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1.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699943

RESUMO

Epitaxial thin-film heterostructures offer a versatile platform for realizing topological surface states (TSSs) that may be emergent and/or tunable by tailoring the atomic layering in the heterostructures. Here, as an experimental demonstration, Sb and Bi2Te3 thin films with closely matched in-plane lattice constants are chosen to form two complementary heterostructures: Sb overlayers on Bi2Te3 (Sb/Bi2Te3) and Bi2Te3 overlayers on Sb (Bi2Te3/Sb), with the overlayer thickness as a tuning parameter. In the bulk form, Sb (a semimetal) and Bi2Te3 (an insulator) both host TSSs with the same topological order but substantially different decay lengths and dispersions, whereas ultrathin Sb and Bi2Te3 films by themselves are fully gapped trivial insulators. Angle-resolved photoemission band mappings, aided by theoretical calculations, confirm the formation of emergent TSSs in both heterostructures. The energy position of the topological Dirac point varies as a function of overlayer thickness, but the variation is non-monotonic, indicating nontrivial effects in the formation of topological heterostructure systems. The results illustrate the rich physics of engineered composite topological systems that may be exploited for nanoscale spintronics applications.

2.
Adv Mater ; 34(26): e2200625, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446987

RESUMO

Tuning interactions between Dirac states in graphene has attracted enormous interest because it can modify the electronic spectrum of the 2D material, enhance electron correlations, and give rise to novel condensed-matter phases such as superconductors, Mott insulators, Wigner crystals, and quantum anomalous Hall insulators. Previous works predominantly focus on the flat band dispersion of coupled Dirac states from different twisted graphene layers. In this work, a new route to realizing flat band physics in monolayer graphene under a periodic modulation from substrates is proposed. Graphene/SiC heterostructure is taken as a prototypical example and it is demonstrated experimentally that the substrate modulation leads to Dirac fermion cloning and, consequently, the proximity of the two Dirac cones of monolayer graphene in momentum space. Theoretical modeling captures the cloning mechanism of the Dirac states and indicates that moiré flat bands can emerge at certain magic lattice constants of the substrate, specifically when the period of modulation becomes nearly commensurate with the ( 3 × 3 ) R 30 o \[(\sqrt 3 \; \times \;\sqrt 3 )R{30^o}\] supercell of graphene. The results show that epitaxial single monolayer graphene on suitable substrates is a promising platform for exploring exotic many-body quantum phases arising from interactions between Dirac electrons.

3.
Nanotechnology ; 32(12): 125701, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271514

RESUMO

Antimony oxide nanostructures have been identified as candidates for a range of electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here we demonstrate the growth of 2-dimensional antimony oxide nanostructures on various substrates, including highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), MoS2 and α-Bi(110) nanoislands. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) we show that the nanostructures formed are exclusively highly crystalline α-Sb2O3(111) monolayers with a lattice constant of 796 pm ± 7 pm. The nanostructures are triangular with lateral dimensions of up to ∼30 nm. Even though elemental antimony nanostructures are grown simultaneously mixed phases are not observed and both materials exhibit their own distinct growth modes. Moiré patterns are also observed and simulated, allowing confirmation of the atomic unit cell and an understanding of the orientation of the Sb2O3 structures with respect to the supporting materials. As in the bulk, the Sb2O3 nanostructures are formed from Sb4O6 molecules that are weakly interacting through van der Waals forces. This allows physical modification of the nanostructures with the STM tip. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy reveals a wide band gap of at least 3.5 eV. Finally, we show that possible alternative structures that have unit cells comparable to those observed can be excluded based on our DFT calculations. The considered structures are a 2 × 2 reconstruction of ß-Sb with one vacancy per unit cell and a van der Waals solid composed of Sb4 clusters. Previous reports have predominantly demonstrated Sb2O3 structures with much larger thicknesses.

4.
ACS Nano ; 14(2): 1888-1894, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971774

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) Dirac-like electron gases have attracted tremendous research interest ever since the discovery of free-standing graphene. The linear energy dispersion and nontrivial Berry phase play a pivotal role in the electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties of 2D Dirac materials. The known 2D Dirac materials are gapless only within certain approximations, for example, in the absence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Here, we report a route to establishing robust Dirac cones in 2D materials with nonsymmorphic crystal lattice. The nonsymmorphic symmetry enforces Dirac-like band dispersions around certain high-symmetry momenta in the presence of SOC. Through µ-ARPES measurements, we observe Dirac-like band dispersions in α-bismuthene. The nonsymmorphic lattice symmetry is confirmed by µ-low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our first-principles simulations and theoretical topological analysis demonstrate the correspondence between nonsymmorphic symmetry and Dirac states. This mechanism can be straightforwardly generalized to other nonsymmorphic materials. The results enlighten the search of symmetry-enforced Dirac fermions in the vast uncharted world of nonsymmorphic 2D materials.

5.
ACS Nano ; 13(5): 5611-5615, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987421

RESUMO

Chemical conversion by atomic substitution offers a powerful route toward the creation of unusual structures and functionalities. Here, we demonstrate the progressive transformation of single-layer TiTe2 into TiSe2 by reaction with a Se flux in vacuum. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy reveal intriguing reaction patterns involving TiSe2 island ingrowth starting from the TiTe2 island edges, while the band structure and core level signatures of TiSe2 grow in intensity at the expense of those corresponding to TiTe2. Lattice mismatch between TiTe2 and TiSe2 results in misfit holes and lattice distortions over a distance behind a seamless fingerlike reaction front. The regions of TiSe2 and TiTe2 are distinguished by a height difference and a charge density wave (CDW) at different transition temperatures. The method of in situ chemical conversion offers opportunities for atomic-scale engineering of layered transition metal dichalcogenides that host useful properties arising from CDW, Dirac, Weyl, superconducting, spin-valley, and magnetic structures.

6.
Nano Lett ; 18(9): 5628-5632, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109804

RESUMO

Elastic strain has the potential for a controlled manipulation of the band gap and spin-polarized Dirac states of topological materials, which can lead to pseudomagnetic field effects, helical flat bands, and topological phase transitions. However, practical realization of these exotic phenomena is challenging and yet to be achieved. Here we show that the Dirac surface states of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 can be reversibly tuned by an externally applied elastic strain. Performing in situ X-ray diffraction and in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements during tensile testing of epitaxial Bi2Se3 films bonded onto a flexible substrate, we demonstrate elastic strains of up to 2.1% and quantify the resulting changes in the topological surface state. Our study establishes the functional relationship between the lattice and electronic structures of Bi2Se3 and, more generally, demonstrates a new route toward momentum-resolved mapping of strain-induced band structure changes.

7.
Sci Adv ; 4(4): eaar7214, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719866

RESUMO

A topological insulator film coupled to a simple isotropic s-wave superconductor substrate can foster helical pairing of the Dirac fermions associated with the topological surface states. Experimental realization of such a system is exceedingly difficult, however using a novel "flip-chip" technique, we have prepared single-crystalline Bi2Se3 films with predetermined thicknesses in terms of quintuple layers (QLs) on top of Nb substrates fresh from in situ cleavage. Our angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements of the film surface disclose superconducting gaps and coherence peaks of similar magnitude for both the topological surface states and bulk states. The ARPES spectral map as a function of temperature and film thickness up to 10 QLs reveals key characteristics relevant to the mechanism of coupling between the topological surface states and the superconducting Nb substrate; the effective coupling length is found to be much larger than the decay length of the topological surface states.

8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15981, 2017 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167479

RESUMO

Time-dependent responses of materials to an ultrashort optical pulse carry valuable information about the electronic and lattice dynamics; this research area has been widely studied on novel two-dimensional materials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and topological insulators (TIs). We report herein a time-resolved and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TRARPES) study of WSe2, a layered semiconductor of interest for valley electronics. The results for below-gap optical pumping reveal energy-gain and -loss Floquet replica valence bands that appear instantaneously in concert with the pump pulse. Energy shift, broadening, and complex intensity variation and oscillation at twice the phonon frequency for the valence bands are observed at time scales ranging from the femtosecond to the picosecond and beyond. The underlying physics is rich, including ponderomotive interaction, dressing of the electronic states, creation of coherent phonon pairs, and diffusion of charge carriers - effects operating at vastly different time domains.

9.
ACS Nano ; 11(11): 11459-11465, 2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29061038

RESUMO

Weyl semimetals (WSMs) are classified into two types, type I and II, according to the topology of the Weyl point, where the electron and hole pockets touch each other. Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) has garnered a great deal of attention as a strong candidate to be a type-II WSM. However, the Weyl points for WTe2 are located above the Fermi level, which has prevented us from identifying the locations and the connection to the Fermi arc surface states by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Here, we present experimental proof that WTe2 is a type-II WSM. We measured energy-dependent quasiparticle interference patterns with a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope, revealing the position of the Weyl point and its connection with the Fermi arc surface states, in agreement with prior theoretical predictions. Our results provide an answer to this crucial question and stimulate further exploration of the characteristics of WSMs.

10.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1007, 2017 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044100

RESUMO

Topological nodal line semimetals, a novel quantum state of materials, possess topologically nontrivial valence and conduction bands that touch at a line near the Fermi level. The exotic band structure can lead to various novel properties, such as long-range Coulomb interaction and flat Landau levels. Recently, topological nodal lines have been observed in several bulk materials, such as PtSn4, ZrSiS, TlTaSe2 and PbTaSe2. However, in two-dimensional materials, experimental research on nodal line fermions is still lacking. Here, we report the discovery of two-dimensional Dirac nodal line fermions in monolayer Cu2Si based on combined theoretical calculations and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements. The Dirac nodal lines in Cu2Si form two concentric loops centred around the Γ point and are protected by mirror reflection symmetry. Our results establish Cu2Si as a platform to study the novel physical properties in two-dimensional Dirac materials and provide opportunities to realize high-speed low-dissipation devices.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(14): 146402, 2017 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28430465

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) topological Dirac semimetals (TDSs) are rare but important as a versatile platform for exploring exotic electronic properties and topological phase transitions. A quintessential feature of TDSs is 3D Dirac fermions associated with bulk electronic states near the Fermi level. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we have observed such bulk Dirac cones in epitaxially grown α-Sn films on InSb(111), the first such TDS system realized in an elemental form. First-principles calculations confirm that epitaxial strain is key to the formation of the TDS phase. A phase diagram is established that connects the 3D TDS phase through a singular point of a zero-gap semimetal phase to a topological insulator phase. The nature of the Dirac cone crosses over from 3D to 2D as the film thickness is reduced.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(9): 096401, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28306312

RESUMO

Honeycomb structures of group IV elements can host massless Dirac fermions with nontrivial Berry phases. Their potential for electronic applications has attracted great interest and spurred a broad search for new Dirac materials especially in monolayer structures. We present a detailed investigation of the ß_{12} sheet, which is a borophene structure that can form spontaneously on a Ag(111) surface. Our tight-binding analysis revealed that the lattice of the ß_{12} sheet could be decomposed into two triangular sublattices in a way similar to that for a honeycomb lattice, thereby hosting Dirac cones. Furthermore, each Dirac cone could be split by introducing periodic perturbations representing overlayer-substrate interactions. These unusual electronic structures were confirmed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and validated by first-principles calculations. Our results suggest monolayer boron as a new platform for realizing novel high-speed low-dissipation devices.

13.
ACS Nano ; 10(3): 3859-64, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26932368

RESUMO

We report on the fabrication of a two-dimensional topological insulator Bi(111) bilayer on Sb nanofilms via a sequential molecular beam epitaxy growth technique. Our angle-resolved photoemission measurements demonstrate the evolution of the electronic band structure of the heterostructure as a function of the film thickness and reveal the existence of a two-dimensional spinful massless electron gas within the top Bi bilayer. Interestingly, our first-principles calculation extrapolating the observed band structure shows that, by tuning down the thickness of the supporting Sb films into the quantum dimension regime, a pair of isolated topological edge states emerges in a partial energy gap at 0.32 eV above the Fermi level as a consequence of quantum confinement effect. Our results and methodology of fabricating nanoscale heterostructures establish the Bi bilayer/Sb heterostructure as a platform of great potential for both ultra-low-energy-cost electronics and surface-based spintronics.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(1): 726-35, 2016 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26672795

RESUMO

The surface cleansing treatment of non-natural cleavage planes of semiconductors is usually performed in vacuum using ion sputtering and subsequent annealing. In this Research Article, we report on the evolution of surface atomic structure caused by different ways of surface treatment as monitored by in situ core-level photoemission measurements of Cd-4d and Te-4d atomic levels and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Sputtering of surface increases the density of the dangling bonds by 50%. This feature and the less than ideal ordering can be detrimental to device applications. An effective approach is employed to improve the quality of this surface. One monolayer (ML) of Te grown by the method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on the target surface with heating at 300 °C effectively improves the surface quality as evidenced by the improved sharpness of RHEED pattern and a reduced diffuse background in the spectra measured by high-resolution ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (HRUPS). Calculations have been performed for various atomic geometries by employing first-principles geometry optimization. In conjunction with an analysis of the core level component intensities in terms the layer-attenuation model, we propose a "vacancy site" model of the modified 1 ML-Te/CdTe(111)A (2 × 2) surface.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(6): 066802, 2011 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21902356

RESUMO

Lattice match is important for epitaxial growth. We show that a competing mechanism, electronic match, can dominate at small film thicknesses for metal-semiconductor systems, where quantum confinement and symmetry requirements may favor a different growth pattern. For Pb(111) on Ge(111), an accidental lattice match leads to a √3 × âˆš3 configuration involving a 30° in-plane rotation at large film thicknesses, but it gives way to an incommensurate (1 × 1) configuration at small film thickness. The transformation follows an approximately inverse-film-thickness dependence with superimposed bilayer oscillations.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(23): 9342-5, 2011 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21597000

RESUMO

Many physical and chemical properties of the light rare-earths and actinides are governed by the active role of f electrons, and despite intensive efforts the details of the mechanisms of phase stability and transformation are not fully understood. A prominent example which has attracted a lot of interest, both experimentally and theoretically over the years is the isostructural γ - α transition in cerium. We have determined by inelastic X-ray scattering, the complete phonon dispersion scheme of elemental cerium across the γ → α transition, and compared it with theoretical results using ab initio lattice dynamics. Several phonon branches show strong changes in the dispersion shape, indicating large modifications in the interactions between phonons and conduction electrons. This is reflected as well by the lattice Grüneisen parameters, particularly around the X point. We derive a vibrational entropy change ΔS(γ-α)(vib) ≈ (0.33+/-0.03)k(B), illustrating the importance of the lattice contribution to the transition. Additionally, we compare first principles calculations with the experiments to shed light on the mechanism underlying the isostructural volume collapse in cerium under pressure.


Assuntos
Cério/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Modelos Químicos , Algoritmos , Cinética , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X/métodos
17.
Science ; 306(5703): 1900-1, 2004 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15591192
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