Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 33
Filtrar
1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(17): 11805-11813, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388337

RESUMO

This study focuses on estimating the probabilistic soil and dust ingestion rates for children under 3 years old by the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Soil and Dust (SHEDS-S/D) model developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The health risk of children's exposure to heavy metals through soil and dust ingestion and dermal absorption was then assessed in three exposure scenarios. In the exposure scenario of direct contact with soil, the average soil and dust ingestion rates for children aged 24 to 36 months were 90.7 and 29.8 mg day-1 in the sand and clay groups, respectively. Hand-to-mouth soil ingestion was identified as the main contributor to soil and dust ingestion rates, followed by hand-to-mouth dust ingestion and object-to-mouth dust ingestion. The soil-to-skin adherence factor was the most influential factor increasing the soil and dust ingestion rate based on a sensitivity analysis in the SHEDS-S/D model. Furthermore, the modeled soil and dust ingestion rates based on the SHEDS-S/D model were coincident with results calculated by the tracer element method. Our estimates highlight the soil ingestion rate as the key parameter increasing the risk for children, while a higher frequency of hand washing could potentially reduce the risk.


Assuntos
Poeira , Solo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poeira/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Taiwan
2.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117288, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984777

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) exposure increases the risks of neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Child-specific activities and land use scenarios may lead to elevated opportunities for Pb exposure through the soil. Therefore, we investigated hair and fingernail Pb concentrations among young children in northern Taiwan, in relation to soil Pb pollution and land use characteristics. We also explored the effect of the Pb exposure burden and land use scenarios on neurobehavioral development. In total, 139 healthy children under 3 years of age were recruited in October 2011 to April 2014. Pb levels in hair and fingernail samples were determined using an inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometer. Pb concentrations in soils and land use types surrounding the children's homes were accessed by a geographic information system to identify any associations with hair Pb levels. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) were used to evaluate the cognitive, language, and motor development of the children. A multivariable regression model was performed to assess the effects of soil Pb levels and land-use status on Pb exposure in children, as well as associations of Pb exposure and land-use scenarios with neurodevelopmental abilities. Geometric mean Pb concentrations in hair, fingernails, and soil were 2.9 ± 4.8 µg/g, 0.8 ± 5.1 µg/g, and 20.8 ± 4.3 mg/kg, respectively. The multivariable analysis indicated that soil Pb concentrations and green areas around residences had potential links with Pb exposure among children in northern Taiwan. Hair Pb concentrations were negatively associated with expressive language scores. Soil Pb exposure was positively associated with hair Pb concentrations. Land use types around the children's homes in northern Taiwan were associated with their neurodevelopment. Increased green areas were negatively associated with hair Pb concentrations. Living near a highway may have had negative impacts on gross motor scores. A healthy residence can avoid potential health risks for children during their early life.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Poluentes do Solo , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Taiwan
3.
Environ Res ; 197: 111168, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have investigated the associations of child development with air pollution, land-use type, and maternal mental health simultaneously. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of exposure to air pollutants during several critical periods of life, with adjustment for land-use type and maternal mental status, on child development at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in the Greater Taipei area. METHODS: Participants were selected from an ongoing Taiwanese birth cohort study. We analyzed the data of the participants who had been recruited from January 2011 to April 2014. Self-administered standardized questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic factors, infant development and health, maternal mental status, etc. Air pollution levels in pre- and postnatal periods were estimated using a spatial interpolation technique (ordinary kriging) at children's residential addresses. Land-use types around participants' homes were evaluated using buffer analysis. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the relationships between child development delay and environmental factors. RESULTS: In total, 228, 361, and 441 families completed child development forms at 6, 12, and 24 months of age, respectively. Our results indicated that prenatal exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm and O3 and postnatal exposure to NO2 were negatively associated with child development. Traffic-related land-use types, gas stations, and power generation areas around participants' homes were also adversely correlated with child development. Moreover, poor maternal mental health was associated with child development delay. CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure and postnatal exposure to air pollution were associated with development delay in children under 2 years of age, specifically those under 1 year of age, even after adjustment for land-use type and maternal mental status. Living environment is critical for the development of children under 2 years of age.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde Materna , Saúde Mental , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141579, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of environmental factors on birth outcomes is crucial for public health because newborns' birth size affects their likelihood of childhood survival, risk of perinatal morbidity, and subsequent health and growth. Therefore, we investigated the associations of birth outcomes with prenatal air pollutant exposure and residential land use characteristics in the Greater Taipei Area. METHODS: Participants were selected from the Longitudinal Examination across Prenatal and Postpartum Health in Taiwan study, which is an ongoing prospective study launched in July 2011. Parental sociodemographic data and medical histories were collected using standardized questionnaires. Mean air pollutant levels during each trimester were estimated using the spatial interpolation technique (Ordinary Kriging). Land use types surrounding participants' homes were evaluated within a designated radius of their residential addresses. We used multiple regressions to examine relationships between birth outcomes (i.e., birth weight, height, and head circumference) and environmental factors after adjustment for parental characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 436 pregnant women-infant pairs were included. Birth weight was negatively associated with commercial land and greenhouse areas near the residence. Living near greenhouse areas negatively affected birth height, but higher greenness level within 100 m of the residence had a positive effect. Birth head circumference was only associated with sociodemographic factors in the multivariate model. CONCLUSION: Land use types near the homes of pregnant women, but not exposure to air pollutants, were significantly associated with birth weight and height in the Greater Taipei Area. Increased greenness level was positively associated with birth height, and living near commercial or greenhouse areas had adverse effects on birth outcomes. Living in a healthy neighborhood is critical for the birth outcomes of infants and presumably their health in early childhood.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 714: 136761, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982757

RESUMO

Serpentine minerals with high levels of geologic chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) and non-serpentine farmlands polluted by irrigation water causing high anthropogenic Cr and Ni levels are both found in Taiwan. Elevated levels of Cr and Ni in these soils are a concern due to their potential to promote cancer mortality in humans. Bioaccessibility is a crucial factor determining the actual health risk via oral ingestion when children are exposed to metal-contaminated soils. Furthermore, the bioaccessibility of metals varies with the source, soil properties, and fractionation of metals in the soil. Therefore in this study, soil pH, total organic carbon (TOC), texture, and the total concentrations, fractionation, and bioaccessibility of Cr and Ni were analyzed and correlated for soils collected from serpentine mineral-containing deposits and contaminated non-serpentine farmlands. The low bioaccessibility and low mobility of Cr and Ni in serpentine soils suggested that incidental ingesting of soils posed a low health risk; however, the higher bioaccessibility and mobility of Ni in non-serpentine soils contaminated by electroplating wastewater could lead to potential risks for humans. Additionally, a significant difference in the bioaccessibility of Ni was observed between serpentine and non-serpentine soils, but this was not shown for Cr. Accordingly, a correlation analysis showed that Cr bioaccessibility was positively correlated with TOC, with no distinction between serpentine and non-serpentine soils. In contrast, TOC and the fractions of the sequential extraction procedure were significantly correlated with Ni bioaccessibility both in anthropogenically contaminated non-serpentine soils and in natural serpentine soils.


Assuntos
Solo , Cromo , Níquel , Poluentes do Solo , Taiwan
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19425-19433, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077049

RESUMO

Declining human sperm quality has been demonstrated in several recent studies. Age, environmental factors, and nutritional factors can affect semen quality. Mercury (Hg) is considered a male reproductive toxicant. Animal studies indicated that exposure to Hg can cause DNA damage, sperm dysfunction, and decreased sperm motility. Some previous studies also revealed that blood Hg levels in infertile or subfertile males were higher than those in normal males. In this study, we recruited 84 male participants from a reproductive medical center and investigated the Hg, lead, and selenium levels in blood and seminal plasma. Participants were divided into two groups, low- and high-quality semen groups, according to the World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics. The distribution of blood reproductive hormones and information on participants' lifestyle and medical history were collected from structured questionnaires. Average Hg levels in blood were 9.3±5.9 versus 8.9±5.9 and in seminal plasma were 1.26±0.61 versus 1.05±0.52 µg/L in the low- and high-quality semen groups, respectively. There was a dose-dependent relationship between blood Hg levels and normal sperm morphology (p=0.02). Participants with predatory fish intake and high blood Hg level had lower sperm with a normal morphology. Therefore, predatory fish intake may be a critical risk factor for elevated Hg levels in males and cause low semen quality.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/sangue , Alimentos Marinhos , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Gravidez , Sêmen/química , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/patologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(17): 17762-17773, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030402

RESUMO

In Taiwan, because of the co-use of some irrigation and drainage canals, a portion of industrial wastewater was directly discharged into irrigation canals or even flowed into rivers or wetlands, causing the heavy metal pollution in waters and sediments. Mercury (Hg) contamination in rivers, irrigation canals, and wetlands has been found in Taiwan, but a thorough investigation on the distribution of Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) in these waters and sediments, which may be present in a greater level with elevating total Hg (THg) concentration and markedly impact human health, is still lacking. In this study, surface waters and surface sediments were sampled from five major rivers, two irrigation canals, two reservoirs, and one wetland in Taiwan, and their THg and MeHg concentrations were quantified. Additionally, statistical analysis was carried out to understand the relationship between sediment properties and MeHg levels. The results showed that irrigation canal sediments were relatively more polluted by Hg and the THg concentrations of some sampling points exceeded the upper limit (i.e., 0.87 mg kg-1) of sediment quality index (SQI) for THg promulgated by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, which may be attributed to the co-use of irrigation and drainage canals. Furthermore, the MeHg concentration in irrigation canal sediments was the highest; rivers came in second followed by wetlands. In addition, the Siangshan Wetland was analyzed to have the greatest THg and MeHg concentrations in its surface water. Linear regression analysis also indicated that total organic carbon and clay content substantially affected the MeHg production in sediments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Rios , Taiwan , Áreas Alagadas
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(43): e12800, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412069

RESUMO

The neurological prognoses of very low birth weight preterm (VLBWP) children during the first 2 years of life will influence their neurodevelopment during subsequent childhood years and adolescence. The objective of this study was to systemic investigate relationships of urinary arsenic (As) concentrations, the As methylation capability, and toenail As concentrations on cognitive, language, and motor development in VLBWP children under 24 months of corrected age.Participants (n = 60) in our study were recruited from October 2010 to April 2013. Urine and toenail samples were collected for evaluation to assess As exposure. The Bayley scales of infant development III were used to evaluate neurodevelopment at 2 years of corrected age. Concentrations of As species in urine and the As concentration in toenails were, respectively, analyzed using HPLC-HG-AAS and ICP-MS.The mean concentration of total As was 28.6 µg/g creatinine, and inorganic As was 1.01 µg/L in urine. The urine contained an average of 3% inorganic As, 2% monomethylarsonic acid, and 95% dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). The mean concentration of As in toenails was 225 ng/g. Children with a longer gestational age (≥28 weeks) and higher DMA % levels appeared to have the highest unadjusted cognitive and fine motor scores.Our study results suggest that gestational age is associated with neurodevelopment in VLBWP children. We recommend that further study simultaneously analyze multiple environmental contaminants that may have adverse effects on neurodevelopment, use biomarkers for the mother-child pair, and determine whether prenatal or postnatal As exposure has a greater influence on the neurological development of VLBWP children.


Assuntos
Arsênio/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Metilação , Unhas/química , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/metabolismo
9.
Environ Res ; 167: 240-247, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059858

RESUMO

Children may be exposed to environmental contaminants through incidental ingestion of soil resulting from hand-to-mouth contact. We measured soil adherence to the skin among 86 children from four kindergartens and one elementary school in Taiwan. Rinse water samples were collected from the hands, forearms, feet and lower legs of children after they had engaged in assigned activity groups (pre-activity, indirect contact and direct contact) from two different soil textures groups: sand and clay. We found that the soil loadings significantly differed between the different soil textures, body parts, activities, and clothing groups. Measured soil loadings for hands of pre-activity, indirect contact activity, and direct contact activity groups were 0.0069, 0.0307 and 0.153 mg cm-2, respectively, for the group playing on sand and 0.0061, 0.0116 and 0.0942 mg cm-2, respectively, for the group playing on clay. To facilitate the use of soil adherence data in exposure assessments, we provided a new and simple way to group activities based on the intensity of children's interactions with soil. The adherence data from this study can help enhance existing information based on soil-to-skin adherence factors used to assess children's exposure to soil contaminants during their play activities.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Criança , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Taiwan
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 627: 844-851, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426209

RESUMO

Hand-pressing trials and hand-to-mouth soil transfer experiments were conducted to better understand soil loadings, soil transfer ratios for three mouthing activities, and variations in particle size distributions under various conditions. Results indicated that sand caused higher soil loadings on the hand than clay. When the moisture level of clay soil exceeded its liquid limit, soil loadings also increased. Greater pressing pressures also led to larger clay loadings. Clay with a moisture content close to its plastic limit caused the smallest soil loadings due to strong soil cohesion. Particle sizes of the transferred clay were larger than that of the original clay, indicating that hand-pressing and the pressure exerted may have enhanced clay particles of larger sizes adhering onto the hand. Nevertheless, the sizes of most particles that adhered to the hand were still smaller than 150 µm. Higher pressing pressures and greater moisture contents resulted in larger soil loadings on the hand, and transfer ratios became smaller. Transfer ratios from palm-licking with clay particles were smaller than those from finger-mouthing, which may have been due to finer particles that more readily adhered to the skin of the palm and that were transferred from the hand to the mouth with greater difficulty.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Pele/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Dióxido de Silício , Solo/química
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 612: 1373-1379, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure is a global health concern. Several studies have focused on chronic arsenic exposure in adults; however, limited data are available regarding the potential adverse effects of prenatal exposure on fetuses and neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess which time point maternal arsenic exposure may influence the fetus during pregnancy and birth outcomes. METHODS: In this study, total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in urine samples collected from 130 women with singleton pregnancies (22-45years old) in Taiwan from March to December of 2010. All fetal biometric measurements in each trimester period and birth outcomes at delivery were obtained. We applied a generalized estimating equation model and multivariate regression models to evaluate the associations between maternal urinary total arsenic (UtAs) exposure during pregnancy, fetal biometric measurements, and neonatal birth outcomes. RESULTS: We observed statistically significant correlations between maternal UtAs levels and the fetal biparietal diameter over all three trimesters (ß=-1.046mm, p<0.05). Multiple regression analyses showed a negative association between maternal UtAs levels and chest circumference in the first trimester (ß=-0.721cm, p<0.05), and second-trimester UtAs exposure was associated with decreases in birth weight (ß=-173.26g, p<0.01), head circumference (ß=-0.611cm, p<0.05), and chest circumference (ß=-0.654cm, p<0.05). Dose-response relationships were also observed for maternal UtAs exposure and birth outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a negative relationship between maternal UtAs levels during pregnancy, fetal development, and neonatal birth outcomes. These findings should be confirmed in future studies with large sample sizes.


Assuntos
Arsênio/urina , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 28(2): 182-192, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28120832

RESUMO

Non-dietary ingestion is an important exposure pathway for children owing to their frequent hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth activities involving soil and dust contacts. We used videotaping and the computer-based translating methods to quantify the mouthing activity information for 24 children ages 3 to <6 years old living in Taiwan. We also reviewed the entire mouthing activity data collected during the project to determine the lesser studied information on hand surface areas mouthed by children ages <6 years old. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were found to be 10 and 4.3 contacts/h, respectively. Hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth contact frequencies used in exposure assessments for children ages 3 to <6 years old in this study were similar to the recommended values reported in United States. Exposure Factors Handbook for comparable age US children. The average fractions of the hand area mouthed for children 6 to <12 months, 1 to <2 years, 2 to <3 years, and 3 to <6 years old were 0.12, 0.12, 0.13, and 0.09, respectively. The fraction of hand area mouthed by children was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with their age. About half of the total hand-to-mouth contact events involved immersion of part of a hand or a finger into the mouth. The findings from this study extend the available mouthing activity information for 3 to <6 years old children and also provide new data for an Asian country, allowing comparison of results with western values collected mostly in the United States.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Boca , Análise de Regressão , Solo , Taiwan , Gravação de Videoteipe
13.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 27(1): 33-40, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26443469

RESUMO

Soil and dust ingestion rates by children are among the most critical exposure factors in determining risks to children from exposures to environmental contaminants in soil and dust. We believe this is the first published soil ingestion study for children in Taiwan using tracer element methodology. In this study, 66 children under 3 years of age were enrolled from Taiwan. Three days of fecal samples and a 24-h duplicate food sample were collected. The soil and household dust samples were also collected from children's homes. Soil ingestion rates were estimated based on silicon (Si) and titanium (Ti). The average soil ingestion rates were 9.6±19.2 mg/day based on Si as a tracer. The estimated soil ingestion rates based on Si did not have statistically significant differences by children's age and gender, although the average soil ingestion rates clearly increased as a function of children's age category. The estimated soil ingestion rates based on Si was significantly and positively correlated with the sum of indoor and outdoor hand-to-mouth frequency rates. The average soil ingestion rates based on Si were generally lower than the results from previous studies for the US children. Ti may not be a suitable tracer for estimating soil ingestion rates in Taiwan because the Ti dioxide is a common additive in food. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that investigated the correlations between soil ingestion rates and mouthing behaviors in Taiwan or other parts of Asia. It is also the first study that could compare available soil ingestion data from different countries and/or different cultures. The hand-to-mouth frequency and health habits are important to estimate the soil ingestion exposure for children. The results in this study are particularly important when assessing children's exposure and potential health risk from nearby contaminated soils in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Silício/análise , Solo , Distribuição por Idade , Biomarcadores/análise , Pré-Escolar , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Solo/química , Taiwan , Titânio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
14.
Chin J Physiol ; 59(6): 355-365, 2016 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27817197

RESUMO

Semen quality is a key indicator of the male reproductive ability. The decline in semen quality has been debated for several decades. However, data on decline in semen quality might be inconsistent given factors such as geographical area, ethnicity, environmental exposure and lifestyle changes. This study aimed to provide information on the semen quality of men in Northern Taiwanese. We recruited 7,187 male participants between 2001 and 2010 from a reproductive medical center. The age of the participants ranged from 26 to 57 years, with a mean age of 36.9 ± 4.77 years. Semen analysis was performed through standardized methods outlined in the World Health Organization laboratory manual. Increasing age (per year) was significantly and negatively associated with semen volume (1.006 ml), progressive sperm motility, rapid progressive sperm motility and sperm with normal morphology (reduction by 1.010%, 1.013% and 1.002% per year, respectively). In addition, sperm concentration, semen volume, number of sperms, progressive sperm motility, rapid progressive sperm motility, and sperm with normal morphology were significantly reduced annually by 1.013 × 106/ml, 1.015 ml, 1.028 × 106, 1.021 %, 1.017% and 1.016%, respectively). Age-period-cohort (APC) analyses revealed that age and cohort had effects on reduction of the progressive and rapid progressive sperm motility. Moreover, all the sperm parameter values were significantly reduced annually. Our findings provide useful information for clinical practice and public health investigations of male reproductive health.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen/tendências , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27384573

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurobehavioral conditions. Evidence of the negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on mental health has not been convincing, although a few studies have found an association between high SSB levels and attention problems in children. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that SSB consumption is associated with ADHD among children. Doctor-diagnosed ADHD cases (n = 173) and non-ADHD controls (n = 159) between age 4 to 15 were recruited. SSB consumption, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the children, as well as of their mothers' characteristics during pregnancy, were collected using a questionnaire. Blood lead levels and polymorphisms of two commonly verified dopaminergic-related genes (the D4 dopamine receptor gene DRD4 and the dopamine transporter gene DAT1) were also analyzed. There was a dose-response relationship between SSB consumption and ADHD. After covariates were adjusted, children who consumed SSBs at moderate levels and high levels had 1.36 and 3.69 odds, respectively, of having ADHD, compared with those who did not consume SSBs (p for trend < 0.05). Similar results were obtained when females were excluded. Our findings highlighted the adverse correlation between SSB consumption and ADHD and indicated a dose-response effect even after covariates were adjusted.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Bebidas , Edulcorantes , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0155704, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27187161

RESUMO

This study examined methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish, the daily MeHg exposure dose, and the risk-benefit of MeHg, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) related to fish intake among pregnant and infertile women in Taiwan. The measured MeHg concentrations in fish did not exceed the Codex guideline level of 1 mg/kg. Swordfish (0.28 ± 0.23 mg/kg) and tuna (0.14 ± 0.13 mg/kg) had the highest MeHg concentrations. The MeHg concentration in the hair of infertile women (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/kg) was significantly greater than that of pregnant women (1.24 ± 0.18 mg/kg). In addition, 80% of infertile women and 68% of pregnant women had MeHg concentrations in hair that exceeded the USEPA reference dose (1 mg/kg). The MeHg concentrations in hair were significantly and positively correlated with the estimated daily MeHg exposure dose. Based on the risk-benefit evaluation results, this paper recommends consumption of fish species with a low MeHg concentration and high concentrations of DHA + EPA and ω-3 PUFA (e.g., salmon, mackerel, and greater amberjack).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos , Infertilidade Feminina , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos , Adulto , Animais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Medição de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0149558, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26890918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nonylphenol (NP) belongs to the family of endocrine disruptors, and it is widely used in industrial applications and is ubiquitous in daily foods. Animal studies have suggested that NP exposure might promote motor hyperactivity, likely by causing deficits in dopaminergic neurons. However, research assessing NP exposure and epidemiology studies on human populations are limited. The aim of this study was to explore the association between child NP exposure and ADHD while considering particular covariants, such as lead levels and dopamine-related gene variations. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on patients with clinically diagnosed ADHD; the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham, Fourth Revision (SNAP-IV) questionnaire was used to identify normal controls aged 4-15 years. Participants were examined for urinary NP concentrations, blood lead levels, and select single-nucleotide polymorphisms of two dopamine-related genes (D4 dopamine receptor, DRD4, and dopamine transporter, DAT1). Socio-demographic variables, maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy and family medical history were obtained using a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 97 children with doctor-diagnosed ADHD and 110 normal controls were enrolled. The blood lead levels in both groups were similar (1.57±0.73 vs. 1.73±0.77 µg/dL, p = 0.15). No significant difference in urinary NP concentration was found between the children with ADHD and the control subjects (4.52±3.22 µg/g cr. vs. 4.64±2.95 µg/g cr., p = 0.43). ADHD was significantly more prevalent among males in this study (male to female ratio: 5:1 for the ADHD group and 1.3:1 for the control group, p<0.01). The analysis was repeated after excluding the females, but this had no effect on the association between NP and ADHD. The regression model, including or excluding females, indicated no increased odds of having ADHD in the context of NP exposure after adjusting for covariants. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that NP exposure might not promote ADHD in children, even though children in Taiwan had relatively high levels of NP compared to those reported previously and those in developed nations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/urina , Fenóis/urina , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Creatinina/metabolismo , Demografia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Taiwan
18.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 1220, 2015 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26653029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization reported that more than 10 % of women are severely affected by infertility, making the condition a major worldwide public health problem. Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) are environmental pollutants that may contribute to reproductive disorders. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As and risk factors for infertility in women. METHODS: Women who were infertile (N = 310) or pregnant (N = 57) were recruited from the gynecology and obstetrics department of a hospital. The participants were interviewed to obtain their sociodemographic, reproductive, and lifestyle information. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As in their blood samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Our findings suggested that the concentrations of Pb and As, but not Cd, were significantly higher in the blood of infertile women than in that of pregnant women. A higher percentage of the infertile women consumed more alcohol, used Chinese herbal medicine more frequently, and lacked physical activity compared with the pregnant women. After accounting for potentially relevant predictors, we observed that blood Pb levels might be elevated by using Chinese herbal medicine 1-6 times per week (aOR = 2.82, p = 0.05). In addition, engaging in physical activity 1-2 times per week (aOR = 0.37, p = 0.05) might assist in reducing Pb accumulation in infertile women, though the p value was borderline. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of physical activity and frequent use of Chinese herbal medicine may be associated with elevated blood Pb levels in infertile women. Chinese herbal medicine use was observed to increase the Pb body burden of both infertile and pregnant women in this study. The risk-benefit for Chinese herbal medicine intake should be evaluated by women of childbearing age.


Assuntos
Arsênio/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/sangue , Estilo de Vida , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan
19.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0138145, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26367380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness is an important marker for prenatal screening; however, studies focusing on the correlation between maternal trace element levels and NT thickness are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal trace element levels during the first trimester and to investigate the association between maternal trace element levels and fetal NT thickness. METHODS: In total, 113 samples were obtained from singleton pregnant women. Maternal plasma samples were collected in the first trimester of gestation. Plasma trace element levels were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Nuchal translucency thickness was measured using ultrasonography at 10-14 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: We found that maternal plasma potassium (K) levels had a significant negative correlation with both NT (r = -0.230, p < 0.05) and NT Multiples of the Median (NT MoM) (r = -0.206, p < 0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, log-transformed maternal plasma potassium levels in the first trimester were significantly associated with fetal NT (NT MoM: ß = -0.68, p < 0.05; NT: ß = -1.20, p < 0.01). Although not statistically significant, the As, Hg and Pb levels in maternal plasma were positively correlated with NT, and the Mg, Cu, Zn, Na and Ca levels were negatively correlated with NT. CONCLUSION: Maternal plasma K levels during the first trimester appeared to be associated with NT thickness. The essential elements tended to decrease NT thickness, and non-essential elements tended to increase it.


Assuntos
Medição da Translucência Nucal , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 300: 815-822, 2015 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26340548

RESUMO

Reproductive hormones and exposure to environmental metals are correlated with low-quality semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of heavy metals and reproductive hormones in the blood in addition to other relevant factors to clarify the relationship between these factors and semen quality. We recruited 154 male participants from a reproductive medical center. All participants were provided with a questionnaire on lifestyle implementation. The levels of metals in the blood were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The levels of hormones in the blood were determined using an automatic gamma counter. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict the effects of statistically significant risk factors on semen quality by adjusting for relevant confounders and modifiers. After adjusting for the age, education level, and related factors in the multiple logistic regression analyses, we observed that the increased blood Pb levels were significantly and positively associated with low semen quality. High blood Pb levels (>50 µg/L) had an 11-fold risk of low semen quality. Our results suggest that progressive motility sperm may be a sensitive indicator of the semen quality among all the semen parameters in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Metais Pesados/sangue , Análise do Sêmen , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Escolaridade , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taiwan
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...