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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e056987, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36285578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of electronic health records (EHRs) on health outcomes and care of displaced people with chronic health conditions and determine barriers and facilitators to EHR implementation in displaced populations. DESIGN: A systematic review protocol was developed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Systematic Reviews. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Health Technology Assessment, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched from inception to 12 April 2021. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTED STUDIES: Inclusion criteria were original research articles, case reports and descriptions of EHR implementation in populations of displaced people, refugees or asylum seekers with related chronic diseases. Grey literature, reviews and research articles unrelated to chronic diseases or the care of refugees or asylum populations were excluded. Studies were assessed for risk of bias using a modified Cochrane, Newcastle-Ottawa and Joanna Briggs Institute tools. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two reviewers independently extracted data from each study using Covidence. Due to heterogeneity across study design and specific outcomes, a meta-analysis was not possible. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo V.12 (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). An inductive analysis was used in order to uncover patterns and themes in the experiences, general outcomes and perceptions of EHR implementation. RESULTS: A total of 32 studies across nine countries were included: 14 in refugee camps/settlements and 18 in asylum countries. Our analysis suggested that EHRs improve health outcomes for chronic diseases by increasing provider adherence to guidelines or treatment algorithms, monitoring of disease indicators, patient counselling and patient adherence. In asylum countries, EHRs resource allocation to direct clinical care and public health services, as well as screening efforts. EHR implementation was facilitated by their adaptability and ability to integrate into management systems. However, barriers to EHR development, deployment and data analysis were identified in refugee settings. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that well-designed and integrated EHRs can be a powerful tool to improve healthcare systems and chronic disease outcomes in refugee settings. However, attention should be paid to the common barriers and facilitating actions that we have identified such as utilising a user-centred design. By implementing adaptable EHR solutions, health systems can be strengthened, providers better supported and the health of refugees improved.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Refugiados , Humanos , Austrália , Doença Crônica , Campos de Refugiados
2.
J Clin Lipidol ; 16(2): 220-226, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). As clinical LDL cholesterol [LDL-C] incorporates cholesterol from Lp(a) [Lp(a)-C], there is interest in quantifying the contribution of Lp(a)-C to LDL-C given implications for risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Estimating Lp(a)-C is subject to inaccuracies; measuring Lp(a) particle number [Lp(a)-P] is more accurate. OBJECTIVE: To capture how Lp(a) contributes to the concentration of atherogenic particles, we demonstrate a particle-based approach using readily available measures of Lp(a)-P and apolipoprotein B (apoB). METHODS: Using the Very Large Database of Lipids (VLDbL), we compared Lp(a)-P (nmol/L) with all apoB containing particles ("apoB-P"). apoB-P was calculated by converting apoB mass to molar concentration using the preserved molecular weight of apoB100 (512 kg/mol). We calculated the percentage of Lp(a)-P relative to apoB-P by Lp(a)-P deciles and stratified by triglycerides, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C. RESULTS: 158,260 patients from the VLDbL were included. The fraction Lp(a)-P/apoB-P increased with rising Lp(a)-P. Lp(a)-P comprised on average 3% of apoB containing particles among the study population and 15% at the highest Lp(a)-P decile. Lp(a)-P/apoB-P decreased at higher levels of triglycerides and LDL-C owing to larger contributions from VLDL and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a particle-based approach to quantify the contribution of Lp(a) to all apoB-containing particles using validated and widely available clinical assays. This approach keeps in line with recommendations to move away from mass-based measurements of Lp(a) and prioritize more accurate particle-based measurements. Future research applying this method could define clinically meaningful thresholds and inform use in risk assessment and management.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Hiperlipidemias , Apolipoproteínas B , Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Lipoproteína(a) , Triglicerídeos
3.
JMIR Med Inform ; 10(2): e33848, 2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rise of conflict, extreme weather events, and pandemics have led to larger displaced populations worldwide. Displaced populations have unique acute and chronic health needs that must be met by low-resource health systems. Electronic health records (EHRs) have been shown to improve health outcomes in displaced populations, but need to be adapted to meet the constraints of these health systems. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this viewpoint is to describe the development and deployment of an EHR designed to care for displaced populations in low-resource settings. METHODS: Using a human-centered design approach, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with patients, health care providers, and administrators in Lebanon and Jordan to identify the essential EHR features. These features, including modular workflows, multilingual interfaces, and offline-first capabilities, led to the development of the Hikma Health EHR, which has been deployed in Lebanon and Nicaragua. RESULTS: We report the successes and challenges from 12 months of Hikma Health EHR deployment in a mobile clinic providing care to Syrian refugees in Bekaa Valley, Lebanon. Successes include the EHR's ability to (1) increase clinical efficacy by providing detailed patient records, (2) be adaptable to the threats of COVID-19, and (3) improve organizational planning. Lessons learned include technical fixes to methods of identifying patients through name or their medical record ID. CONCLUSIONS: As the number of displaced people continues to rise globally, it is imperative that solutions are created to help maximize the health care they receive. Free, open-sourced, and adaptable EHRs can enable organizations to better provide for displaced populations.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(2): e023136, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023348

RESUMO

Background Accurate measurement of the cholesterol within lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]-C) and its contribution to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has important implications for risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, as well as in familial hypercholesterolemia. A method for estimating Lp(a)-C from particle number using fixed conversion factors has been proposed (Lp[a]-C from particle number divided by 2.4 for Lp(a) mass, multiplied by 30% for Lp[a]-C). The accuracy of this method, which theoretically can isolate "Lp(a)-free LDL-C," has not been validated. Methods and Results In 177 875 patients from the VLDbL (Very Large Database of Lipids), we compared estimated Lp(a)-C and Lp(a)-free LDL-C with measured values and quantified absolute and percent error. We compared findings with an analogous data set from the Mayo Clinic Laboratory. Error in estimated Lp(a)-C and Lp(a)-free LDL-C increased with higher Lp(a)-C values. Median error for estimated Lp(a)-C <10 mg/dL was -1.9 mg/dL (interquartile range, -4.0 to 0.2); this error increased linearly, overestimating by +30.8 mg/dL (interquartile range, 26.1-36.5) for estimated Lp(a)-C ≥50 mg/dL. This error relationship persisted after stratification by overall high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol subtypes. Similar findings were observed in the Mayo cohort. Absolute error for Lp(a)-free LDL-C was +2.4 (interquartile range, -0.6 to 5.3) for Lp(a)-C<10 mg/dL and -31.8 (interquartile range, -37.8 to -26.5) mg/dL for Lp(a)-C≥50 mg/dL. Conclusions Lp(a)-C estimations using fixed conversion factors overestimated Lp(a)-C and subsequently underestimated Lp(a)-free LDL-C, especially at clinically relevant Lp(a) values. Application of inaccurate Lp(a)-C estimations to correct LDL-C may lead to undertreatment of high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Lipoproteína(a) , Colesterol , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico
5.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 17(4): 68-78, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824683

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been the defining healthcare issue since its outbreak, consuming healthcare systems and disrupting all aspects of human life throughout 2020 and continuing through 2021. When reviewing cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the first tendency may be to focus on the negative disruption. Months of quarantine, isolation, and missed healthcare visits or delayed care may have exacerbated the epidemic of CVD in the United States. Looking back, however, perhaps it wasn't a lost year as much as a health crisis that better prepared us for the battle to improve cardiovascular health. The pandemic brought new platforms for interacting with patients eager to engage, presenting a unique opportunity to reset how we approach preventive care. In this review, we discuss what the pandemic has taught us about caring for those vulnerable patients who were most afflicted-older adults, persons of color, and people facing adverse socioeconomic circumstances-and who continue to be impacted by CVD. We also identify opportunities for enhanced CVD prevention now boosted by the overnight adoption of telemedicine and other innovative cardiac care models. Lastly, we discuss how the COVID-19 pandemic has motivated physicians and patients alike to prioritize our health above all else, if only transiently, and how we can leverage this increased health awareness and investment into long-term, meaningful disease prevention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Telemedicina , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
JACC Case Rep ; 3(12): 1422-1426, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557685

RESUMO

A healthy 41-year-old man sustained cardiac arrest secondary to ventricular fibrillation. An extensive ischemic, structural, and genetic evaluation did not identify an attributable pathologic condition. Electrocardiograms were notable for early repolarization pattern. Here we review the diagnosis, prevalence, and prognostic significance of the early repolarization syndrome on sudden cardiac death. (Level of Difficulty: Intermediate.).

7.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 23(7): 37, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983522

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been the cause of significant global morbidity and mortality. Here, we review the literature to date of the short-term and long-term consequences of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on the heart. RECENT FINDINGS: Early case reports described a spectrum of cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19, including myocarditis, stress cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmia. However, in most cases, myocardial injury in COVID-19 appears to be predominantly mediated by the severity of critical illness rather than direct injury to myocardium from viral particles. While cardiac magnetic resonance imaging remains a powerful tool for diagnosing acute myocarditis, it should be used judiciously in light of low baseline prevalence of myocarditis. Guiding an athletic patient through return to play (RTP) after COVID-19 infection is a challenging process. More recent data show RTP has been a safe endeavor using a screening protocol. "Long COVID" or post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection has also been described. The reported symptoms span a large breadth of cardiopulmonary and neurologic complaints including fatigue, palpitations, chest pain, breathlessness, brain fog, and dysautonomia including postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Management of POTS/dysautonomia primarily centers on education, exercise, and salt and fluid repletion. Our understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system is constantly evolving. As we enter a new age of survivorship, additional research is needed to catalogue the burden of persistent cardiopulmonary symptoms. Research is also needed to learn how acute management may alter the likelihood and prevalence of this chronic syndrome.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Volta ao Esporte , SARS-CoV-2 , Atletas , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/reabilitação , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Troponina/sangue
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