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1.
Rheumatol Int ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605152

RESUMO

Diet is a modifiable factor implicated in chronic systemic inflammation, and the mediterranean dietary pattern is considered to be a healthy model in terms of morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence to the mediterranean diet in patients with Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) and its impact on disease activity. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a cohort of 211 consecutive PsA patients. We evaluated PsA activity by disease activity index for PSoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA) and composite psoriatic disease activity index (CPDAI). The NCEP-ACT III criteria were used to identify subjects with MetS, and in each subject, we evaluated body mass index (BMI). A validated 14-item questionnaire for the assessment of adherence to the mediterranean diet (PREDIMED) was recorded for all the enrolled subjects. Patients showed a median age of 55 (48-62) and disease duration was 76 (36-120) months. 27.01% of patients were classified as having MetS. The median of the mediterranean diet score (MDS) was 7 (6-9). A moderate adherence to mediterranean diet was found in 66.35% of the entire cohort; 15.64% and 18.01% of the patients showed low- and high adherence to the dietary pattern, respectively. We found a negative association between DAPSA and adherence to mediterranean diet (B = - 3.291; 95% CI - 5.884 to - 0.698). DAPSA was positively associated with BMI (B = 0.332; 95% CI 0.047-0.618) and HAQ ( B = 2.176; 95% CI 0.984-3.368). Results from our study evidenced that in PsA patients, higher levels of disease activity as measured by DAPSA correlated with low adherence to mediterranean diet, suggesting potential benefit of antinflammatory properties of this dietary pattern.

2.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 31(5): 532-541, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192812

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Complement system dysfunction in terms of upregulation, downregulation, or dysregulation can create an imbalance of both host defense and inflammatory response leading to autoimmunity. In this review, we aimed at describing the role of complement system in host defense to inflection and in autoimmunity starting from the evidence from primary and secondary complement system deficiencies. RECENT FINDINGS: Complement system has a determinant role in defense against infections: deficiencies of complement components are associated with increased susceptibility to infections. Primary complement system deficiencies are rare disorders that predispose to both infections and autoimmune diseases. Secondary complement system deficiencies are the result of the complement system activation with consumption. Complement system role in enhancing risk of infective diseases in secondary deficiencies has been demonstrated in patients affected by systemic autoimmune disorders, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus and vasculitis. SUMMARY: The relationship between the complement system and autoimmunity appears paradoxical as both the deficiency and the activation contribute to inducing autoimmune diseases. In these conditions, the presence of complement deposition in affected tissues, decreased levels of complement proteins, and high levels of complement activation fragments in the blood and vessels have been documented.

3.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(8): 823-836, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177868

RESUMO

Introduction: Innate immune response and bone remodeling are key factors contributing to the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Moreover, the evidence of autoantibodies in patients' sera suggests an autoimmune side in PsA. Besides the immune pathways, studies strongly support the role of genetic risk alleles in affecting the clinical heterogeneity of PsA as well as the response to therapy. A good clinical response to treatment, indeed, represents a challenge in PsA patients and the identification of patient-targeted therapies is still a critical issue. Areas covered: We performed a systematic review aiming at describing new evidence on PsA pathogenesis and treatments. Reported items for systematic reviews (PRISMA checklist) were analyzed. Studies included from the PubMed database addressed the following items: innate immunity, autoimmunity, bone remodeling, and therapeutic targets in PsA; time frame of research 1970-2019. Specifically, we reviewed data on IL-17 inhibitors, abatacept, JAK inhibitors, ABT 122, and A (3) adenosine receptors agonist, CF101. Expert opinion: In PsA an intriguing pathogenetic network has been documented. Several biological and synthetic drugs are promising in terms of efficacy and safety profile.

4.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(5): 723-730, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this 2-year prospective study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic effect of a combined gastro-rheumatological approach in enteropathic spondyloarthritis (eSpA) patients. METHODS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with joint pain were referred by IBD-dedicated gastroenterologists to a dedicated rheumatologist. At baseline and at 3, 6, 12, 24 months, the following parameters were recorded: clinical and biochemical variables, SpA and IBD activity scores, treatment (conventional synthetic; csDMARDs, biologics; bDMARDs). Associations between treatment and patient characteristics were evaluated by logistic regression (AOR [95% CI]). RESULTS: Overall, 229 IBD patients were referred to rheumatologists. eSpA was diagnosed in 147 (64.2%) patients: 96 (65.3%) showing peripheral and 51 (34.7%) axial involvement. IBD included Crohn's disease (CD) in 141 (61.6%) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in 88 (38.4%). bDMARD treatment increased over the follow-up (baseline-24 months: 32.7-60%; AOR 3.45 [1.93-6.2], p<0.001). bDMARD use was less frequent in elderly patients (AOR 0.73 [0.56-0.96], p=0.023), in UC (AOR 0.43 [0.2-0.94], p=0.034) and in patients with peripheral involvement (AOR 0.53 [0.3-1.04], p=0.067). csDMARD use was increased in patients with peripheral involvement (AOR 4.65 [2.09-10.33], p<0.001) and in UC (AOR 2.30 [1.13-4.67], p=0.021). CRP, ESR, ASDAS-ESR levels and BASFI significantly decreased over the follow-up, whereas the pMayo score, BASDAI and HAQ-S were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study in eSpA patients, a multidisciplinary approach was shown to optimise the therapeutic management and outcome (e.g. disease activity scores). bDMARD use paralleled an improvement in disease activity scores and confirmed a good safety profile.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Espondilartrite , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos , Colite Ulcerativa , Comorbidade , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Reumáticas , Espondilartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Espondilartrite/epidemiologia
5.
Drugs Aging ; 36(10): 909-925, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250280

RESUMO

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) can start in subjects aged over 60 years, defined as late-onset PsA. In late-onset PsA, the weight of family history and genetic background appears less significant when compared with younger onset PsA, whereas obesity and smoking have been suggested as potential risk factors. In patients with late-onset PsA, erosive polyarticular or oligoarticular patterns are more frequent than other phenotypes. Laboratory findings usually show an increase in levels of acute phase reactants, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. The drugs used for the management of young PsA subjects represent the same therapeutic armamentarium used in patients with late-onset disease. However, in elderly subjects, these anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive therapies, including newer biologic therapies, represent an important challenge due to age aspects, increased frequency of comorbidities and associated polypharmacotherapy. There is a need for more evidence around treatment strategy for these patients in order to identify the best balance between the benefits and risks of pharmacological agents. This is important for establishing how treatment should ideally be tailored to the characteristics of any single patient and to the presence of complex age- and disease-related aspects. The objective of this review is to focus on pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of late-onset PsA and the management of elderly PsA patients.

6.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(7): 706-713, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059844

RESUMO

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a heterogeneous clinical response to the different treatments. Some patients are difficult to treat and do not reach the treatment targets as clinical remission or low disease activity. Known negative prognostic factors, such as the presence of auto-antiantibodies and joint erosion, the presence of a genetic profile, comorbidities and extra-articular manifestations, pregnancy or a pregnancy wish may concur to the treatment failure. In this review we aimed at identify difficult to treat RA patients and define the optimal therapeutic and environmental targets. Genetic markers of severity such as HLA-DRB1, TRAF1, PSORS1C1 and microRNA 146a are differently associated with joint damage; other gene polymorphisms seem to be associated with response to biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). The presence of comorbidities and/or extra-articular manifestations may influence the therapeutic choice; overweight and obese patients are less responsive to TNF inhibitors. In this context the patient profiling can improve the clinical outcome. Targeting different pathways, molecules, and cells involved in the pathogenesis of RA may in part justify the lack response of some patients. An overview of the future therapeutic targets, including bDMARDs (inhibitors of IL-6, GM-CSF, matrix metalloproteinases, chemokines) and targeted synthetic DMARDs (filgotinib, ABT-494, pefacitinib, decernotinib), and environmental targets is addressed. Environmental factors, such as diet and cigarette smoke, may influence susceptibility to autoimmune diseases and interfere with inflammatory pathways. Mediterranean diet, low salt intake, cocoa, curcumin, and physical activity seem to show beneficial effects, however studies of dose finding, safety and efficacy in RA need to be performed.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos
7.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Axial spondyloarthritides (axSpA) are a group of disorders that share similar pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical picture. The aim of this retrospective multicentric study was to evaluate demographic and clinical differences between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA) patients. METHODS: Patients from 7 rheumatological centres in the Lazio region of Italy were included from January 1st, 2010 to April 1st, 2018, if they had undergone pelvic and/or spine radiographs or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Images were evaluated by one experienced radiologist in each centre who already had the clinical suspicion of axSpA. Clinical and therapeutic data were collected at the last observation visit. Categorical variables were presented with percentages and analysed by Chi squared test. Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and compared using the parametric unpaired t-test or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test, when appropriate. p-values <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: 210 axSpA patients were included: 65.2% with AS and 34.7% with nr-axSpA. When comparing the two groups, AS patients had longer disease duration, were older, were more frequently males, had a greater diagnostic delay and a higher body mass index than the nr-axSpA patients (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p=0.003 p=0.007, and p=0.04, respectively). The peripheral joints of the nr-axSpA patients were more frequently involved, had higher frequency of inflammatory bowel disease, higher C-reactive protein levels and lower frequency of HLA-B27 positivity (p=0.005, p=0.007, p=0.01, and p=0.01, respectively). TNF inhibitors were used in 87.8% patients with AS and 78.3% with nr-axSpA (p=0.04). More fat metaplasia was observed on MRI in the nr-axSpA group than in the AS group at sacroiliac joints (p=0.003), and more backfills were detected in the AS group on spine-MRI (p=0.003). Spine-bone marrow oedema was more prevalent in AS than in nr-axSpA (p=0.04), and more sclerosis and backfill were found in AS (p=0.003 and p=0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In clinical practice, distinctive features in AS and nr-axSpA patients emerged. Imaging is crucial in guiding the choice of treatment in order to control disease activity and inflammation.

8.
Dermatol Ther ; 32(3): e12914, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968520

RESUMO

Nail involvement can place a significant burden on patients as a result of functional damage and psychosocial problems, leading to major repercussions on the quality of life. There is strong evidence that nail psoriasis can often be difficult to treat. We report a 69-year-old man with severe onychodystrophy, onycholysis, and pain in the hands; he had been previously treated with topical and systemic traditional therapies without satisfactory response. The patient showed multiple severe psoriatic crumbly nails (nail psoriasis severity index [NAPSI] score of 69) and started ustekinumab treatment at standard dosage of 45 mg fl.s.c. After 24 weeks, both nail matrix and nail bed disease showed marked improvement and the patient continued therapy with ustekinumab (NAPSI 0 at week 104). At week 136 (September 2015), the patient had been complaining of hands pain (visual analogue scale pain: 80) and ultrasonographic (US) evaluations found a synovial proliferation with effusion on metacarpophalangeal joints. The patient continued therapy with ustekinumab, adding methotrexate 10 mg fl.s.c/week. In November 2016, the patient showed a remission of symptoms; clinical and US evaluations did not find signs of synovitis. Methotrexate treatment was suspended and currently the patient reached more than 4 years of ustekinumab treatment without sign and symptoms of synovitis.

9.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(6): 565-575, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959209

RESUMO

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis that may be present in near 30% of patients affected by psoriasis (PsO), clinically characterized by inflammation of periarticular (e.g., enthesis) and articular structures. Recently, an autoimmune footprint of PsA pathogenesis has been demonstrated with the presence of autoantigens and related autoantibodies in PsA patients' sera. In this context, histological features of PsA synovitis supports the relevance of an autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease. Since there is no currently validated test for PsA, the analysis of PsA synovial tissue revealed pathognomonic characteristics of PsA that may support the clinician in the clinical practice. PsA synovitis is characterized by a sublining infiltrate with T and B cells, vascular proliferation and a relative thin lining layer of proliferating intimal synoviocytes. PsA synovial histopathology shows that ectopic lymphoid-neogenesis with an increase of IL-23 expression. These new pathogenetics features and the systemic nature of the disease raised the concept of a Systemic Psoriatic Disease (SysPsD), characterized by multiple extra-cutaneous and -articular manifestations, highlightening the great heterogeneity of this condition. SyPsD represents a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory condition with a wide spectrum of phenotypical manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe the new pathogenetic mechanisms and the different clinical pictures of SysPsD, with the ultimate goal of improving the knowledge of this heterogeneous chronic inflammatory condition.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/imunologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Humanos
10.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(3): 247-254, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639641

RESUMO

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a connective tissue disease that involves multiple organs. Ocular structures and visual pathways can be affected in SLE because of disease-related eye involvement or drug toxicity. All the part of the eye may be interested with an external, anterior involvement, responsible of the dry eye disease, or posterior (retina) and neuro-ophtalmic manifestations. Retinopathy in SLE is suggestive of high disease activity being a marker of poor visual outcome and prognosis for survival. The early diagnosis is thus the key to a better management and successful treatment. Antimalarial drugs are the cornerstone of SLE treatment and recently the American Academy of Ophthalmology updated the recommendations for hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity screening which includes the standard automated visual fields and the spectral domain optical coherent tomography. More recently new imaging techniques have been investigated to assess retinal function and reveal subclinical eye involvement. In this review we focalize on the evidence of eye manifestations in SLE, the eye drug toxicity related to antimalarial agents and steroids, and the methods employed for the eye screening. Moreover, the future perspectives on new techniques, such as the optical coherence tomography angiography, are dissected giving new insights on evaluation of microvasculature of the retina and choroid in SLE.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(4): e13955, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681555

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are chronic autoimmune diseases leading to joint damage, functional limitation, and disability and are typically associated with several comorbidities. Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by a disregulation of emotion processing and regulation of emotions that involves a dissociation of emotional and physical responses to life events. A broad association between alexithymia and symptoms as depression, inflammation, and pain has been demonstrated. We aimed at evaluate an association among inflammatory arthritis, as RA and PsA, and alexithymia, and a possible link with clinical characteristics and disease activity.In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled, from January to December 2017, patients affected by RA or PsA referring to the outpatient's clinic of the Rheumatology Unit of the University of Rome Tor Vergata. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used to assess alexithymia. Disease activity, function, quality of life, and clinimetric indexes were assessed.A total of 50 RA patients and 51 PsA patients were enrolled. The TAS-20 score showed 38.6% (39/101) patients had alexithymia, 26.7% (27/101) patients were in the borderline of alexithymia and 34.7% (35/101) patients did not have alexithymia. A statistical significant association was observed between alexithymia and inflammatory indices (ESR: P = .029, CRP: P = .043) and between alexithymia and clinimetric parameters (ptVAS, pVAS, GH, P < .0001 for all comparisons). A significant trend of association has been demonstrated between alexithymia and female gender and concomitant steroid therapy. No correlations among variables such as age, duration of disease, and comorbidities and alexithymia status were observed.This study suggests that alexithymia assessment should be a part of the comprehensive management of RA and PsA patients.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Artrite Psoriásica/psicologia , Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/etiologia , Idoso , Artrite Psoriásica/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(4): 575-584, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a Delphi consensus statement between rheumatologists and radiologists for the diagnosis and monitoring of axial spondyloarthritis (axial-SpA). METHODS: Following an extensive literature search to identify unmet needs and potential goals for a multidisciplinary approach, a scientific board comprising 28 Italian hospital-based rheumatologists (n=19) and radiologists (n=9) identified 8 "starting points", resulting in the development of 23 consensus statements covering issues from current practice guidelines to specific MRI protocols for the assessment of axial-SpA. Each participant anonymously expressed a level of agreement for each statement using a 5-point Likert scale (1="strongly disagree"; 5="strongly agree") via an online Delphi method.Total cumulative agreement (TCA) was defined as the sum of the percentage of response to items 4 ("agree") and 5 ("absolutely agree"). Consensus was defined as ≥80% total cumulative agreement for each statement. RESULTS: After the first round of voting (28 participants), positive consensus was reached for 28/31 (90.3%) statements. Statements without consensus (n=3) were discussed in a face-to-face plenary session prior to the second vote (28 participants). After the second round voting, positive consensus was attained for all 31 statements, with mean final TCA of 95.5% (range 82.1-100%). CONCLUSIONS: This Delphi consensus statement provides an aid to rheumatologists and radiologists for the diagnosis and monitoring of axial-SpA.


Assuntos
Radiologistas , Reumatologistas , Espondilartrite , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Itália , Radiologistas/psicologia , Reumatologistas/psicologia , Espondilartrite/diagnóstico , Espondilartrite/terapia
13.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(2): 164-176, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572134

RESUMO

Pregnancy requires a special management in women with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (RDs), with the aim of controlling maternal disease activity and avoiding fetal complications. Despite the heterogeneous course of RDs during pregnancy, their impact on pregnancy largely relates to the extent of active inflammation at the time of conception. Therefore, accurate evaluation of disease activity is crucial for the best management of pregnant patients. Nevertheless, there are limitations in using conventional measures of disease activity in pregnancy, as some items included in these instruments can be biased by symptoms or by physiological changes related to pregnancy and the pregnancy itself may influence laboratory parameters used to assess disease activity. This article aims to summarize the current literature about the available instruments to measure disease activity during pregnancy in RDs. Systemic lupus erythematosus is the only disease with instruments that have been modified to account for several adaptations which might interfere with the attribution of signs or symptoms to disease activity during pregnancy. No modified-pregnancy indices exist for women affected by other RDs, but standard indices have been applied to pregnant patients. The current body of knowledge shows that the physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy need to be either adapted from existing instruments or developed to improve the management of pregnant women with RDs. Standardized instruments to assess disease activity during pregnancy would be helpful not only for clinical practice but also for research purposes.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Doenças Reumáticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Doenças Reumáticas/patologia
15.
Autoimmun Rev ; 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408582

RESUMO

Autoimmune rheumatic diseases are characterised by an abnormal immune system response, complement activation, cytokines dysregulation and inflammation. In last years, despite many progresses in managing these patients, it has been shown that clinical remission is reached in less than 50% of patients and a personalised and tailored therapeutic approach is still lacking resulting in a significant gap between guidelines and real-world practice. In this context, the need for biomarkers facilitating early diagnosis and profiling those individuals at the highest risk for a poor outcome has become of crucial interest. A biomarker generally refers to a measured characteristic which may be used as an indicator of some biological state or condition. Three different types of medical biomarkers has been suggested: i. mechanistic markers; ii. clinical disease markers; iii. therapeutic markers. A combination of biomarkers from these different groups could be used for an ideal more accurate diagnosis and treatment. However, although a growing body of evidence is focused on improving biomarkers, a significant amount of this information is not integrated on standard clinical care. The overarching aim of this work was to clarify the meaning of specific biomarkers during autoimmune diseases; their possible role in confirming diagnosis, predicting outcome and suggesting specific treatments.

16.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2363, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429845

RESUMO

Psoriasis (PsO) is an autoimmune disease characterized by keratinocyte proliferation, chronic inflammation and mast cell activation. Up to 42% of patients with PsO may present psoriatic arthritis (PsA). PsO and PsA share common pathophysiological mechanisms: keratinocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes are resistant to apoptosis: this is one of the mechanism facilitating their hyperplasic growth, and at joint level, the destruction of articular cartilage, and bone erosion and/or proliferation. Several clinical studies regarding diseases characterized by impairment of cell death, either due to apoptosis or necrosis, reported cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the extracellular space and finally into the circulation. The presence of elevated cytochrome c levels in serum has been demonstrated in diseases as inflammatory arthritis, myocardial infarction and stroke, and liver diseases. Cytochrome c is a signaling molecule essential for apoptotic cell death released from mitochondria to the cytosol allowing the interaction with protease, as the apoptosis protease activation factor, which lead to the activation of factor-1 and procaspase 9. It has been demonstrated that this efflux from the mitochondria is crucial to start the intracellular signaling responsible for apoptosis, then to the activation of the inflammatory process. Another inflammatory marker, the tryptase, a trypsin-like serine protease produced by mast cells, is released during inflammation, leading to the activation of several immune cells through proteinase-activated receptor-2. In this review, we aimed at discussing the role played by cytochrome c and tryptase in PsO and PsA pathogenesis. To this purpose, we searched pathogenetic mechanisms in PUBMED database and review on oxidative stress, cytochrome c and tryptase and their potential role during inflammation in PsO and PsA. To this regard, the cytochrome c release into the extracellular space and tryptase may have a role in skin and joint inflammation.

18.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 177(1): 45-56, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren syndrome (SS) may be subclinical and thus underdiagnosed. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at evaluating morphological and functional visual abnormalities in a cohort of SLE and SS patients in the absence of an overt clinical visual impairment. We also investigated potential associations between retinal disorders and disease activity, organ involvement, and treatment with steroid and/or hydroxychloroquine. METHODS: The study comprised 42 SLE and 36 primary SS patients and 76 healthy controls (HC). Ophthalmological examination, standard automated perimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus perimetry were performed. RESULTS: Retinal thickness of the posterior pole was not different between SLE and HC groups, but it was reduced in the SS group compared with both the HC and the SLE group. In SLE and SS patients, mean defect and pattern standard deviation by standard automated perimetry were higher than in HC. Visual field index values were lower in both SLE and SS patients than in HC. SLE patients with nephritis displayed increased mean defect and pattern standard deviation and reduced visual field index values compared to patients without nephritis. In SLE and SS patients, fundus perimetry differential sensitivity was reduced, and mean defect values were higher than in HC. Disturbances in fundus perimetry in the SLE group were more prevalent in steroid-naïve patients and in SS patients who received a cumulative hydroxychloroquine dose > 1,000 g. CONCLUSIONS: Functional eye impairment was demonstrated in SLE patients, possibly associated with kidney involvement. In SLE, corticosteroids might exert a protective role. Morphological alterations and functional impairment were detected in SS patients, which may be linked to hydroxychloroquine toxicity.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Doenças Retinianas/etiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inflammatory involvement of the enthesis in the course of psoriasis is accompanied by structural abnormalities detectable by ultrasound. The most common of these abnormalities is the thickening of the tendon at the insertion site. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to compare the thickness of entheses of patients with psoriatic arthritis, only skin psoriasis, and healthy controls. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a cohort of patients affected with either only skin psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis as well as in a control group. Eight entheses sites were scanned by ultrasound bilaterally. The following entheseal characteristics were collected and recorded in a predefined database: entheseal thickness, bone erosions, enthesis calcifications (enthesophytes), presence of blood flow, and presence of bursitis. All the detected entheseal changes were scored, and the data was statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The major differences in enthesis thickness between only skin psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis patients were found at the following sites: (i) olecranon tuberosity, (ii) superior pole of the patella, and (iii) medial epicondyle of femur. The thickness of the medial collateral ligament at the site of the femoral origin was increased in psoriatic arthritis, but not in both only skin psoriasis and healthy controls. The score obtained by adding the thickness of all the 8 examined entheses for each patient showed significant differences among the three groups (psoriatic arthritis: 81.3; only skin psoriasis 74.4; Controls: 67.6; P < 0.0001). Interestingly, we found that in psoriatic arthritis patients, the highest enthesis thickening was seen in entheses affected by bone erosions. LIMITATIONS: The small sample of patients studied is a limiting factor in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that the ultrasound measurement of the enthesis thickness enables a distinction between patients with psoriatic arthritis from those with only skin psoriasis. It is a useful method to improve diagnostic accuracy, especially in patients without clear clinical signs of enthesitis.

20.
Autoimmun Rev ; 17(3): 276-283, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378263

RESUMO

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease, seen in combination with psoriasis. Both genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the development of PsA, however little is known about the different weight of these two distinctive components in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genomic variability in PsA is associated with the disease and/or some peculiar clinical phenotypes. Candidate genes involved are crucial in inflammation, immune system, and epithelial permeability. Moreover, the genesis and regulation of inflammation are influenced by the composition of the human intestinal microbiome that is able to modulate both mucosal and systemic immune system. It is possible that pro-inflammatory responses initiated in gut mucosa could contribute to the induction and progression of autoimmune conditions. Given such premises, the aim of this review is to summarize immune-mediated response and specific bacterial changes in the composition of fecal microbiota in PsA patients and to analyze the relationships between bacterial changes, immune system, and host genetic background.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/genética , Microbiota/genética , Artrite Psoriásica/imunologia , Artrite Psoriásica/patologia , Humanos
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