reperfusion (for 14 days) injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Neuro-2a cells (N2a) were categorized into groups 1 (N2a), 2 (N2a-IR), 3 (N2a-IR-Mel), 4 (N2a-IR-CsA) and 5 (N2a-IR-CsA-Mel). in vitro results showed the protein expressions of cytosolic-cytochrome-C/mitochondrial-Bax/cleaved-capase-3/NOX-1/NOX-2 and flow-cytometric results of ROS (DCFDA/Mito-SOX) were highest in group 2, lowest in group 1, significantly lower in group 5 than in groups 3/4, but they showed no difference in groups 3/4 (all p < 0.001). Male-adult-SD rats (50) were equally categorized into groups 1 (sham-operated-control), 2 (IR), 3 (IR-CsA/20.0 mg/kg at 0.5/24/48 h intraperitoneally after IR), 4 (IR-Mel/50.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally at 30 min and 30 mg/kg at 6/24/48 h after IR) and 5 (IR-CsA-Mel). The brain-infarct-area (BIA) (at day-3 by TTC-stain) was lowest in group 1, highest in group 2, significantly lower in group 5 than groups 3/4, but it showed no difference between groups 3/4 whereas the brain-infarct-volume (at day 14 by MRI) was similar as BIA except for significantly lower in group 4 than in group 3 (all p < 0.0001). By day 14, microscopic finding showed the numbers of glial+/GFAP+/AQP + cells expressed an identical trend whereas the number of NeuN + cells exhibited an opposite pattern of BIA among the groups (all p < 0.0001). The protein expressions of oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/p22phox/oxidized-protein), inflammatory (TNF-α/p-NF-κB/MMP-9), apoptotic (mitochondrial-Bax/caspase-3/PARP) and mitochondrial-damaged (Cyclophilin-D/DRP1/cytosolic-cytochrome-C) biomarkers displayed an identical pattern of BIA among the five groups (all p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Combined CsA-Mel was superior to either CsA or Mel on protecting the brain against IR injury.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Melatonina/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
19.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 2): 327-336, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Endometriosis (EM) is linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, whether this finding can be applied to the Taiwanese population remained unanswered. To investigate the association between EM and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and the therapeutic effect on the risk of MACCE in Asian women with EM. A retrospective population-based cohort study was performed. METHODS: A total of 17 543 patients with EM aged between 18 and 50 years were identified from a general population of 1 million Taiwanese after excluding diagnoses of major CVD and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) prior to EM. The comparison group (n = 70 172) without EM was selected by matching the study cohort with age, sex, and income and urbanization levels in a 4:1 ratio. RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 9.2 years, Taiwanese women with EM had a significantly higher frequency of comorbidities, medical and surgical treatment, and MACCE than did their non-EM counterparts (2.76% vs 2.18%, P < .0001). After adjustment for comorbidities, patients with EM had an approximately 1.2-fold increased risk of MACCE (95% CI 1.05-1.29; P = .0053) and a higher cumulative incidence of MACCE compared with the normal population. Neither medical nor surgical treatment increased the risk of MACCE. Furthermore, medical treatment for EM appeared to be protective against MACCE. CONCLUSION: Taiwanese women with EM not only had a substantially higher frequency of comorbidities but also an increased risk of MACCE compared with the general population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , Endometriose , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Endometriose/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(16): 3116-3132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162819

RESUMO

This study tested the hypothesis that abrogated dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) activity played a crucial role on reducing stroke volume and preserving neurological function in rodent after acute hemorrhagic stroke (AHS). Animals (n=6/each group) were categorized into group 1 (sham-control of F344 rat), group 2 (sham-control of DPP4-deficiency rat), group 3 [AHS by right cerebral injection of autologous blood (100 µL) in F344 rat], group 4 (AHS + sitagliptin/600 mg/kg 3 h prior to and at 3 h then once per day after AHS) and group 5 (AHS in DPP4-deficiency rat). The results of corner test showed the neurological function was significantly improved from days 3, 7, and 14 in groups 4 and 5 than in group 3 (all p<0.001). By days 1 and 14 after AHS procedure, the circulating levels of SDF-1α and GLP-1 were significantly increased from groups 1/2 to group 5 (all p<0.001), whereas circulating DPP4 activity was significantly increased in group 3 than other groups (all p<0.001). The brain ischemic area (BIA) was highest in group 3, lowest in groups 1/2 and significantly lower in group 5 than in group 4 (all p<0.0001). The protein expressions of oxidative-stress/inflammatory/apoptotic/cell-proliferation signaling, and the cellular expressions of inflammatory/DNA-damaged biomarkers exhibited a similar pattern to BIA among the groups (all p<0.01). In conclusion, deprivation of DPP4 activity protected the brain from AHS damage and preserved neurological function.

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