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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(11): e00895, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tetrasomy 21 is a very rare aneuploidy which could clinically resemble a Down syndrome. It was most often described in its partial form than complete. We report the prenatal, pathological and genetic characteristics of a fetus with mosaic complete tetrasomy 21. This is the second well-documented description of a complete tetrasomy 21 in the literature. METHODS: Prenatal and fetal pathological examinations, cytogenetic and molecular analyses were performed to characterize fetal features with tetrasomy 21. RESULTS: Prenatal ultrasound examination revealed an isolated complete atrioventricular septal defect with normal karyotype on amniotic fluid. After termination of pregnancy, clinical examination of the fetus evoked trisomy 21 or Down syndrome. Chromosomal microarray analysis and FISH on lung tissue showed a mosaicism with four copies of chromosome 21 (tetrasomy 21). CONCLUSION: Our observation and the review of the literature reported the possibility of very weak mosaicism and disease-causing confined tissue-specific mosaicism in fetus or alive patients with chromosome 21 aneuploidy, mainly Down syndrome. In case of clinical diagnosis suggestive of Down syndrome, attention must be paid to the risk of false-negative test due to chromosomal mosaicism (very weak percentage, different tissue distribution). To overcome this risk, it is necessary to privilege the diagnostic techniques without culture step and to increase the number of cells and tissues analyzed, if possible. This study highlights the limits of microarray as the unique diagnostic approach in case of weak mosaic and French cytogenetics guidelines recommend to check anomalies seen in microarray by another technique on the same tissue.

3.
Psychooncology ; 28(8): 1679-1686, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intrafamilial disclosure of hereditary cancer predisposition in BRCA1/2 and mismatch repair gene (MMR) syndromes allows appropriate prevention strategies in at-risk relatives. We previously showed in a nationwide study that the uptake of genetic targeted testing (GTT) in these families was only 30%. We aimed to identify the clinical and psychosocial factors affecting the probands' intrafamilial disclosure and relatives' uptake of GTT in BRCA1/2 or MMR syndromes. METHODS: We assessed clinical variables, family history, and psychosocial variables of probands (depressive symptoms, anxiety, alexithymia, optimism, coping, family relationship, perception of cancer risks, and of hereditary transmission), together with disclosure and uptake of GTT within 103 French BRCA1/2 or MMR families. RESULTS: Among relatives eligible for GTT, 68% were informed of the predisposition, and 37% underwent GTT, according to probands' reports. Intrafamilial disclosure was inversely associated with the degree of kinship (P < .01). In multivariable analysis, disclosure increased with time since probands' genetic diagnosis (P < .01) and probands' feeling of family cohesion (0.01). GTT uptake increased with probands' depressive symptoms (0.02) and decreased with probands' perception of cancer risks (0.03). BRCA1/2 and MMR groups did not differ concerning family information and GTT uptake. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified factors affecting disclosure to relatives and GTT uptake in BRCA1/2 and MMR syndromes and gives new insights to improve probands' follow-up and intrafamilial sharing of genetic information.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 40(6): 716-720, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815977

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most frequent cause of hereditary colorectal cancer. A subset of patients with a history of LS shows no causal germline pathogenic alteration and are identified as having Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). Alu retrotransposons are the most abundant mobile DNA sequences in the human genome and have been associated with numerous human cancers by either disrupting coding regions or altering epigenetic modifications or splicing signals. We report a family first classified as having LLS by Sanger sequencing analysis. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis identified an AluY5a insertion in MLH1 exon 6 that led to exon skipping. This splicing alteration inducing a pathogenic frameshift was found in patients who developed colorectal adenocarcinomas. Retroelement insertion might thus be an important but underestimated mechanism of cancer genetics that could be systematically tested in patients with a phenotype suggesting LS to accurately assess family risk and surveillance approaches.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303537

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 only explain the underlying genetic cause of about 10% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Because of cost-effectiveness, multigene panel testing is often performed even if the clinical utility of testing most of the genes remains questionable. The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of rare, deleterious-predicted variants in DNA repair genes in familial breast cancer (BC) in a well-characterized and homogeneous population. We analyzed 113 DNA repair genes selected from either an exome sequencing or a candidate gene approach in the GENESIS study, which includes familial BC cases with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and having a sister with BC (N = 1,207), and general population controls (N = 1,199). Sequencing data were filtered for rare loss-of-function variants (LoF) and likely deleterious missense variants (MV). We confirmed associations between LoF and MV in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and BC occurrence. We also identified for the first time associations between FANCI, MAST1, POLH and RTEL1 and BC susceptibility. Unlike other associated genes, carriers of an ATM LoF had a significantly higher risk of developing BC than carriers of an ATM MV (ORLoF = 17.4 vs. ORMV = 1.6; p Het = 0.002). Hence, our approach allowed us to specify BC relative risks associated with deleterious-predicted variants in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and to add MAST1, POLH, RTEL1 and FANCI to the list of DNA repair genes possibly involved in BC susceptibility. We also highlight that different types of variants within the same gene can lead to different risk estimates.

6.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 36(6): 723-733, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236161

RESUMO

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inherited metabolic bone disease due to a deficiency of the tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme (TNSALP) encoded by the ALPL gene. Patients have consistently low serum alkaline phosphatase (AP), so that this parameter is a good hallmark of the disease. Adult HPP is heterogeneous, and some patients present only mild nonpathognomonic symptoms which are also common in the general population such as joint pain, osteomalacia and osteopenia, chondrocalcinosis, arthropathy and musculoskeletal pain. Adult HPP may be recessively or dominantly inherited; the latter case is assumed to be due to the dominant negative effect (DNE) of missense mutations derived from the functional homodimeric structure of TNSALP. However, there is no biological argument excluding the possibility of other causes of dominant HPP. Rheumatologists and endocrinologists are increasingly solicited for patients with low AP and nonpathognomonic symptoms of HPP. Many of these patients are heterozygous for an ALPL mutation and a challenging question is to determine if these symptoms, which are also common in the general population, are attributable to their heterozygous ALPL mutation or not. In an attempt to address this question, we reviewed a cohort of 61 adult patients heterozygous for an ALPL mutation. Mutations were distinguished according to their statistical likelihood to show a DNE. One-half of the patients carried mutations predicted with no DNE and were slightly less severely affected by the age of onset, serum AP activity and history of fractures. We hypothesized that these mutations result in another mechanism of dominance or are recessive alleles. To identify other genetic factors that could trigger the disease phenotype in heterozygotes for potential recessive mutations, we examined the next-generation sequencing results of 32 of these patients for a panel of 12 genes involved in the differential diagnosis of HPP or candidate modifier genes of HPP. The heterozygous genotype G/C of the COL1A2 coding SNP rs42524 c.1645C > G (p.Pro549Ala) was associated with the severity of the phenotype in patients carrying mutations with a DNE whereas the homozygous genotype G/G was over-represented in patients carrying mutations without a DNE, suggesting a possible role of this variant in the disease phenotype. These preliminary results support COL1A2 as a modifier gene of HPP and suggest that a significant proportion of adult heterozygotes for ALPL mutations may have unspecific symptoms not attributable to their heterozygosity.

7.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 32, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263841

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms with heterogeneous degrees of severity, including intellectual disability (ID), absent or delayed speech, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It results from a deletion of the distal part of chromosome 22q13 that in most cases includes the SHANK3 gene. SHANK3 is considered a major gene for PMS, but the factors that modulate the severity of the syndrome remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 85 patients with different 22q13 rearrangements (78 deletions and 7 duplications). We first explored the clinical features associated with PMS, and provide evidence for frequent corpus callosum abnormalities in 28% of 35 patients with brain imaging data. We then mapped several candidate genomic regions at the 22q13 region associated with high risk of clinical features, and suggest a second locus at 22q13 associated with absence of speech. Finally, in some cases, we identified additional clinically relevant copy-number variants (CNVs) at loci associated with ASD, such as 16p11.2 and 15q11q13, which could modulate the severity of the syndrome. We also report an inherited SHANK3 deletion transmitted to five affected daughters by a mother without ID nor ASD, suggesting that some individuals could compensate for such mutations. In summary, we shed light on the genotype-phenotype relationship of patients with PMS, a step towards the identification of compensatory mechanisms for a better prognosis and possibly treatments of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 16: 13, 2016 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26758370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Less than 20% of familial breast cancer patients who undergo genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carry a pathogenic mutation in one of these two genes. The GENESIS (GENE SISter) study was designed to identify new breast cancer susceptibility genes in women attending cancer genetics clinics and with no BRCA1/2 mutation. METHODS: The study involved the French national network of family cancer clinics. It was based on enrichment in genetic factors of the recruited population through case selection relying on familial criteria, but also on the consideration of environmental factors and endophenotypes like mammary density or tumor characteristics to assess potential genetic heterogeneity. One of the initial aims of GENESIS was to recruit affected sibpairs. Siblings were eligible when index cases and at least one affected sister were diagnosed with infiltrating mammary or ductal adenocarcinoma, with no BRCA1/2 mutation. In addition, unrelated controls and unaffected sisters were recruited. The enrolment of patients, their relatives and their controls, the collection of the clinical, epidemiological, familial and biological data were centralized by a coordinating center. RESULTS: Inclusion of participants started in February 2007 and ended in December 2013. A total of 1721 index cases, 826 affected sisters, 599 unaffected sisters and 1419 controls were included. 98% of participants completed the epidemiological questionnaire, 97% provided a blood sample, and 76% were able to provide mammograms. Index cases were on average 59 years old at inclusion, were born in 1950, and were 49.7 years of age at breast cancer diagnosis. The mean age at diagnosis of affected sisters was slightly higher (51.4 years). The representativeness of the control group was verified. CONCLUSIONS: The size of the study, the availability of biological specimens and the clinical data collection together with the detailed and complete epidemiological questionnaire make this a unique national resource for investigation of the missing heritability of breast cancer, by taking into account environmental and life style factors and stratifying data on endophenotypes to decrease genetic heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(1): 99-105, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25873010

RESUMO

To determine if the at-risk single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles for colorectal cancer (CRC) could contribute to clinical situations suggestive of an increased genetic risk for CRC, we performed a prospective national case-control study based on highly selected patients (CRC in two first-degree relatives, one before 61 years of age; or CRC diagnosed before 51 years of age; or multiple primary CRCs, the first before 61 years of age; exclusion of Lynch syndrome and polyposes) and controls without personal or familial history of CRC. SNPs were genotyped using SNaPshot, and statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's χ(2) test, Cochran-Armitage test of trend and logistic regression. We included 1029 patients and 350 controls. We confirmed the association of CRC risk with four SNPs, with odds ratio (OR) higher than previously reported: rs16892766 on 8q23.3 (OR: 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-2.72; P=0.0007); rs4779584 on 15q13.3 (OR: 1.42, CI: 1.11-1.83; P=0.0061) and rs4939827 and rs58920878/Novel 1 on 18q21.1 (OR: 1.49, CI: 1.13-1.98; P=0.007 and OR: 1.49, CI: 1.14-1.95; P=0.0035). We found a significant (P<0.0001) cumulative effect of the at-risk alleles or genotypes with OR at 1.62 (CI: 1.10-2.37), 2.09 (CI: 1.43-3.07), 2.87 (CI: 1.76-4.70) and 3.88 (CI: 1.72-8.76) for 1, 2, 3 and at least 4 at-risk alleles, respectively, and OR at 1.71 (CI: 1.18-2.46), 2.29 (CI: 1.55-3.38) and 6.21 (CI: 2.67-14.42) for 1, 2 and 3 at-risk genotypes, respectively. Combination of SNPs may therefore explain a fraction of clinical situations suggestive of an increased risk for CRC.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Mol Genet Metab ; 116(3): 215-20, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26432670

RESUMO

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inherited skeletal dysplasia due to loss of function mutations in the ALPL gene. The disease is subject to an extremely high clinical heterogeneity ranging from a perinatal lethal form to odontohypophosphatasia affecting only teeth. Up to now genetic diagnosis of HPP is performed by sequencing the ALPL gene by Sanger methodology. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and campomelic dysplasia (CD) are the main differential diagnoses of severe HPP, so that in case of negative result for ALPL mutations, OI and CD genes had often to be analyzed, lengthening the time before diagnosis. We report here our 18-month experience in testing 46 patients for HPP and differential diagnosis by targeted NGS and show that this strategy is efficient and useful. We used an array including ALPL gene, genes of differential diagnosis COL1A1 and COL1A2 that represent 90% of OI cases, SOX9, responsible for CD, and 8 potentially modifier genes of HPP. Seventeen patients were found to carry a mutation in one of these genes. Among them, only 10 out of 15 cases referred for HPP carried a mutation in ALPL and 5 carried a mutation in COL1A1 or COL1A2. Interestingly, three of these patients were adults with fractures and/or low BMD. Our results indicate that HPP and OI may be easily misdiagnosed in the prenatal stage but also in adults with mild symptoms for these diseases.


Assuntos
Hipofosfatasia/diagnóstico , Hipofosfatasia/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Displasia Campomélica/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Feto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hipofosfatasia/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Osteogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico , Desmineralização do Dente/congênito , Desmineralização do Dente/fisiopatologia
14.
PLoS Genet ; 10(9): e1004580, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25188300

RESUMO

SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ∼1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability-more than 1 in 50-warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/genética
15.
Haematologica ; 98(4): 649-54, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23065509

RESUMO

Waldenström's macroglobulinemia is a disease of mature B cells, the genetic basis of which is poorly understood. Few recurrent chromosomal abnormalities have been reported, and their prognostic value is not known. We conducted a prospective cytogenetic study of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and examined the prognostic value of chromosomal aberrations in an international randomized trial. The main aberrations were 6q deletions (30%), trisomy 18 (15%), 13q deletions (13%), 17p (TP53) deletions (8%), trisomy 4 (8%), and 11q (ATM) deletions (7%). There was a significant association between trisomy of chromosome 4 and trisomy of chromosome 18. Translocations involving the IGH genes were rare (<5%). Deletion of 6q and 11q, and trisomy 4, were significantly associated with adverse clinical and biological parameters. Patients with TP53 deletion had short progression-free survival and short disease-free survival. Although rare (<5%), trisomy 12 was associated with short progression-free survival. In conclusion, the cytogenetic profile of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia appears to differ from that of other B-cell lymphomas. Chromosomal abnormalities may help with diagnosis and prognostication, in conjunction with other clinical and biological characteristics.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Clorambucila/uso terapêutico , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Cariótipo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Trissomia , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/tratamento farmacológico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/patologia
16.
Br J Haematol ; 157(3): 347-56, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22390678

RESUMO

Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) is a heterogeneous haematopoietic disorder characterized by myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic features. At present, the pathogenesis of this malignancy is not completely understood. In this study, we sought to analyse gene expression profiles of CMML in order to characterize new molecular outcome predictors. A learning set of 32 untreated CMML patients at diagnosis was available for TaqMan low-density array gene expression analysis. From 93 selected genes related to cancer and cell cycle, we built a five-gene prognostic index after multiplicity correction. Using this index, we characterized two categories of patients with distinct overall survival (94% vs. 19% for good and poor overall survival, respectively; P = 0·007) and we successfully validated its strength on an independent cohort of 21 CMML patients with Affymetrix gene expression data. We found no specific patterns of association with traditional prognostic stratification parameters in the learning cohort. However, the poor survival group strongly correlated with high-risk treated patients and transformation to acute myeloid leukaemia. We report here a new multigene prognostic index for CMML, independent of the gene expression measurement method, which could be used as a powerful tool to predict clinical outcome and help physicians to evaluate criteria for treatments.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família Multigênica , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Prognóstico , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Células U937
17.
Fam Cancer ; 11(1): 77-84, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22076253

RESUMO

Women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations are considered as an extreme risk population for developing breast cancer. Prophylactic mastectomy provides a valid option to reduce such risk, impacting however, the quality of life. Medical prevention by aromatase inhibitor that has also recently shown to have preventive effect may thus be considered as an alternative. LIBER is an ongoing double-blind, randomized phase III trial to evaluate the efficacy of 5-year letrozole versus placebo to decrease breast cancer incidence in post-menopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (NCT00673335). We present data on the uptake of this trial. We compared characteristics of women in the LIBER trial (n = 113) to those of women enrolled in the prospective ongoing national GENEPSO cohort (n = 1,505). Uptake was evaluated through a survey sent to all active centres, with responses obtained from 17 to the 20 (85%) centres. According to the characteristics of the women enrolled in the GENEPSO cohort and the survey, approximately one-third of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were eligible for the trial. Five hundred and thirty-four women eligible from chart review have been informed by mail about the prevention trial and were invited to an oral information by participating centres. Forty-four percentage of them came to the dedicated medical visit. Uptake of drug prevention trial was 32% among women informed orally and 15% of all the eligible women. The main reasons of refusal were: potential side effects, probability to receive the placebo and lack of support from their physicians. Additionally, we noticed that prior prophylactic oophorectomy and previous unilateral breast cancer were more frequent in women enrolled in the LIBER trial than in the French cohort (93% vs. 60% and 50% vs. 39%, respectively). Based on an overall 15% uptake among all eligible subjects, greater and wider information of the trial should be offered to women with BRCA1/2 mutation to improve recruitment. Women with previous unilateral breast cancer or prior prophylactic oophorectomy are more likely to enter a medical prevention trial.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação/genética , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Letrozol , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ovariectomia , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós-Menopausa/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 96(10): E1619-29, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21849525

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Evidence suggests that human GH (hGH) and human prolactin (hPRL) possess an autocrine or paracrine oncogenic role in mammary and endometrial carcinoma. However, especially for hGH, the prognostic relevance of tumor expression of these hormones is not well defined. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the potential association of tumor mRNA and protein expression of hGH and hPRL with the clinicopathological features of mammary and endometrial carcinoma. The prognostic relevance of the individual or combined expression of hGH and hPRL in mammary and endometrial carcinoma was also determined. DESIGN: The expression of hGH and hPRL was analyzed in histopathological samples of mammary and endometrial carcinoma, and the respective normal tissues, by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the association of tumor hGH and hPRL expression with relapse-free survival and overall survival of patients. RESULTS: hGH expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor stage, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status, and proliferative index in mammary carcinoma and with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade, myometrial invasion, and ovarian metastases in endometrial carcinoma. hPRL expression was associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor grade, and tumor stage in mammary carcinoma and with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and myometrial invasion in endometrial carcinoma. Both hGH and hPRL expression, individually and combined, are associated with worse relapse-free survival and overall survival in patients with mammary or endometrial carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Tumor expression of both hGH or hPRL in mammary or endometrial carcinoma is associated with a large and significant difference in survival outcome for patients with these tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/biossíntese , Prolactina/biossíntese , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Digoxigenina , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso , Inclusão em Parafina , Lactogênio Placentário/metabolismo , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 96(9): E1418-26, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21733992

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Empirical evidence suggests that autocrine human GH (hGH) may possess a proliferative and oncogenic role in human mammary carcinoma. However, this concept is largely derived from studies using cultured human mammary carcinoma cell (HMCC) lines. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the expression and functionality of hGH and the hGH receptor in isolated cultures of primary HMCC. DESIGN: Epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive primary HMCC were isolated from surgical biopsies of patients with mammary carcinoma and cultured in vitro. Expression of hGH and hGH receptor was determined by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence microscopy, and ELISA. The proliferative response of the cultured primary HMCC to hGH stimulation or hGH inhibition with a hGH antagonist was determined. RESULTS: One hundred percent of cultured primary HMCC expressed the hGH receptor, and 52% expressed hGH at the mRNA level. hGH-positive primary HMCC produced hGH protein within the cell and secreted hGH to the media. Both hGH-negative and hGH-positive HMCC responded to hGH stimulation with large increases in cell number. hGH-positive HMCC responded to inhibition of hGH by a hGH antagonist with a decrease in cell number, whereas hGH-negative HMCC did not. CONCLUSION: Primary HMCC proliferate in response to hGH, and the proliferation of hGH-positive HMCC is inhibited by hGH antagonism. Inhibition of hGH in patients with mammary carcinoma may therefore limit tumor growth.


Assuntos
Comunicação Autócrina/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
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