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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 167: 81-91, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We analyzed a cohort of patients with cancer and Sars-Cov-2 infection from the Veneto Oncology Network registry across two pandemic time periods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 761 patients with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. RESULTS: 198 patients were diagnosed during the first pandemic time period (TP1; February 2020 September 2020), 494 during TP2 before the vaccination campaign (TP2/pre-vaccination; September 2020-21 February 2021) and 69 in TP2/post-vaccination (22 February 2021-15 May 2021). TP2 vs TP1 patients were younger (p = 0.004), showed more frequently a good performance status (p < 0.001) and <2 comorbidities (p = 0.002), were more likely to be on active anticancer therapy (p = 0.006). Significantly fewer patients in TP2 (3-4%) vs TP1 (22%) had an in-hospital potential source of infection (p < 0.001). TP2 patients were more frequently asymptomatic (p = 0.003). Significantly fewer patients from TP2 were hospitalized (p < 0.001) or admitted to intensive care unit (p = 0.006). All-cause mortality decreased from 30.3% in TP1, to 8.9% and 8.7% in the two TP2 periods (p < 0.001), reflected by a significant reduction in Sars-Cov-2-related mortality (15.2%, 7.5% and 5.8% in the three consecutive time periods, p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in clinical characteristics and features of Sars-Cov-2 infection between TP1 and TP2 reflect the effects of protective measures and increased testing capacity. The lower mortality in TP2 is in line with a less frail population. However, the vast majority of death events in TP2 were related to COVID-19, reinforcing the priority to protect cancer patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Tumori ; : 3008916211069412, 2022 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular testing is crucial for the implementation of personalized therapy in patients with lung cancer. Whether routine biomarker testing and access to personalized therapies are limited in some Italian regions is unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a national cross-sectional survey between April and June 2019 among Italian oncologists to determine differences in biomarker testing and access to personalized therapies for lung cancer. RESULTS: Based on GIMBE report n. 3/2018, 32 respondents (37.6%) were defined as belonging to budget deficit regions (BDRs) while 53 (62.4%) were from balanced/positive budget regions (BPRs). Diagnostic assays for EGFR/ALK/ROS1 and PD-L1 were reported to be available in 47/53 (88.7%) and 22/32 (68.85%) centers from BPRs and BDRs, respectively (p=0.04).Liquid biopsy accessibility was wider in BPRs than in BDRs (75.5% (40/53) vs. 50% (16/32), respectively; p=0.03). 84/85 (98.8%) oncologists reported that ⩾75% of eligible patients received first-line targeted therapies. Reason for not administering first-line targeted therapies was defined as clinically-unrelated (molecular testing not available or incomplete, pharmacoeconomic issues) by 25/42 (59.5%) of respondents from BPRs and 21/26 (80.6%) from BDRs (p=0.12). Reason for not administering first-line pembrolizumab was defined as clinically-unrelated by 8/43 (18.6%) of respondents from BPRs and 10/22 (45.4%) from BDRs (p=0.039). CONCLUSION: Disparities in access to diagnostic assay and first line immunotherapy exist between BPRs and BDRs.

3.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 9, 2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062993

RESUMO

Family history of cancer (FHC) is a hallmark of cancer risk and an independent predictor of outcome, albeit with uncertain biologic foundations. We previously showed that FHC-high patients experienced prolonged overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) following PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. To validate our findings in patients with NSCLC, we evaluated two multicenter cohorts of patients with metastatic NSCLC receiving either first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy. From each cohort, 607 patients were randomly case-control matched accounting for FHC, age, performance status, and disease burden. Compared to FHC-low/negative, FHC-high patients experienced longer OS (HR 0.67 [95% CI 0.46-0.95], p = 0.0281), PFS (HR 0.65 [95% CI 0.48-0.89]; p = 0.0074) and higher disease control rates (DCR, 86.4% vs 67.5%, p = 0.0096), within the pembrolizumab cohort. No significant associations were found between FHC and OS/PFS/DCR within the chemotherapy cohort. We explored the association between FHC and somatic DNA damage response (DDR) gene alterations as underlying mechanism to our findings in a parallel cohort of 118 NSCLC, 16.9% of whom were FHC-high. The prevalence of ≥ 1 somatic DDR gene mutation was 20% and 24.5% (p = 0.6684) in FHC-high vs. FHC-low/negative, with no differences in tumor mutational burden (6.0 vs. 7.6 Mut/Mb, p = 0.6018) and tumor cell PD-L1 expression. FHC-high status identifies NSCLC patients with improved outcomes from pembrolizumab but not chemotherapy, independent of somatic DDR gene status. Prospective studies evaluating FHC alongside germline genetic testing are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Central nervous system (CNS) metastases are a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with ALK-positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The phase 2 ASCEND-7 (NCT02336451) study was specifically designed to assess the efficacy and safety of ALK inhibitor (ALKi) ceritinib in patients with ALK+ NSCLC metastatic to the brain and/or leptomeninges. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with active brain metastases were allocated to study arms 1-4 based on prior exposure to an ALKi and/or prior brain radiation (arm 1: prior radiotherapy/ALKi-pretreated; arm 2: no radiotherapy/ALKi-pretreated; arm 3: prior radiotherapy/ALKi-naive; arm 4: no radiotherapy/ALKi-naive). Arm 5 included patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Patients received ceritinib 750 mg once daily (fasted condition). Primary endpoint was investigator-assessed whole-body overall response rate (ORR) per RECIST v1.1. Secondary endpoints included disease control rate (DCR) and intracranial/extracranial responses. RESULTS: Per investigator assessment, in arms 1 (n=42), 2 (n=40), 3 (n=12), and 4 (n=44), respectively: whole-body ORRs (95% CI) were 35.7% (21.6-52.0), 30.0% (16.6-46.5), 50.0% (21.1-78.9), and 59.1% (43.2-73.7); whole-body DCR (95% CI): 66.7% (50.5-80.4), 82.5% (67.2-92.7), 66.7% (34.9-90.1), and 70.5% (54.8-83.2); intracranial ORRs (95% CI): 39.3% (21.5-59.4), 27.6% (12.7-47.2), 28.6% (3.7-71.0), and 51.5% (33.5-69.2). In arm 5 (n=18), whole-body ORR was 16.7% (95% CI, 3.6-41.4) and DCR was 66.7% (95% CI, 41.0-86.7). Paired cerebrospinal fluid and plasma sampling revealed that ceritinib penetrated the human blood-brain barrier. CONCLUSIONS: Ceritinib showed antitumor activity in patients with ALK+ NSCLC with active brain metastases and/or leptomeningeal disease, and could be considered in the management of intracranial disease.

5.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 71(4): 865-874, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of early immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon immunotherapy is not fully understood. METHODS: The Leading to Treatment Discontinuation cohort included 24 patients experiencing severe irAEs after one of two administrations of single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting for metastatic NSCLC between November 2015 and June 2019. The control cohort was composed of 526 patients treated with single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting with no severe irAE reported. The primary end points were median progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, risk of progression of disease and risk of death. The correlation of clinic pathological features with early severe irAEs represented the secondary end point. RESULTS: Median PFS was 9.3 and 8.4 months, median OS was 12.0 months and 14.2 months at a median follow-up of 18.1 and 22.6 months in the LTD cohort and in the control cohort, respectively. The ORR was 40% (95% CI 17.2-78.8) in the LTD cohort and 32.7% (95% CI 27.8-38.2) in the control cohort. The risk of disease progression was higher in the LTD cohort (HR 2.52 [95% 1.10-5.78], P = .0288). CONCLUSIONS: We found no survival benefit in LTD cohort compared to the control cohort. However, early and severe irAEs might underly an immune anti-tumor activation. We identified a significant association with first-line immune checkpoints inhibitors treatment and good PS. Further studies on risk prediction and management of serious and early irAEs in NSCLC patients are needed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Thorac Cancer ; 13(3): 483-488, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) ≥50% metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) and ECOG performance status (PS) of 2 treated with first-line immunotherapy have heterogeneous clinical assessment and outcomes. METHODS: To explore the role of immune-inflammatory surrogates by the validated lung immuno-oncology prognostic score (LIPS) score, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the pretreatment use of steroids, alongside other prognostic variables. A retrospective analysis of 128 patients with PS2 and PD-L1 ≥50% mNSCLC treated between April 2018 and September 2019 with first-line pembrolizumab in a real-world setting was performed. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 15.3 months, the 1-year overall survival (OS) and median progression-free survival (PFS) were 32.3% (95% CI: 30.9-33.9) and 3.3 months (95% CI: 1.8-4.7), respectively. The NLR, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pretreatment steroids results were the only significant prognostic factors on the univariate analysis and independent prognostic factors by the multivariate analysis on both OS and PFS. The LIPS score, including the NLR and pretreatment steroids, identified 29 (23%) favourable-risk patients, with 0 factors, 1-year OS of 67.6% and median PFS of 8.2 months; 57 (45%) intermediate-risk patients, with 1 factor, 1-year OS 32.1% and median PFS 2.7 months; 42 (33%) poor-risk patients, with both factors, 1-year OS of 10.7% and median PFS of 1.2 months. CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of pre-existing imbalance of the host immune response by combined blood and clinical immune-inflammatory markers may represent a way to unravel the heterogeneous outcome and assessment of patients with mNSCLC and poor PS in the immune-oncology setting.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103567, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896250

RESUMO

The development of innovative technologies and the advances in the genetics and genomics, have offered new opportunities for personalized treatment in oncology. Although the selection of the patient based on the molecular characteristics of the neoplasm has the potential to revolutionize the therapeutic scenario of oncology, this approach is extremely challenging. The access, homogeneity, and economic sustainability of the required genomic tests should be warranted in the clinical practice, as well as the specific scientific and clinical expertise for the choice of medical therapies. All these elements make essential the collaboration of different specialists within the Molecular Tumor Boards (MTBs). In this position paper, based on experts' opinion, the AIOM-SIAPEC/IAP-SIBioC-SIC-SIF-SIGU-SIRM Italian Scientific Societies critically discuss the available molecular profiling technologies, the proposed criteria for the selection of patients candidate for evaluation by the MTB, the criteria for the selection and analysis of biological samples, and the regulatory and pharmaco-economic issues.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sociedades Científicas , Genômica , Humanos , Itália , Oncologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética
8.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 2(2): 100114, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589984

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The TIGER-3 (NCT02322281) study was initiated to compare the efficacy and safety of rociletinib, a third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that targets EGFR T790M and common EGFR-activating mutations, versus chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC who progressed on first- or second-generation EGFR TKIs. METHODS: Patients with advanced or metastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC with disease progression on standard therapy (previous EGFR TKI and platinum-based chemotherapy) were randomized to oral rociletinib (500 or 625 mg twice daily) or single-agent chemotherapy (pemetrexed, gemcitabine, docetaxel, or paclitaxel). RESULTS: Enrollment was halted when rociletinib development was discontinued in 2016. Of 149 enrolled patients, 75 were randomized to rociletinib (n = 53: 500 mg twice daily; n = 22: 625 mg twice daily) and 74 to chemotherapy. The median investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6-5.4) in the rociletinib 500-mg group and 5.5 months (95% CI: 1.8-8.1) in the 625-mg group versus 2.5 months (95% CI: 1.4-2.9) in the chemotherapy group. An improved PFS was observed in patients with T790M-positive NSCLC treated with rociletinib (n = 25; 500 mg and 625 mg twice daily) versus chemotherapy (n = 20; 6.8 versus 2.7 mo; hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.28-1.07, p = 0.074). Grade 3 or higher hyperglycemia (24.0%), corrected QT prolongation (6.7%), diarrhea (2.7%), and vomiting (1.3%) were more frequent with rociletinib than chemotherapy (0%, 0%, 1.4%, and 0%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Rociletinib had a more favorable median PFS versus chemotherapy but had higher rates of hyperglycemia and corrected QT prolongation in patients with advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC who progressed on previous EGFR TKI. Incomplete enrollment prevented evaluation of the primary efficacy end point.

9.
Oncologist ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424565

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: Osimertinib has confirmed effectiveness in this real-world population of patients with EGFR-mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Thromboembolic events occur more frequently than previously reported, suggesting a thrombotic diathesis that requires further investigation. Patients with at least three metastatic sites, brain metastases, and symptoms at diagnosis seem to have a worse prognosis. BACKGROUND: Osimertinib became the standard treatment for patients with untreated EGFR-mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) following results reported in the phase III randomized FLAURA trial. Because of strict exclusion criteria, patient populations included in pivotal trials are only partially representative of real-world patients. METHODS: We designed an observational, prospective, multicenter study enrolling patients with EGFR-mutant aNSCLC receiving first-line osimertinib to evaluate effectiveness, safety, and progression patterns in the real-world. RESULTS: At data cutoff, 126 White patients from nine oncology centers were included. At diagnosis, 16 patients (12.7%) had a performance status (PS) ≥2 and 38 (30.2%) had brain metastases. Overall response rate (ORR) was 73%, disease control rate (DCR) 96.0%. After a median follow-up of 12.3 months, median time to treatment discontinuation (mTTD) was 25.3 months, median progression-free-survival (mPFS) was 18.9 months and median overall survival (mOS) was not reached (NR). One hundred and ten patients (87%) experienced adverse events (AEs), 42 (33%) of grade 3-4, with venous thromboembolism (VTE) as the most common (n = 10, 7.9%). No difference in rates of VTE was reported according to age, PS, comorbidity, and tumor load. We observed longer mTTD in patients without symptoms (NR vs. 18.8 months) and with fewer than three metastatic sites at diagnosis (NR vs. 21.4 months). Patients without brain metastases experienced longer mPFS (NR vs. 13.3 months). No difference in survival outcome was observed according to age, comorbidity, and type of EGFR mutation. Isolated progression and progression in fewer than three sites were associated with longer time to treatment discontinuation (TTD). CONCLUSION: Osimertinib confirmed effectiveness and safety in the real world, although thromboembolism was more frequent than previously reported.

10.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 165: 103436, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371157

RESUMO

The personalized medicine is in a rapidly evolving scenario. The identification of actionable mutations is revolutionizing the therapeutic landscape of tumors. The morphological and histological tumor features are enriched by the extensive genomic profiling, and the first tumor-agnostic drugs have been approved regardless of tumor histology, guided by predictive and druggable genetic alterations. This new paradigm of "mutational oncology", presents a great potential to change the oncologic therapeutic scenario, but also some critical aspects need to be underlined. A process governance is mandatory to ensure the genomic testing accuracy and homogeneity, the economic sustainability, and the regulatory issues, ultimately granting the possibility of translating this model in the "real world". In this position paper, based on experts' opinion, the AIOM-SIAPEC-IAP-SIBIOC-SIF Italian Scientific Societies revised the new agnostic biomarkers, the diagnostic technologies available, the current availability of agnostic drugs and their present indication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sociedades Científicas , Humanos , Itália , Oncologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Medicina de Precisão
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209514

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of lung cancer. However, their clinical benefit is limited to a minority of patients. To unravel immune-related factors that are predictive of sensitivity or resistance to immunotherapy, we performed a gene expression analysis by RNA-Seq using the Oncomine Immuno Response Assay (OIRRA) on a total of 33 advanced NSCLC patients treated with ICI evaluating the expression levels of 365 immune-related genes. We found four genes (CD1C, HLA-DPA1, MMP2, and TLR7) downregulated (p < 0.05) and two genes (IFNB1 and MKI67) upregulated (p < 0.05) in ICI-Responders compared to ICI-Non-Responders. The Bayesian enrichment computational analysis showed a more complex interaction network that involved 10 other genes (IFNA1, TLR4, CD40, TLR2, IL12A, IL12B, TLR9, CD1E, IFNG, and HLA-DPB1) correlated with different functional groups. Five main pathways were identified (FDR < 0.0001). High TLR7 expression levels were significantly associated with a lack of response to immunotherapy (p < 0.0001) and worse outcome in terms of both PFS (p < 0.001) and OS (p = 0.03). The multivariate analysis confirmed TLR7 RNA expression as an independent predictor for both poor PFS (HR = 2.97, 95% CI, 1.16-7.6, p = 0.023) and OS (HR = 2.2, 95% CI, 1-5.08, p = 0.049). In conclusion, a high TLR7 gene expression level was identified as an independent predictor for poor clinical benefits from ICI. These data could have important implications for the development of novel single/combinatorial strategies TLR-mediated for an efficient selection of "individualized" treatments for NSCLC in the era of immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Imunoterapia , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/classificação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Oncologist ; 26(10): e1854-e1861, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce the overall exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy, we evaluated the noninferiority of DEX on day 1, with or without low-dose DEX on days 2 and 3, combined with an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA), compared with the guideline-consistent use of 4-day DEX. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this open-label, multicenter study, chemotherapy-naïve patients undergoing high-dose cisplatin (≥70 mg/m2 ), were given NEPA and DEX (12 mg) on day 1 and randomized (1:1:1 ratio) to receive either (a) no further DEX (DEX1), (b) oral DEX (4 mg daily) on days 2-3 (DEX3), or (c) DEX (4 mg twice daily) on days 2-4 (DEX4). The primary efficacy endpoint was complete response (CR: no emesis and no rescue medication) during the 5-day overall phase. The noninferiority margin was set at -15% difference (DEX1 or DEX3 minus DEX4). Secondary efficacy endpoints included complete protection (CP: CR and none or mild nausea). RESULTS: Two-hundred twenty-eight patients, 76 in each arm, were assessable. Noninferiority was met for both DEX-sparing regimens and the reference arm, with overall phase CR rates of 76.3% in each of the DEX1 and DEX3 arms and 75.0% in the DEX4 arm (95% confidence interval, -12.3% to 15% for each comparison). During the overall phase, CP rates were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: A simplified regimen of NEPA plus single-dose DEX offers comparable chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prevention throughout 5 days post-chemotherapy with the advantage of sparing patients additional doses of DEX in the high-emetic-risk setting of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Dexamethasone (DEX) has traditionally played an integral role in the management of chemotherapy-induced emesis. Although generally considered safe, even short-term DEX use is associated with various side effects, and some evidence suggests that concurrent steroids may reduce the efficacy of immunotherapies. This study demonstrates comparable antiemetic control during the 5 days post-chemotherapy with a simplified regimen of netupitant/palonosetron plus single-dose DEX versus the standard 4-day DEX reference treatment in high-dose cisplatin. This represents a clinically relevant achievement as it not only simplifies antiemetic prophylaxis but also offers an opportunity to appropriately use in patients where caution with corticosteroid use is advised.


Assuntos
Antieméticos , Cisplatino , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona , Humanos , Palonossetrom/uso terapêutico , Piridinas , Quinuclidinas , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico , Vômito/prevenção & controle
13.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 270, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The favourable safety profile and the increasing confidence with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) might have boosted their prescription in frail patients with short life expectancies, who usually are not treated with standard chemotherapy. METHODS: The present analysis aims to describe clinicians' attitudes towards ICIs administration during late stages of life within a multicenter cohort of advanced cancer patients treated with single agent PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in Italy. RESULTS: Overall, 1149 patients with advanced cancer who received single agent PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors were screened. The final study population consisted of 567 deceased patients. 166 patients (29.3%) had received ICIs within 30 days of death; among them there was a significantly higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (28.3% vs 11.5%, p < 0.0001) and with a higher burden of disease (69.3% vs 59.4%, p = 0.0266). In total, 35 patients (6.2%) started ICIs within 30 days of death; among them there was a higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (45.7% vs 14.5%, p < 0.0001) and with a higher burden of disease (82.9% vs 60.9%, p = 0.0266). Primary tumors were significantly different across subgroups (p = 0.0172), with a higher prevalence of NSCLC patients (80% vs 60.9%) among those who started ICIs within 30 days of death. Lastly, 123 patients (21.7%) started ICIs within 3 months of death. Similarly, within this subgroup there was a higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (29.3% vs 12.8%, p < 0.0001), with a higher burden of disease (74.0% vs 59.0%, p = 0.0025) and with NSCLC (74.0% vs 58.8%, p = 0.0236). CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed a trend toward an increasing ICIs prescription in frail patients, during the late stages of life. Caution should be exercised when evaluating an ICI treatment for patients with a poor PS and a high burden of disease.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
14.
Radiol Med ; 126(8): 1117-1128, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954898

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Almost 30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have locally advanced-stage disease. In this setting, definitive radiotherapy concurrent to chemotherapy plus adjuvant immunotherapy (cCRT + IO) is the standard of care, although only 40% of these patients are eligible for this approach. AIMS: A comparison between cCRT and hypofractionated radiotherapy regimens (hypo-fx RT) with the addition of sequential chemotherapy (sCHT) could be useful for future combinations with immunotherapy. We developed a recommendation about the clinical question of whether CHT and moderately hypo-fx RT are comparable to cCRT for locally advanced NSCLC MATERIALS AND METHODS: The panel used GRADE methodology and the Evidence to Decision (EtD) framework. After a systematic literature search, five studies were eligible. We identified the following outcomes: progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), freedom from locoregional recurrence (FFLR), deterioration of quality of life (QoL), treatment-related deaths, severe G3-G4 toxicity, late pulmonary toxicity G3-G4, and acute esophageal toxicity G3-G4. RESULTS: The probability of OS and G3-G4 late lung toxicity seems to be worse in patients submitted to sCHT and hypo-fx RT. The panel judged unfavorable the balance benefits/harms. CONCLUSIONS: The final recommendation was that sCHT followed by moderately hypo-fx RT should not be considered as an alternative to cCRT in unresectable stage III NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 224-231, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated the cumulative poor prognostic role of concomitant medications on the clinical outcome of patients with advanced cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, creating and validating a drug-based prognostic score to be calculated before immunotherapy initiation in patients with advanced solid tumours. This 'drug score' was calculated assigning score 1 for each between proton-pump inhibitor and antibiotic administration until a month before cancer therapy initiation and score 2 in case of corticosteroid intake. The good risk group included patients with score 0, intermediate risk with score 1-2 and poor risk with score 3-4. METHODS: Aiming at validating the prognostic and putative predictive ability depending on the anticancer therapy, we performed the present comparative analysis in two cohorts of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), respectively, receiving first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy through a random case-control matching and through a pooled multivariable analysis including the interaction between the computed score and the therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy). RESULTS: Nine hundred fifty and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. After the case-control random matching, 589 patients from the pembrolizumab cohort and 589 from the chemotherapy cohort were paired, with no statistically significant differences between the characteristics of the matched subjects. Among the pembrolizumab-treated group, good, intermediate and poor risk evaluable patients achieved an objective response rate (ORR) of 50.0%, 37.7% and 23.4%, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated group, patients achieved an ORR of 37.0%, 40.0% and 32.4%, respectively (p = 0.4346). The median progression-free survival (PFS) of good, intermediate and poor risk groups was 13.9 months, 6.3 months and 2.8 months, respectively, within the pembrolizumab cohort (p < 0.0001), and 6.2 months, 6.2 months and 4.3 months, respectively, within the chemotherapy cohort (p = 0.0280). Among the pembrolizumab-treated patients, the median overall survival (OS) for good, intermediate and poor risk patients was 31.4 months, 14.5 months and 5.8 months, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated patients, it was 18.3 months, 16.8 months and 10.6 months, respectively (p = 0.0003). A similar trend was reported considering the two entire populations. At the pooled analysis, the interaction term between the score and the therapeutic modality was statistically significant with respect to ORR (p = 0.0052), PFS (p = 0.0003) and OS (p < 0.0001), confirming the significantly different effect of the score within the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our 'drug score' showed a predictive ability with respect to ORR in the immunotherapy cohort only, suggesting it might be a useful tool for identifying patients unlikely to benefit from first-line single-agent pembrolizumab. In addition, the prognostic stratification in terms of PFS and OS was significantly more pronounced among the pembrolizumab-treated patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Polimedicação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922388

RESUMO

The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) degrade tryptophan (Trp) into kynurenine (Kyn) at the initial step of an enzymatic pathway affecting T cell proliferation. IDO1 is highly expressed in various cancer types and associated with poor prognosis. Nevertheless, the serum Kyn/Trp concentration ratio has been suggested as a marker of cancer-associated immune suppression. We measured Kyn and Trp in blood samples of a wide cohort of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, before they underwent surgery, and analyzed possible correlations of the Kyn/Trp ratio with either IDO1 expression or clinical-pathological parameters. Low Kyn/Trp significantly correlated with low IDO1 expression and never-smoker patients; while high Kyn/Trp was significantly associated with older (≥68 years) patients, advanced tumor stage, and squamous cell carcinoma (Sqcc), rather than the adenocarcinoma (Adc) histotype. Moreover, high Kyn/Trp was associated, among the Adc group, with higher tumor stages (II and III), and, among the Sqcc group, with a high density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. A trend correlating the high Kyn/Trp ratio with the probability of recurrences from NSCLC was also found. In conclusion, high serum Kyn/Trp ratio, associated with clinical and histopathological parameters, may serve as a serum biomarker to optimize risk stratification and therapy of NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Cinurenina/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Triptofano/sangue , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/sangue , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Tumori ; : 3008916211004733, 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of radiotherapy (RT) and programmed death 1 inhibitors seems to increase antitumor immune responses. OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcome and the role of the best combination sequence, i.e. immunotherapy given before, during, and/or after RT, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We conducted an observational, retrospective analysis of 95 consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC who received any radiotherapy treatment and nivolumab, as clinically indicated. Median overall survival (OS) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox model was used to obtain hazard ratio (HR) and associated 95% CI with statistical inference by log-rank statistic. RESULTS: Median OS was 11.9 months (95% CI, 6.6-17.2). Patients who received radiotherapy during an immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment started more than 60 days before showed a better outcome than patients who started immunotherapy over 60 days after RT ending (HR, 2.90 [1.37-6.12], p = 0.005; median OS, 22.4 months vs 8.6 months, p = 0.005). Median progression-free survival was 6.3 months (95% CI, 4.6-8.0). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that combining irradiation with nivolumab for the treatment of advanced NSCLC leads to improved OS. The optimal time window for the combination of RT and immunotherapy seems to play a critical role for therapeutic antitumor response derived by abscopal effect.

18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some concomitant medications including antibiotics (ATB) have been reproducibly associated with worse survival following immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in unselected patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (according to programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and treatment line). Whether such relationship is causative or associative is matter of debate. METHODS: We present the outcomes analysis according to concomitant baseline medications (prior to ICI initiation) with putative immune-modulatory effects in a large cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC with a PD-L1 expression ≥50%, receiving first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy. We also evaluated a control cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC treated with first-line chemotherapy. The interaction between key medications and therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy) was validated in pooled multivariable analyses. RESULTS: 950 and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. Corticosteroid and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy but not ATB therapy was associated with poorer performance status at baseline in both the cohorts. No association with clinical outcomes was found according to baseline statin, aspirin, ß-blocker and metformin within the pembrolizumab cohort. On the multivariable analysis, ATB emerged as a strong predictor of worse overall survival (OS) (HR=1.42 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.79); p=0.0024), and progression free survival (PFS) (HR=1.29 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.59); p=0.0192) in the pembrolizumab but not in the chemotherapy cohort. Corticosteroids were associated with shorter PFS (HR=1.69 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.03); p<0.0001), and OS (HR=1.93 (95% CI 1.59 to 2.35); p<0.0001) following pembrolizumab, and shorter PFS (HR=1.30 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.56), p=0.0046) and OS (HR=1.58 (95% CI 1.29 to 1.94), p<0.0001), following chemotherapy. PPIs were associated with worse OS (HR=1.49 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.77); p<0.0001) with pembrolizumab and shorter OS (HR=1.12 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.24), p=0.0139), with chemotherapy. At the pooled analysis, there was a statistically significant interaction with treatment (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy) for corticosteroids (p=0.0020) and PPIs (p=0.0460) with respect to OS, for corticosteroids (p<0.0001), ATB (p=0.0290), and PPIs (p=0.0487) with respect to PFS, and only corticosteroids (p=0.0033) with respect to objective response rate. CONCLUSION: In this study, we validate the significant negative impact of ATB on pembrolizumab monotherapy but not chemotherapy outcomes in NSCLC, producing further evidence about their underlying immune-modulatory effect. Even though the magnitude of the impact of corticosteroids and PPIs is significantly different across the cohorts, their effects might be driven by adverse disease features.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Gustave Roussy Immune (GRIm)-Score takes into account neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), serum albumin concentration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its prognostic value has been investigated in patients treated with immune check-point inhibitors (ICIs). To further assess the prognostic and predictive value of baseline GRIm-Score (GRImT0) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients, we separately investigated two cohorts of patients treated with first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy. We also investigated whether GRIm-Score at 45 days since treatment initiation (GRImT1) and GRIm-Score difference between the two timepoints may better predict clinical outcomes (GRImΔ = GRImT0 - GRImT1). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 222 aNSCLC patients: 135 treated with pembrolizumab and 87 treated with chemotherapy as the first-line regimen. NLR, serum albumin and LDH concentrations were assessed at T0 and at T1. According to the GRIm-Score, patients were assigned 1 point if they had NLR > 6, LDH > upper limit normal or albumin < 3.5 g/dL. Patients with a GRIm-Score < 2 were considered as having a low Score. RESULTS: In both cohorts, no difference in terms of overall survival (OS) between patients with low and high GRImT0 was found. Otherwise, median OS and progression free survival (PFS) of the low GRImT1 group were significantly longer than those of the high GRImT1 group in pembrolizumab-treated patients, but not in the CHT cohort (pembrolizumab cohort: low vs. high; median OS not reached vs. 9.2 months, p = 0.004; median PFS 10.8 vs. 2.3 months, p = 0.002). Patients receiving pembrolizumab with stable/positive GRImΔ had better OS (median OS not reached vs. 12.0 months, p < 0.001), PFS (median PFS 20.6 vs. 2.6 months, p < 0.001) and objective response rate (58.2% vs. 7.6%, p = 0.003) compared to patients with negative GRImΔ. CONCLUSION: Our data shown that GRImT1 and GRImΔ are more reliable peripheral blood biomarkers of outcome compared to GRImT0 in aNSCLC patients treated with pembrolizumab and might represent useful biomarkers to drive clinical decisions in this setting.

20.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671892

RESUMO

Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is a predictive biomarker of the success of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but its role as a prognostic marker for early-stage resectable NSCLC remains unclear. We studied gene expression levels of immune-related genes PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2, IDO-1, IDO-2 and INFγ in tumor tissue of surgically resected NSCLC and correlated the finding with clinicopathological features and patient outcomes. A total of 191 consecutive early-stage NSCLC patients who underwent curative pulmonary resection were studied. The mRNA expression levels of immune-related genes were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays (Qiagen). PD-1, PD-L2 and IDO-2 gene expression levels were significantly higher in patients with squamous histology (p = 0.001, p = 0.021 and p < 0.001; respectively). PD-1, PD-L1 and IDO-2 gene expression levels were significantly higher in patients with higher stage (p = 0.005, p = 0.048 and p = 0.002, respectively). The univariate analysis for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) showed that patients with higher levels of three-genes (PD-L1/PD-L2/INFγ) (hazard ratio (HR)) 1.90 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-3.21), p = 0.015) were associated with a worse RFS, while patients with higher levels of both genes (PD-L1/IDO-2) or (PD-L2/IDO-1) were associated with a worse OS (HR 1.63 95% CI, 1.06-2.51, p = 0.024; HR 1.54 95% CI, 1.02-2.33, p = 0.04; respectively). The multivariate interaction model adjusted for histology and stage confirmed that higher levels of three genes (PD-L1/PD-L2/INFγ) were significantly associated with worse RFS (HR 1.98, p = 0.031) and higher levels of both genes (PD-L1/IDO-2) and (PD-L2/IDO-1) with worse OS (HR 1.98, p = 0.042, HR 1.92, p = 0.022). PD-L1/IDO-2 and PD-L2/IDO-1 co-expression high levels are independent negative prognostic factors for survival in early NSCLC. These features may have important implications for future immune-checkpoint therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/genética , Proteína 2 Ligante de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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