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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 3669-3678, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829788

RESUMO

Many optoelectronic devices based on organic materials require rapid and long-range singlet exciton transport. Key factors controlling exciton transport include material structure, exciton-phonon coupling and electronic state symmetry. Here, we employ femtosecond transient absorption microscopy to study the influence of these parameters on exciton transport in one-dimensional conjugated polymers. We find that excitons with 21Ag- symmetry and a planar backbone exhibit a significantly higher diffusion coefficient (34 ± 10 cm2 s-1) compared to excitons with 11Bu+ symmetry (7 ± 6 cm2 s-1) with a twisted backbone. We also find that exciton transport in the 21Ag- state occurs without exciton-exciton annihilation. Both 21Ag- and 11Bu+ states are found to exhibit subdiffusive behavior. Ab initio GW-BSE calculations reveal that this is due to the comparable strengths of the exciton-phonon interaction and exciton coupling. Our results demonstrate the link between electronic state symmetry, backbone torsion and phonons in exciton transport in π-conjugated polymers.

2.
Clin Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited real-world data exist on healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and associated costs of patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and preserved EF (HFpEF), including urgent HF visits, which are assumed to be less burdensome than HF hospitalizations (hHFs) HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to quantify the economic burden of HFrEF and HFpEF, via a retrospective, longitudinal cohort study, using IBM® linked claims/electronic health records (Commercial and Medicare Supplemental data only). METHODS: Adult patients, indexed on HF diagnosis (ICD-10-CM: I50.x) from July 2012 through June 2018, with 6-month minimum baseline period and varying follow-up, were classified as HFrEF (I50.2x) or HFpEF (I50.3x) according to last-observed EF-specific diagnosis. HCRU/costs were assessed during follow-up. RESULTS: About 109 721 HF patients (22% HFrEF, 31% HFpEF, 47% unclassified EF; median 18 months' follow-up) were identified. There were 3.2 all-cause outpatient visits per patient-month (HFrEF, 3.3; HFpEF, 3.6); 69% of patients required inpatient stays (HFrEF, 80%; HFpEF, 78%). Overall, 11% of patients experienced hHFs (HFrEF, 23%; HFpEF, 16%), 9% experienced urgent HF visits (HFrEF, 15%; HFpEF, 12%); 26% were hospitalized less than 30 days after first urgent HF visit versus 11% after first hHF. Mean monthly total direct healthcare cost per patient was $9290 (HFrEF, $11 053; HFpEF, $7482). CONCLUSIONS: HF-related HCRU is substantial among contemporary real-world HF patients in US Commercial or Medicare supplemental health plans. Patients managed in urgent HF settings were over twice as likely to be hospitalized within 30 days versus those initially hospitalized, suggesting urgent HF visits are important clinical events and quality improvement targets.

3.
JAMA Surg ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787826

RESUMO

Importance: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is one of the most common causes of secondary hypertension but remains largely unrecognized and untreated. Objective: To understand the outcomes of a specialized clinic on rates of evaluation and treatment of PA in the context of secondary factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study was conducted in Alberta, Canada, using linked administrative data between April 1, 2012, and July 31, 2019, on adults identified as having hypertension. Main Outcomes and Measures: We evaluated each step of the diagnostic and care pathway for PA to determine the proportion of people with hypertension who received screening, subtyping, and targeted treatment for PA. Variations in diagnosis and treatment were examined according to individual-level, clinician-level, and system-level characteristics. Results: Of the 1.1 million adults with hypertension, 7941 people (0.7%) were screened for PA. Among those who were screened, 1703 (21.4%) had positive test results consistent with possible PA, and 1005 (59.0%) of these were further investigated to distinguish between unilateral and bilateral forms of PA. Only 731 individuals (42.9%) with a positive screen result received disease-targeted treatment. Geographic zones and clinician specialty were the strongest determinants of screening, subtyping, and treatment of PA, with the highest rates corresponding to the location of the provincial endocrine hypertension program. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort, less than 1% of patients expected to have PA were ever formally diagnosed and treated. These findings suggest that a system-level approach to assist with investigation and treatment of PA may be highly effective in closing care gaps and improving clinical outcomes.

4.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419175

RESUMO

Simulating the non-perturbative and non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems is a very challenging many body problem, due to the need to evolve both the system and its environments on an equal footing. Tensor network and matrix product states (MPS) have emerged as powerful tools for open system models, but the numerical resources required to treat finite-temperature environments grow extremely rapidly and limit their applications. In this study we use time-dependent variational evolution of MPS to explore the striking theory of Tamascelli et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2019, 123, 090402.) that shows how finite-temperature open dynamics can be obtained from zero temperature, i.e., pure wave function, simulations. Using this approach, we produce a benchmark dataset for the dynamics of the Ohmic spin-boson model across a wide range of coupling strengths and temperatures, and also present a detailed analysis of the numerical costs of simulating non-equilibrium steady states, such as those emerging from the non-perturbative coupling of a qubit to baths at different temperatures. Despite ever-growing resource requirements, we find that converged non-perturbative results can be obtained, and we discuss a number of recent ideas and numerical techniques that should allow wide application of MPS to complex open quantum systems.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(5): 5919-5928, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480246

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has created a need for coatings that reduce infection from SARS-CoV-2 via surfaces. Such a coating could be used on common touch surfaces (e.g., door handles and railings) to reduce both disease transmission and fear of touching objects. Herein, we describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a cupric oxide anti-SARS-CoV-2 coating. Rapid loss of infectivity is an important design criterion, so a porous hydrophilic coating was created to allow rapid infiltration of aqueous solutions into the coating where diffusion distances to the cupric oxide surface are short and the surface area is large. The coating was deposited onto glass from a dispersion of cuprous oxide in ethanol and then thermally treated at 700 °C for 2 h to produce a CuO coating that is ≈30 µm thick. The heat treatment oxidized the cuprous oxide to cupric oxide and sintered the particles into a robust film. The SARS-CoV-2 infectivity from the CuO film was reduced by 99.8% in 30 min and 99.9% in 1 h compared to that from glass. The coating remained hydrophilic for at least 5 months, and there was no significant change in the cross-hatch test of robustness after exposure to 70% ethanol or 3 wt % bleach.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Cobre/farmacologia , /fisiologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Propriedades de Superfície , Células Vero , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Difração de Raios X
6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(3): e1170-e1178, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320942

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The reproducibility of adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to determine reproducibility of biochemical results and diagnostic lateralization in patients undergoing repeat AVS. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of single-center, single-operator AVS procedures at a tertiary care center. Included were patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism (PA) undergoing repeat AVS because of concerns about technical success or discordant diagnostic results. Simultaneous AVS was performed by an experienced operator using a consistent protocol of precosyntropin and postcosyntropin infusion. Among successfully catheterized adrenal veins (selectivity index ≥ 2), the correlation of the adrenalaldosterone/cortisol (A/C) ratio was measured between the first and second AVS. The secondary outcome measure was diagnostic agreement on repeat AVS lateralization (lateralization index ≥ 3). RESULTS: There were 46 sets of AVS from 23 patients at a median of 3 months apart. There was moderate correlation in A/C ratios in the adrenal veins and inferior vena cava (Spearman r = 0.49-0.59, P < .05) pre cosyntropin. Post cosyntropin, the correlation was better (Spearman r = 0.67-0.76, P < .05). In technically successful AVS, there was moderate correlation between the repeated lateralization indices (Spearman r = 0.53, P < .05). In 15 patients in whom repeat AVS was performed because of apparent lateralization discordance with computed tomography imaging, the final diagnosis was the same in the second AVS procedure. Initial failed AVS was successful 75% of the time on repeat attempt. CONCLUSION: Repeat AVS was feasible and usually successful when an initial attempt failed. There was modest correlation between individual repeat adrenal A/C ratios and lateralization indices when AVS was performed twice. The final lateralization diagnosis was identical in all cases. This demonstrates that AVS is a reliable and reproducible localizing test in PA.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 10306-10314, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227205

RESUMO

Inhomogeneous broadening of optical lines of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting protein is investigated by combining a Monte Carlo sampling of low-energy conformational substates of the protein with a quantum chemical/electrostatic calculation of local transition energies (site energies) of the pigments. The good agreement between the optical spectra calculated for the inhomogeneous ensemble and the experimental data demonstrates that electrostatics is the dominant contributor to static disorder in site energies. Rotamers of polar amino acid side chains are found to cause bimodal distribution functions of site energy shifts, which can be probed by hole burning and single-molecule spectroscopy. When summing over the large number of contributions, the resulting distribution functions of the site energies become Gaussians, and the correlations in site energy fluctuations at different sites practically average to zero. These results demonstrate that static disorder in the FMO protein is in the realm of the central limit theorem of statistics.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180934

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Many patients with unilateral primary aldosteronism (PA) have normal adrenal imaging, but little is known about their outcome following adrenalectomy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate biochemical and clinical outcomes after adrenalectomy in patients with unilateral PA and normal-appearing adrenal imaging. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of patients seen between January 2006 and May 2018. SETTING: A Canadian tertiary care PA referral center. PATIENTS: Consecutive individuals with PA, normal cross-sectional adrenal imaging, and lateralizing adrenal vein sampling (AVS) who underwent adrenalectomy during the study period. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Biochemical response to adrenalectomy graded according to the Primary Aldosteronism Surgical Outcome criteria. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were included. Biochemical outcomes were available for 33 people (mean age, 54.7 years; 91% male; median follow-up, 2.7 months), with 28 (85%) showing a complete or partial response and 5 (15%) with no response. Clinical outcomes were available for 36 people (mean age, 54.6 years; 86% male; median follow-up, 9.8 months), with 31 (86%) demonstrating a complete or partial response and 5 (14%) with no response. CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis after adrenalectomy is highly favorable for patients with unilateral PA and normal-appearing adrenal imaging. Patients with lateralizing disease should be considered for surgery despite apparently normal adrenal imaging.

11.
Thyroid ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108964

RESUMO

Background: Women with hypothyroidism before pregnancy often require an increase in their levothyroxine dosage to maintain a euthyroid state during pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to investigate: (i) the frequency and distribution of thyrotropin (TSH) testing and levothyroxine dosage adjustment by gestational age, (ii) the magnitude of levothyroxine increase by the underlying etiology of hypothyroidism, and (iii) the relationship of overtreatment or undertreatment during pregnancy with adverse pregnancy outcomes among women using thyroid replacement before pregnancy. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of pregnancies in women on thyroid replacement before pregnancy in Alberta, Canada, was performed. Women using thyroid replacement anytime during the two years before pregnancy who delivered between October 2014 and September 2017 were included. Delivery records, physician billing, and laboratory and pharmacy administrative data were linked. Outcomes included characteristics of TSH testing, levothyroxine dosing, and pregnancy outcomes. The frequency and gestational timing of TSH testing and levothyroxine adjustments were calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test whether pregnancies with TSH <0.10 mIU/L (overtreatment) or TSH ≥10.00 mIU/L (undertreatment) compared with control pregnancies (TSH 0.10-4.00 mIU/L) were associated with adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Results: Of the 10,680 deliveries, 8774 (82.2%) underwent TSH testing at least once during pregnancy, at a median gestational age of six weeks. An adjustment of levothyroxine dosage was made for 4321 (43.7%) during pregnancy. TSH in pregnancy below 0.10 mIU/L increased the odds of preterm delivery when compared with control pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio, 2.14 [95% confidence interval 1.51-2.78]). TSH ≥10.00 mIU/L during pregnancy was not associated with any adverse pregnancy or neonatal outcomes in the multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Although most women on thyroid replacement before conception had TSH measured at some point during pregnancy, it is concerning that 17.8% did not. Levothyroxine overtreatment in pregnancy was associated with preterm delivery. These findings suggest that clinicians should be careful to avoid overtreatment with levothyroxine in pregnancy.

12.
J Chem Phys ; 153(8): 084103, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872885

RESUMO

Exciton-polaritons in organic materials are hybrid states that result from the strong interaction of photons and the bound excitons that these materials host. Organic polaritons hold great interest for optoelectronic applications; however, progress toward this end has been impeded by the lack of a first principles approach that quantifies light-matter interactions in these systems, which would allow the formulation of molecular design rules. Here, we present a theoretical framework that combines first principles calculations for excitons with classical electrodynamics in order to quantify light-matter interactions. We exemplify our approach by studying variants of the conjugated polymer polydiacetylene, and we show that a large polymer conjugation length is critical toward strong exciton-photon coupling, hence underlying the importance of pure structures without static disorder. By comparing to our experimental reflectivity measurements, we show that the coupling of excitons to vibrations, manifested by phonon side bands in the absorption, has a strong impact on the magnitude of light-matter coupling over a range of frequencies. Our approach opens the way toward a deeper understanding of polaritons in organic materials, and we highlight that a quantitatively accurate calculation of the exciton-photon interaction would require accounting for all sources of disorder self-consistently.

13.
Nat Immunol ; 21(10): 1293-1301, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807944

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in December 2019 and has caused a worldwide pandemic due to the lack of any pre-existing immunity. Accurate serology testing is urgently needed to help diagnose infection, determine past exposure of populations and assess the response to a future vaccine. The landscape of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. In this study, we utilized the luciferase immunoprecipitation system to assess the antibody responses to 15 different SARS-CoV-2 antigens in patients with COVID-19. We identified new targets of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and show that nucleocapsid, open reading frame (ORF)8 and ORF3b elicit the strongest specific antibody responses. ORF8 and ORF3b antibodies, taken together as a cluster of points, identified 96.5% of COVID-19 samples at early and late time points of disease with 99.5% specificity. Our findings could be used to develop second-generation diagnostic tests to improve serological assays for COVID-19 and are important in understanding pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(11): 2701-2704, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749957

RESUMO

We investigated 68 respiratory specimens from 35 coronavirus disease patients in Hong Kong, of whom 32 had mild disease. We found that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and subgenomic RNA were rarely detectable beyond 8 days after onset of illness. However, virus RNA was detectable for many weeks by reverse transcription PCR.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
15.
CMAJ ; 192(41): E1189-E1197, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unprecedented demand for N95 respirators during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a global shortage of these masks. We validated a rapidly applicable, low-cost decontamination protocol in compliance with regulatory standards to enable the safe reuse of N95 respirators. METHODS: We inoculated 4 common models of N95 respirators with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and evaluated viral inactivation after disinfection for 60 minutes at 70°C and 0% relative humidity. Similarly, we evaluated thermal disinfection at 0% to 70% relative humidity for masks inoculated with Escherichia coli. We assessed masks subjected to multiple cycles of thermal disinfection for structural integrity using scanning electron microscopy and for protective functions using standards of the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for particle filtration efficiency, breathing resistance and respirator fit. RESULTS: A single heat treatment rendered SARS-CoV-2 undetectable in all mask samples. Compared with untreated inoculated control masks, E. coli cultures at 24 hours were virtually undetectable from masks treated at 70°C and 50% relative humidity (optical density at 600 nm wavelength, 0.02 ± 0.02 v. 2.77 ± 0.09, p < 0.001), but contamination persisted for masks treated at lower relative humidity. After 10 disinfection cycles, masks maintained fibre diameters similar to untreated masks and continued to meet standards for fit, filtration efficiency and breathing resistance. INTERPRETATION: Thermal disinfection successfully decontaminated N95 respirators without impairing structural integrity or function. This process could be used in hospitals and long-term care facilities with commonly available equipment to mitigate the depletion of N95 masks.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas , Temperatura Alta , Humanos
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(31): 34723-34727, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657566

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the disease COVID-19, remains viable on solids for periods of up to 1 week, so one potential route for human infection is via exposure to an infectious dose from a solid. We have fabricated and tested a coating that is designed to reduce the longevity of SARS-CoV-2 on solids. The coating consists of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) particles bound with polyurethane. After 1 h on coated glass or stainless steel, the viral titer was reduced by about 99.9% on average compared to the uncoated sample. An advantage of a polyurethane-based coating is that polyurethane is already used to coat a large number of everyday objects. Our coating adheres well to glass and stainless steel as well as everyday items that people may fear to touch during a pandemic, such as a doorknob, a pen, and a credit card keypad button. The coating performs well in the cross-hatch durability test and remains intact and active after 13 days of being immersed in water or after exposure to multiple cycles of exposure to the virus and disinfection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Cobre/química , Cobre/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Poliuretanos/química , Poliuretanos/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
CMAJ ; 192(22): E596-E602, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening in pregnancy for subclinical hypothyroidism, often defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) greater than 2.5 mIU/L or greater than 4.0 mIU/L, is controversial. We determined the frequency and distribution of TSH testing by gestational age, as well as TSH values associated with treatment during pregnancy and the frequency of postpartum continuation of thyroid hormone therapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies in Alberta, Canada. We included women without thyroid disease who delivered between October 2014 and September 2017. We used delivery records, physician billings, and pharmacy and laboratory administrative data. Our key outcomes were characteristics of TSH testing and the initiation and continuation of thyroid hormone therapy. We calculated the proportion of pregnancies with thyroid testing and the frequency of each specific thyroid test. RESULTS: Of the 188 490 pregnancies included, 111 522 (59.2%) had at least 1 TSH measurement. The most common time for testing was at gestational week 5 to 6. Thyroid hormone therapy was initiated at a median gestational age of 7 (interquartile range 5-12) weeks. Among women with first TSH measurements of 4.01 to 9.99 mIU/L who were not immediately treated, the repeat TSH measurement was 4.00 mIU/L or below in 67.9% of pregnancies. Thyroid hormone was continued post partum for 44.6% of the women who started therapy during their pregnancy. INTERPRETATION: The findings of our study suggest that current practice patterns may contribute to overdiagnosis of hypothyroidism and overtreatment during pregnancy and post partum.

20.
Nature ; 583(7818): 834-838, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408338

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus with high nucleotide identity to SARS-CoV and to SARS-related coronaviruses that have been detected in horseshoe bats, has spread across the world and had a global effect on healthcare systems and economies1,2. A suitable small animal model is needed to support the development of vaccines and therapies. Here we report the pathogenesis and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in golden (Syrian) hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated the presence of viral antigens in nasal mucosa, bronchial epithelial cells and areas of lung consolidation on days 2 and 5 after inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, followed by rapid viral clearance and pneumocyte hyperplasia at 7 days after inoculation. We also found viral antigens in epithelial cells of the duodenum, and detected viral RNA in faeces. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted efficiently from inoculated hamsters to naive hamsters by direct contact and via aerosols. Transmission via fomites in soiled cages was not as efficient. Although viral RNA was continuously detected in the nasal washes of inoculated hamsters for 14 days, the communicable period was short and correlated with the detection of infectious virus but not viral RNA. Inoculated and naturally infected hamsters showed apparent weight loss on days 6-7 post-inoculation or post-contact; all hamsters returned to their original weight within 14 days and developed neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that features associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in golden hamsters resemble those found in humans with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Mesocricetus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Aerossóis , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Brônquios/patologia , Brônquios/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Duodeno/virologia , Fômites/virologia , Abrigo para Animais , Rim/virologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus/imunologia , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , RNA Viral/análise , Carga Viral , Perda de Peso
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