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1.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks many tasks in clinical oncology due to possibly develop general tumor in men and, usually lead to malignant to death within years. Researches had reported about major factors for being HCC was male sex and HCC associated with cirrhosis in childhood was found more common in males than females. In certain mouse strains as studied, breeding with testosterone significantly increases the development of HCC. Furthermore, castration of male mice diminished the frequency of the development of liver tumors. Meanwhile Male hepatitis B virus transgenic mice have greater occurrence of HCC than females. METHODS: We apply degenerate priming PCR to observe the expression of various steroid receptors in livers. Yeast-two hybrid screening to search a novel RNA fragment helps to find a new full-length gene by RACE experiment. RT-PCR is applied to detect various of expression in tissues and cell lines. In situ hybridization detects DNA in Chromosome mapping. GFP-constructs transfection proves the gene localization in cells. Immunoprecipitation pulldown assay verifies protein interaction. Gene transfection followed with luciferase assay demonstrates interaction of genes within cellular signaling. Genomic alignment analysis for observing sequences data perform from NCBI database website (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/genebank/). RESULTS: The androgen receptor (AR) expression level is found at the highest level among the steroid receptors families detected in liver tumors. By yeast-two hybrid screening, we cloned an ARCAP (Androgen Receptor Complex Associated Protein), of 95 Kd in molecular weight and its cDNA. ARCAP locates at Chromosome 1. Our findings indicate ARCAP highly expresses in hepatoma cell lines and liver tumors and their adjacent tumors as observed. Yeast two-hybrid assay and in vitro immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated an interaction between AR and ARCAP. CONCLUSION: Our aim is to search for different types and levels of steroid receptors expressed within human hepatocellular carcinomas and in the adjacent liver tissues. To verify possible molecular mechanisms by which AR might affect hepatoma cells, we had characterized a novel protein ARCAP which functions as a coregulator to interact with AR within liver. The ligand-dependent AR with its cofactor, ARCAP, can induce a signal cascade by transactivation.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638933

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and its tumorigenesis involves the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic events in the respiratory epithelium. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, RNA modification, and histone modifications, have been widely reported to play an important role in lung cancer development and in other pulmonary diseases. Whereas the functionality of DNA and chromatin modifications referred to as epigenetics is widely characterized, various modifications of RNA nucleotides have recently come into prominence as functionally important. N6-methyladosine (m6A) is the most prevalent internal modification in mRNAs, and its machinery of writers, erasers, and readers is well-characterized. However, several other nucleotide modifications of mRNAs and various noncoding RNAs have also been shown to play an important role in the regulation of biological processes and pathology. Such epitranscriptomic modifications play an important role in regulating various aspects of RNA metabolism, including transcription, translation, splicing, and stability. The dysregulation of epitranscriptomic machinery has been implicated in the pathological processes associated with carcinogenesis including uncontrolled cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In recent years, with the advancement of RNA sequencing technology, high-resolution maps of different modifications in various tissues, organs, or disease models are being constantly reported at a dramatic speed. This facilitates further understanding of the relationship between disease development and epitranscriptomics, shedding light on new therapeutic possibilities. In this review, we summarize the basic information on RNA modifications, including m6A, m1A, m5C, m7G, pseudouridine, and A-to-I editing. We then demonstrate their relation to different kinds of lung diseases, especially lung cancer. By comparing the different roles RNA modifications play in the development processes of different diseases, this review may provide some new insights and offer a better understanding of RNA epigenetics and its involvement in pulmonary diseases.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576032

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with high infectivity and mortality has caused severe social and economic impacts worldwide. Growing reports of COVID-19 patients with multi-organ damage indicated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) may also disturb the cardiovascular system. Herein, we used human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (iCMs) as the in vitro platform to examine the consequence of SARS-CoV2 infection on iCMs. Differentiated iCMs expressed the primary SARS-CoV2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-II (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease serine type 2 (TMPRSS2) receptor suggesting the susceptibility of iCMs to SARS-CoV2. Following the infection of iCMs with SARS-CoV2, the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein was detected in the host cells, demonstrating the successful infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV2 infection upregulates several inflammation-related genes, including the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The pretreatment of iCMs with TNF-α for 24 h, significantly increased the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, SASR-CoV2 entry receptors. The TNF-α pretreatment enhanced the entry of GFP-expressing SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus into iCMs, and the neutralization of TNF-α ameliorated the TNF-α-enhanced viral entry. Collectively, SARS-CoV2 elevated TNF-α expression, which in turn enhanced the SARS-CoV2 viral entry. Our findings suggest that, TNF-α may participate in the cytokine storm and aggravate the myocardial damage in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Miocárdio/citologia , Miocárdio/imunologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/virologia , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação para Cima/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
N Biotechnol ; 65: 42-52, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411700

RESUMO

The substantial reduction in experimental cost of next-generation sequencing techniques makes it feasible to assemble a bacterial genome of unknown species de novo and acquire substantial genetic information from environmental samples. Many bioinformatics tools and algorithms have also been developed for prokaryotes, but complex parameter settings and command line-based user interfaces cause a significant entry barrier for novices. Efficient construction of pipelines that integrate all the available genomic data poses a major challenge to the understanding of unknown pathogens. MiDSystem is a comprehensive online system for analyzing genomic data from microbiomes. With a user-friendly interface, MiDSystem supports both de novo assembly and metagenomic analysis pipelines. It is designed to automatically analyze whole genome shotgun sequencing data of bacteria submitted by users. Multiple analytical steps can be performed directly on the system, and the results generated from the embedded tools are visualized in an online summary report to make it more interpretable. Constructing a genome de novo has gradually become the foundation of bacterial studies. Taking both single species and metagenomic samples into consideration, MiDSystem can greatly reduce the time and effort for analysis of bacterial genomic data. Use of MiDSystem will enable more focus to be placed on understanding the etiology of bacterial infections and microorganism ecologies.

5.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine and cabergoline have been found to be an effective treatment for hyperprolactinemia, not only inducing adenoma shrinkage but also lowering serum prolactin levels. Among known dopamine agonists, cabergoline is the drug of choice due to its enhanced tolerability compared with bromocriptine. This study aimed to evaluate cabergoline's effectiveness, along with transsphenoidal surgery, in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: We retrieved all patients with a diagnosis of prolactinoma who were treated in our hospital during 2000-2018. A total of 208 patients were enrolled in the analysis after applying exclusion criteria. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the treatments received. The demographic data, dosage and duration of cabergoline, and serum prolactin levels at different time points were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Normalization was achieved in 59 patients (83.10%) within a short median duration of 2.80 months among those treated with cabergoline only. Although cabergoline alone was effective and well-tolerated, our data showed that long-term remission rates were more favorable when surgery was involved. The long-term remission rate of all patients enrolled was 53.8% (112 patients among 208 patients). The long-term remission rates for the different treatment groups were 17.8% (8/45 patients) in Group 1 (Operation→Drug), 83.3% (5/6 patients) in Group 2 (Drug→Operation), 79.0% (68/86 patients) in Group 3 (Operation only), and 43.7% (31/71 patients) in Group 4 (Drug only). CONCLUSION: Cabergoline has been demonstrated to be effective and should be considered as a first-line treatment for hyperprolactinemia. In our study, transsphenoidal surgery was also demonstrated to achieve good results compared with medical treatment. Surgical intervention may resurface as an alternative first-line treatment. When used in combination with cabergoline, surgery offers a higher disease remission rate than either drug or operation alone.

6.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(8): 754-756, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145198

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative disease; however, its exact pathophysiology and early diagnosis are still a challenge. Growing attention to the exosomes may inspire innovations that would make the current management of OA more effective. The exosomes in synovial fluid are relatively stable, and they can be easily isolated by the relatively noninvasive procedure of liquid biopsy to provide diagnostic and monitoring value. Some miRNAs (miR-504, miR-146a, miR-26a, miR-200c, and miR-210) have been known to be secreted in exosomes of OA patients. On the other hand, intraarticular injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is becoming a popular therapy for OA patients. PRP is also a source of exosomes and their numerous contents. It is evident from the literature that PRP-derived exosomes can induce chondrogenic gene expression in OA chondrocytes. Here, we review the latest findings on the roles of exosomes in OA with the emphasis on PRP-derived exosomes and their potential applications for treating OA.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070492

RESUMO

Inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) are rare but highly heterogeneous genetic disorders that affect individuals and families worldwide. However, given its wide variability, its analysis of the driver genes for over 50% of the cases remains unexplored. The present study aims to identify novel driver genes, disease-causing variants, and retinitis pigmentosa (RP)-associated pathways. Using family-based whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify putative RP-causing rare variants, we identified a total of five potentially pathogenic variants located in genes OR56A5, OR52L1, CTSD, PRF1, KBTBD13, and ATP2B4. Of the variants present in all affected individuals, genes OR56A5, OR52L1, CTSD, KBTBD13, and ATP2B4 present as missense mutations, while PRF1 and CTSD present as frameshift variants. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of the novel pathogenic variant PRF1 (c.124_128del) that has not been reported previously. More causal-effect or evidence-based studies will be required to elucidate the precise roles of these SNPs in the RP pathogenesis. Taken together, our findings may allow us to explore the risk variants based on the sequencing data and upgrade the existing variant annotation database in Taiwan. It may help detect specific eye diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa in East Asia.


Assuntos
Catepsina D/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Distrofias Retinianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Catepsina D/sangue , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Perforina/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Distrofias Retinianas/congênito , Distrofias Retinianas/patologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/congênito , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(22): 2979-2993, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168402

RESUMO

The landscape of gastrointestinal endoscopy continues to evolve as new technologies and techniques become available. The advent of image-enhanced and magnifying endoscopies has highlighted the step toward perfecting endoscopic screening and diagnosis of gastric lesions. Simultaneously, with the development of convolutional neural network, artificial intelligence (AI) has made unprecedented breakthroughs in medical imaging, including the ongoing trials of computer-aided detection of colorectal polyps and gastrointestinal bleeding. In the past demi-decade, applications of AI systems in gastric cancer have also emerged. With AI's efficient computational power and learning capacities, endoscopists can improve their diagnostic accuracies and avoid the missing or mischaracterization of gastric neoplastic changes. So far, several AI systems that incorporated both traditional and novel endoscopy technologies have been developed for various purposes, with most systems achieving an accuracy of more than 80%. However, their feasibility, effectiveness, and safety in clinical practice remain to be seen as there have been no clinical trials yet. Nonetheless, AI-assisted endoscopies shed light on more accurate and sensitive ways for early detection, treatment guidance and prognosis prediction of gastric lesions. This review summarizes the current status of various AI applications in gastric cancer and pinpoints directions for future research and clinical practice implementation from a clinical perspective.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias Gástricas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(7): 669-677, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029218

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most devastating cancers, with an approximate median survival of only 16 months. Although some new insights into the fantastic heterogeneity of this kind of brain tumor have been revealed in recent studies, all subclasses of GBM still demonstrate highly aggressive invasion properties to the surrounding parenchyma. This behavior has become the main obstruction to current curative therapies as invasive GBM cells migrate away from these foci after surgical therapies. Therefore, this review aimed to provide a relatively comprehensive study of GBM invasion mechanisms, which contains an intricate network of interactions and signaling pathways with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Among these related molecules, TGF-ß, the ECM, Akt, and microRNAs are most significant in terms of cellular procedures related to GBM motility and invasion. Moreover, we also review data indicating that Musashi-1 (MSI1), a neural RNA-binding protein (RBP), regulates GBM motility and invasion, maintains stem cell populations in GBM, and promotes drug-resistant GBM phenotypes by stimulating necessary oncogenic signaling pathways through binding and regulating mRNA stability. Importantly, these necessary oncogenic signaling pathways have a close connection with TGF-ß, ECM, and Akt. Thus, it appears promising to find MSI-specific inhibitors or RNA interference-based treatments to prevent the actions of these molecules despite using RBPs, which are known as hard therapeutic targets. In summary, this review aims to provide a better understanding of these signaling pathways to help in developing novel therapeutic approaches with better outcomes in preclinical studies.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(21)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021082

RESUMO

Tumors are often infiltrated by T lymphocytes recognizing either self- or mutated antigens but are generally inactive, although they often show signs of prior clonal expansion. Hypothesizing that this may be due to peripheral tolerance, we formulated nanoparticles containing innate immune stimulants that we found were sufficient to activate self-specific CD8+ T cells and injected them into two different mouse tumor models, B16F10 and MC38. These nanoparticles robustly activated and/or expanded antigen-specific CD8+ tumor-infiltrating T cells, along with a decrease in regulatory CD4+ T cells and an increase in Interleukin-17 producers, resulting in significant tumor growth retardation or elimination and the establishment of immune memory in surviving mice. Furthermore, nanoparticles with modification of stimulating human T cells enabled the robust activation of endogenous T cells in patient-derived tumor organoids. These results indicate that breaking peripheral tolerance without regard to the antigen specificity creates a promising pathway for cancer immunotherapy.

11.
J Adv Res ; 30: 147-158, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026292

RESUMO

Introduction: A population-specific genomic reference is important for research and clinical practice, yet it remains unavailable for Han Chinese (HC) in Taiwan. Objectives: We report the first whole genome sequencing (WGS) database of HC (1000 Taiwanese genome (1KTW-WGS)) and demonstrate several applications to cardiovascular medicine. Methods: Whole genomes of 997 HC were sequenced to at least 30X depth. A total of 20,117 relatively healthy HC individuals were genotyped using a customized Axiom GWAS array. We performed a genome-wide genotype imputation technique using IMPUTE2. Results: We identified 26.7 million single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 4.2 million insertions-deletions. Of the SNVs, 16.1% were novel relative to dbSNP (build 152), and 34.2% were novel relative to gnomAD. A total of 18,450 healthy HC individuals were genotyped using a customized Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) array. We identified hypertension-associated variants and developed a hypertension prediction model based on the correlation between the WGS data and GWAS data (combined clinical and genetic models, AUC 0.887), and also identified 3 novel hyperlipidemia-associated variants. Each individual carried an average of 16.42 (SD = 3.72) disease-causing variants. Additionally, we established an online SCN5A (an important cardiac gene) database that can be used to explore racial differences. Finally, pharmacogenetics studies identified HC population-specific SNVs in genes (CYP2C9 and VKORC1) involved in drug metabolism and blood clotting. Conclusion: This research demonstrates the benefits of constructing a population-specific genomic reference database for precision medicine.

12.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(5): 478-484, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues the pandemic spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), over 60 million people confirmed infected and at least 1.8 million dead. One of the most known features of this RNA virus is its easiness to be mutated. In late 2020, almost no region of this SARS-CoV-2 genome can be found completely conserved within the original Wuhan coronavirus. Any information of the SARS-CoV-2 variants emerged through as time being will be evaluated for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of COVID-19. METHODS: We extracted more than two million data of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients from the open COVID-19 dashboard. The sequences of the 38-amino acid putative open reading frame 10 (Orf10) protein within infected patients were gathered output through from National Center for Biotechnology Information and the mutation rates in each position were analyzed and presented in each month of 2020. The mutation rates of A8 and V30 within Orf10 are displayed in selected counties: United States, India, German, and Japan. RESULTS: The numbers of COVID-19 patients are correlated to the death numbers, but not with the death rates (stable and <3%). The amino acid positions locating at A8(F/G/L), I13, and V30(L) within the Orf10 sequence stay the highest mutation rate; N5, N25, and N36 rank at the lowest one. A8F expressed highly dominant in Japan (over 80%) and German (around 40%) coming to the end of 2020, but no significant finding in other countries. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate via mutation analysis of Orf10 can be further combined with advanced tools such as molecular simulation, artificial intelligence, and biosensors that can practically revealed for protein interactions and thus to imply the authentic Orf10 function of SARS-CoV-2 in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Mutação , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/fisiologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926102

RESUMO

Inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) are a group of rare eye diseases caused by gene mutations that result in the degradation of cone and rod photoreceptors or the retinal pigment epithelium. Retinal degradation progress is often irreversible, with clinical manifestations including color or night blindness, peripheral visual defects and subsequent vision loss. Thus, gene therapies that restore functional retinal proteins by either replenishing unmutated genes or truncating mutated genes are needed. Coincidentally, the eye's accessibility and immune-privileged status along with major advances in gene identification and gene delivery systems heralded gene therapies for IRDs. Among these clinical trials, voretigene neparvovec-rzyl (Luxturna), an adeno-associated virus vector-based gene therapy drug, was approved by the FDA for treating patients with confirmed biallelic RPE65 mutation-associated Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA) in 2017. This review includes current IRD gene therapy clinical trials and further summarizes preclinical studies and therapeutic strategies for LCA, including adeno-associated virus-based gene augmentation therapy, 11-cis-retinal replacement, RNA-based antisense oligonucleotide therapy and CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing therapy. Understanding the gene therapy development for LCA may accelerate and predict the potential hurdles of future therapeutics translation. It may also serve as the template for the research and development of treatment for other IRDs.


Assuntos
Amaurose Congênita de Leber/genética , Distrofias Retinianas/genética , Distrofias Retinianas/terapia , Dependovirus/genética , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Amaurose Congênita de Leber/terapia , Mutação , RNA , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Retina/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/metabolismo
14.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(6): 563-576, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883467

RESUMO

Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent human cancers, and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has been widely used to study human lung cancer at the cellular, genetic, and molecular level. Even though there are published reviews, which summarized the applications of scRNA-seq in human cancers like breast cancer, there is lack of a comprehensive review, which could effectively highlight the broad use of scRNA-seq in studying lung cancer. This review, therefore, was aimed to summarize the various applications of scRNA-seq in human lung cancer research based on the findings from different published in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. The review would first briefly outline the concept and principle of scRNA-seq, followed by the discussion on the applications of scRNA-seq in studying human lung cancer. Finally, the challenges faced when using scRNA-seq to study human lung cancer would be discussed, and the potential applications and challenges of scRNA-seq to facilitate the development of personalized cancer therapy in the future would be explored.

15.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(6): 644-649, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plate and locked intramedullary nailing for humeral fractures are golden standard procedure, but the humerus is a nonweight-bearing bone and can tolerate a larger range of acceptable alignment. We believe the elastic stable intramedullary nails (ESINs) can provide enough relative stability for humeral shaft fractures in certain adult patients. METHODS: There are four new indications for using ESINs: (1) patient could not tolerate a sugar-tong splint but was a high risk for general anesthesia, (2) intramedullary canal narrowing (<7 mm), (3) long spiral or oblique fracture over the metadiaphyseal junction, and (4) obesity. All patients received retrograde fixation with two titanium elastic nails, except for one patient with a long spiral fracture over the proximal metadiaphysis. Patients had routine follow-up plain radiographs until bone union, and we evaluated functional results of patients by Mayo Elbow Performance Score and asked to complete Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score at the last outpatient clinic visit. RESULTS: A total of 16 patients with a mean age of 54.4 years were included. The mean follow-up time was 14 ± 2.5 months, and the average time to bone union was 16 ± 4.3 weeks. There were no wound infections, loss of reduction, fracture nonunion, implant failure, or skin irritation expect for one nail back-out because of osteoporosis. CONCLUSION: We have reported good results using ESINs for the displaced fractures of the humerus in the four indication adults who would not be able to tolerate plate fixation or intramedullary nailing. The ESINs fixation method is a simple procedure that provides a small incision, minimal blood loss, short surgical time, and relative stability fixation.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673551

RESUMO

The late-onset type of Fabry disease (FD) with GLA IVS4 + 919G > A mutation has been shown to lead to cardiovascular dysfunctions. In order to eliminate variations in other aspects of the genetic background, we established the isogenic control of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for the identification of the pathogenetic factors for FD phenotypes through CRISPR/Cas9 genomic editing. We adopted droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to efficiently capture mutational events, thus enabling isolation of the corrected FD from FD-iPSCs. Both of these exhibited the characteristics of pluripotency and phenotypic plasticity, and they can be differentiated into endothelial cells (ECs). We demonstrated the phenotypic abnormalities in FD iPSC-derived ECs (FD-ECs), including intracellular Gb3 accumulation, autophagic flux impairment, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and these abnormalities were rescued in isogenic control iPSC-derived ECs (corrected FD-ECs). Microarray profiling revealed that corrected FD-derived endothelial cells reversed the enrichment of genes in the pro-inflammatory pathway and validated the downregulation of NF-κB and the MAPK signaling pathway. Our findings highlighted the critical role of ECs in FD-associated vascular dysfunctions by establishing a reliable isogenic control and providing information on potential cellular targets to reduce the morbidity and mortality of FD patients with vascular complications.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Doença de Fabry/terapia , Edição de Genes , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Mutação , alfa-Galactosidase/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Doença de Fabry/enzimologia , Doença de Fabry/genética , Doença de Fabry/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Fenótipo
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(7)2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579825

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is characterized by the plaque formation that restricts intraarterial blood flow. The disturbed blood flow with the associated oscillatory stress (OS) at the arterial curvatures and branch points can trigger endothelial activation and is one of the risk factors of atherosclerosis. Many studies reported the mechanotransduction related to OS and atherogenesis; however, the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms of atherosclerosis remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the role of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation in mechanotransduction in endothelial cells (ECs) because of its important role in epitranscriptome regulation. We have identified m6A methyltransferase METTL3 as a responsive hub to hemodynamic forces and atherogenic stimuli in ECs. OS led to an up-regulation of METTL3 expression, accompanied by m6A RNA hypermethylation, increased NF-κB p65 Ser536 phosphorylation, and enhanced monocyte adhesion. Knockdown of METTL3 abrogated this OS-induced m6A RNA hypermethylation and other manifestations, while METTL3 overexpression led to changes resembling the OS effects. RNA-sequencing and m6A-enhanced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (eCLIP) experiments revealed NLRP1 and KLF4 as two hemodynamics-related downstream targets of METTL3-mediated hypermethylation. The METTL3-mediated RNA hypermethylation up-regulated NLRP1 transcript and down-regulated KLF4 transcript through YTHDF1 and YTHDF2 m6A reader proteins, respectively. In the in vivo atherosclerosis model, partial ligation of the carotid artery led to plaque formation and up-regulation of METTL3 and NLRP1, with down-regulation of KLF4; knockdown of METTL3 via repetitive shRNA administration prevented the atherogenic process, NLRP3 up-regulation, and KLF4 down-regulation. Collectively, we have demonstrated that METTL3 serves a central role in the atherogenesis induced by OS and disturbed blood flow.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Células THP-1 , Transcriptoma
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525682

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was identified as the main host cell receptor for the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its subsequent infection. In some coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, it has been reported that the nervous tissues and the eyes were also affected. However, evidence supporting that the retina is a target tissue for SARS-CoV-2 infection is still lacking. This present study aimed to investigate whether ACE2 expression plays a role in human retinal neurons during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived retinal organoids and monolayer cultures derived from dissociated retinal organoids were generated. To validate the potential entry of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the retina, we showed that hiPSC-derived retinal organoids and monolayer cultures endogenously express ACE2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) on the mRNA level. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the protein expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in retinal organoids and monolayer cultures. Furthermore, using the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus spike protein with GFP expression system, we found that retinal organoids and monolayer cultures can potentially be infected by the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Collectively, our findings highlighted the potential of iPSC-derived retinal organoids as the models for ACE2 receptor-based SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/genética , Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Retina/citologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Organoides/citologia , Organoides/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
19.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(2): 158-164, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography is a common method of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for fetal well-being. Data-driven analyses have shown potential for automated EFM assessment. For this preliminary study, we used a novel artificial intelligence method based on fully convolutional networks (FCNs), with deep learning for EFM evaluation and correct recognition, and its possible role in evaluation of nonreassuring fetal status. METHODS: We retrospectively collected 3239 EFM labor records from 292 deliveries and neonatal Apgar scores between December 2018 and July 2019 at a single medical center. We analyzed these data using an FCN model and compared the results with clinical practice. RESULTS: The FCN model recognized EFM traces like physicians, with an average Cohen's kappa coefficient of agreement of 0.525 and average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.892 for six fetal heart rate (FHR) categories. The FCN model showed higher sensitivity for predicting fetal compromise (0.528 vs 0.132) but a higher false-positive rate (0.632 vs 0.012) compared with clinical practice. CONCLUSION: FCN is a modern technique that may be useful for EFM trace recognition based on its multiconvolutional layered analysis. Our model showed a competitive ability to identify FHR patterns and the potential for evaluation of nonreassuring fetal status.

20.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(2): 212-220, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various upper limb activities were speculated to be associated with the development of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Nonetheless, there are currently no standardization on the uses of parameters in CTS assessments, nor are there any conclusive findings regarding the usefulness of various sonographic measurements in studies of different upper limb activities. In this review, we intend to evaluate the methodology of assessing CTS induced by upper limb activities with ultrasonographic technique and provide corresponding suggestions. METHODS: Clinical studies on the association between upper limb activities and prevalence of CTS using ultrasonography were recruited in a database research on the basis of a procedural selection criteria and reviewed. The following qualitative items were extracted: characteristics of studies, scanning methods, selection of sonographic parameters, and related article findings. RESULTS: Eleven studies were qualified for this review. Three studies were computer keyboard typing related, five studies were electronic device related, and three studies were wheelchair-related. All sampled articles included cross-sectional area (CSA) at the pisiform level. The swelling ratio (SR) and flattening ratio (FR) at the hamate level are also used in most studies in addition to the CSA at the pisiform level. The effectiveness of such parameters is subjected to various confounding factors such as age, weight, body mass index, and wrist anthropometrics, suggesting CSA and SR with sufficient levels had significant values as sonographic parameters. Values of parameters were found affecting symptomatic signs and hand dominance. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound scan is a suitable tool to assess the relationship between upper limb activity and CTS. CSA at the pisiform level and SR and the FR at the hamate levels are generally suitable in upper limb-associated CTS investigations. Specific study designs are required to eliminate different confounding factors accordingly.

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