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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376999

RESUMO

The gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission system has been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Molecular neuroimaging studies incorporating simultaneous acquisitions of GABA concentrations and GABAA receptor densities can identify objective molecular markers in ASD. We measured both total GABAA receptor densities by using [18F]flumazenil positron emission tomography ([18F]FMZ-PET) and GABA concentrations by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in 28 adults with ASD and 29 age-matched typically developing (TD) individuals. Focusing on the bilateral thalami and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as our regions of interest, we found no differences in GABAA receptor densities between ASD and TD groups. However, 1H-MRS measurements revealed significantly higher GABA/Water (GABA normalized by water signal) in the left DLPFC of individuals with ASD than that of TD controls. Furthermore, a significant gender effect was observed in the thalami, with higher GABA/Water in males than in females. Hypothesizing that thalamic GABA correlates with ASD symptom severity in gender-specific ways, we stratified by diagnosis and investigated the interaction between gender and thalamic GABA/Water in predicting Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and Ritvo Autism Asperger's Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) total scores. We found that gender is a significant effect modifier of thalamic GABA/Water's relationship with AQ and RAADS-R scores for individuals with ASD, but not for TD controls. When we separated the ASD participants by gender, a negative correlation between thalamic GABA/Water and AQ was observed in male ASD participants. Remarkably, in female ASD participants, a positive correlation between thalamic GABA/Water and AQ was found.

2.
J Control Release ; 324: 330-340, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450093

RESUMO

Spurred by newly developed drug delivery systems (DDSs), side effects of cancer chemotherapy could be reduced by using multifunctional nanoplatforms. However, the facile synthesis of effective DDSs remains a challenge. Here, a six-arginine-tailed anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) affibody was employed to easily synthesize the highly reactive oxygen species (hROS)- and trypsin-responsive 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid-modified gold nanoclusters (MUA-Au NCs) for tumor-targeted drug delivery. The polyarginine moiety of affibody sealed methotrexate (MTX)-loaded MUA-Au NCs through charge effect, as well as leaving the rest targeting fragment of the affibody to specifically bind tumor overexpressed EGFR. As the shell of MUA-Au NCs-MTX-Affibody (MAMA), polyarginine chains of affibody could be digested by trypsin, helping to release MTX from MAMA. The released MTX accelerated destroying MUA-Au NCs through inducing the generation of hROS. Specifically targeting EGFR-overexpressed tumors, quickly delivering a sufficient amount of drug to the tumor, subsequently increasing the local MTX and hROS levels, and safely eliminating the biocompatible structure from kidney, endowed MAMA greater treatment effectiveness and lower side effect than chemotherapy, especially in pancreatic cancer due to its high trypsin level. This simply fabricated DDS may find applications in high effective cancer therapy, especially for tumors with high trypsin activity.

3.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 51(1): 183-194, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: H2 15 O-positron emission tomography (PET) is considered the reference standard for absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, this technique requires an arterial input function measured through continuous sampling of arterial blood, which is invasive and has limitations with tracer delay and dispersion. PURPOSE: To demonstrate a new noninvasive method to quantify absolute CBF with a PET/MRI hybrid scanner. This blood-free approach, called PC-PET, takes the spatial CBF distribution from a static H2 15 O-PET scan, and scales it to the whole-brain average CBF value measured by simultaneous phase-contrast MRI. STUDY TYPE: Observational. SUBJECTS: Twelve healthy controls (HC) and 13 patients with Moyamoya disease (MM) as a model of chronic ischemic disease. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCES: 3T/2D cardiac-gated phase-contrast MRI and H2 15 O-PET. ASSESSMENT: PC-PET CBF values from whole brain (WB), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) in HCs were compared with literature values since 2000. CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), which is defined as the percent CBF change between baseline and post-acetazolamide (vasodilator) scans, were measured by PC-PET in MM patients and HCs within cortical regions corresponding to major vascular territories. Statistical Tests: Linear, mixed effects models were created to compare CBF and CVR, respectively, between patients and controls, and between different degrees of stenosis. RESULTS: The mean CBF values in WB, GM, and WM in HC were 42 ± 7 ml/100 g/min, 50 ± 7 ml/100 g/min, and 23 ± 3 ml/100 g/min, respectively, which agree well with literature values. Compared with normal regions (57 ± 23%), patients showed significantly decreased CVR in areas with mild/moderate stenosis (47 ± 17%, P = 0.011) and in severe/occluded areas (40 ± 16%, P = 0.016). Data Conclusion: PC-PET identifies differences in cerebrovascular reactivity between healthy controls and cerebrovascular patients. PC-PET is suitable for CBF measurement when arterial blood sampling is not accessible, and warrants comparison to fully quantitative H2 15 O-PET in future studies. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Technical Efficacy Stage: 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;51:183-194.

4.
Nanotheranostics ; 3(4): 299-310, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723547

RESUMO

Despite considerable progress with our understanding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and the precise delivery of radiotherapy, the prognosis for GBM patients is still unfavorable with tumor recurrence due to radioresistance being a major concern. We recently developed a cross-linked iron oxide nanoparticle conjugated to azademethylcolchicine (CLIO-ICT) to target and eradicate a subpopulation of quiescent cells, glioblastoma initiating cells (GICs), which could be a reason for radioresistance and tumor relapse. The purpose of our study was to investigate if CLIO-ICT has an additive therapeutic effect to enhance the response of GBMs to ionizing radiation. Methods: NSG™ mice bearing human GBMs and C57BL/6J mice bearing murine GBMs received CLIO-ICT, radiation, or combination treatment. The mice underwent pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and histological analysis. Tumor nanoparticle enhancement, tumor flux, microvessel density, GIC, and apoptosis markers were compared between different groups using a one-way ANOVA and two-tailed Mann-Whitney test. Additional NSG™ mice underwent survival analyses with Kaplan-Meier curves and a log rank (Mantel-Cox) test. Results: At 2 weeks post-treatment, BLI and MRI scans revealed significant reduction in tumor size for CLIO-ICT plus radiation treated tumors compared to monotherapy or vehicle-treated tumors. Combining CLIO-ICT with radiation therapy significantly decreased microvessel density, decreased GICs, increased caspase-3 expression, and prolonged the survival of GBM-bearing mice. CLIO-ICT delivery to GBM could be monitored with MRI. and was not significantly different before and after radiation. There was no significant caspase-3 expression in normal brain at therapeutic doses of CLIO-ICT administered. Conclusion: Our data shows additive anti-tumor effects of CLIO-ICT nanoparticles in combination with radiotherapy. The combination therapy proposed here could potentially be a clinically translatable strategy for treating GBMs.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4673, 2019 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611594

RESUMO

Advances in precision molecular imaging promise to transform our ability to detect, diagnose and treat disease. Here, we describe the engineering and validation of a new cystine knot peptide (knottin) that selectively recognizes human integrin αvß6 with single-digit nanomolar affinity. We solve its 3D structure by NMR and x-ray crystallography and validate leads with 3 different radiolabels in pre-clinical models of cancer. We evaluate the lead tracer's safety, biodistribution and pharmacokinetics in healthy human volunteers, and show its ability to detect multiple cancers (pancreatic, cervical and lung) in patients at two study locations. Additionally, we demonstrate that the knottin PET tracers can also detect fibrotic lung disease in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. Our results indicate that these cystine knot PET tracers may have potential utility in multiple disease states that are associated with upregulation of integrin αvß6.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Integrinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
6.
Front Oncol ; 9: 467, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214507

RESUMO

Differentiating local recurrence from post-treatment changes on PET scans following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or hyperfractionation for lung tumors is challenging. We performed a prospective pilot study of 3-deoxy-3-[18F]-fluorothymidine (FLT)-PET-CT in patients with equivocal post-radiation FDG-PET-CT to assess disease recurrence. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 10 patients, 9 treated with SABR and 1 with hyperfractionated external beam radiotherapy for thoracic malignancy with subsequent equivocal follow-up FDG-PET-CT, to undergo FLT-PET-CT prior to biopsy or serial imaging. FLT-PET scans were interpreted by a radiologist with experience in reading FLT-PET-CT and blinded to the results of any subsequent biopsy or imaging. Results: Of the 10 patients enrolled, 8 were evaluable after FLT-PET-CT. Based on the FLT-PET-CT, a blinded radiologist accurately predicted disease recurrence vs. inflammatory changes in 7 patients (87.5%). The combination of higher lesion SUVmax and higher ratio of lesion SUVmax to SUVmax of mediastinal blood pool was indicative of recurrence. Qualitative assessment of increased degree of focality of the lesion also appears to be indicative of disease recurrence. Conclusion: Adjunctive FLT-PET-CT imaging can complement FDG-PET-CT scan in distinguishing post-treatment radiation changes from disease recurrence in thoracic malignancies. These findings support the investigation of FLT-PET-CT in a larger prospective study.

7.
Bioconjug Chem ; 30(5): 1331-1342, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973715

RESUMO

Poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes generate poly(ADP ribose) post-translational modifications on target proteins for an array of functions centering on DNA and cell stress. PARP isoforms 1 and 2 are critically charged with the surveillance of DNA integrity and are the first line guardians of the genome against DNA breaks. Here we present a novel probe ([18F]-SuPAR) for noninvasive imaging of PARP-1/2 activity using positron emission tomography (PET). [18F]-SuPAR is a radiofluorinated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) analog that can be recognized by PARP-1/2 and incorporated into the long branched polymers of poly(ADP ribose) (PAR). The measurement of PARP-1/2 activity was supported by a reduction of radiotracer uptake in vivo following PARP-1/2 inhibition with talazoparib treatment, a potent PARP inhibitor recently approved by FDA for treatment of breast cancer, as well as ex vivo colocalization of radiotracer analog and poly(ADP ribose). With [18F]-SuPAR, we were able to map the dose- and time-dependent activation of PARP-1/2 following radiation therapy in breast and cervical cancer xenograft mouse models. Tumor response to therapy was determined by [18F]-SuPAR PET within 8 h of administration of a single dose of radiation equivalent to one round of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Radioisótopos de Flúor/administração & dosagem , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , NAD/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
J Nucl Med ; 60(9): 1308-1316, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737298

RESUMO

Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) are the unstable lesions in coronary artery disease that are prone to rupture, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, their small size and complex morphologic and biologic features make early detection and risk assessment difficult. We tested our newly developed catheter-based Circumferential-Intravascular-Radioluminescence-Photoacoustic-Imaging (CIRPI) system in vivo to enable detection and characterization of vulnerable plaque structure and biology in rabbit abdominal aorta. Methods: The CIRPI system includes a novel optical probe combining circumferential radioluminescence imaging and photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The probe's CaF2:Eu-based scintillating imaging window captures radioluminescence images (360° view) of plaques by detecting ß-particles during 18F-FDG decay. A tunable laser-based PAT characterizes tissue constituents of plaque at 7 different wavelengths-540 and 560 nm (calcification), 920 nm (cholesteryl ester), 1040 nm (phospholipids), 1180 nm (elastin/collagen), 1210 nm (cholesterol), and 1235 nm (triglyceride). A single B-scan is concatenated from 330 A-lines captured during a 360° rotation. The abdominal aorta was imaged in vivo in both atherosclerotic rabbits (Watanabe Heritable Hyper Lipidemic [WHHL], 13-mo-old male, n = 5) and controls (New Zealand White, n = 2). Rabbits were fasted for 6 h before 5.55 × 107 Bq (1.5 mCi) of 18F-FDG were injected 1 h before the imaging procedure. Rabbits were anesthetized, and the right or left common carotid artery was surgically exposed. An 8 French catheter sheath was inserted into the common carotid artery, and a 0.035-cm (0.014-in) guidewire was advanced to the iliac artery, guided by x-ray fluoroscopy. A bare metal stent was implanted in the dorsal abdominal aorta as a landmark, followed by the 7 French imaging catheters that were advanced up to the proximal stent edge. Our CIRPI and clinical optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed using pullback and nonocclusive flushing techniques. After imaging with the CIRPI system, the descending aorta was flushed with contrast agent, and OCT images were obtained with a pullback speed of 20 mm/s, providing images at 100 frames/s. Results were verified with histochemical analysis. Results: Our CIRPI system successfully detected the locations and characterized both stable and vulnerable aortic plaques in vivo among all WHHL rabbits. Calcification was detected from the stable plaque (540 and 560 nm), whereas TCFA exhibited phospholipids/cholesterol (1040 nm, 1210 nm). These findings were further verified with the clinical OCT system showing an area of low attenuation filled with lipids within TCFA. PAT images illustrated broken elastic fiber/collagen that could be verified with the histochemical analysis. All WHHL rabbits exhibited sparse to severe macrophages. Only 4 rabbits showed both moderate-to-severe level of calcifications and cholesterol clefts. However, all rabbits exhibited broken elastic fibers and collagen deposition. Control rabbits showed normal wall thickness with no presence of plaque tissue compositions. These findings were verified with OCT and histochemical analysis. Conclusion: Our novel multimodality hybrid system has been successfully translated to in vivo evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque structure and biology in a preclinical rabbit model. This system proposed a paradigm shift that unites molecular and pathologic imaging technologies. Therefore, the system may enhance the clinical evaluation of TCFA, as well as expand our understanding of coronary artery disease.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(21): 3124-3127, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793132

RESUMO

Herein, a novel method for carbon-11 labeling of acyl sulfonamides by a one-step insertive [11C]CO carbonylative cross-coupling reaction between aryl halides and sulfonamides is presented. Various model compounds as well as drug molecules LY573636 (tasisulam) and ABT-199 were obtained in excellent yields. This method provides a valuable and widely applicable contribution to the continuously expanding radiochemical toolbox for PET research.

10.
Anal Chem ; 91(4): 3110-3117, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669835

RESUMO

An optical molecular imaging contrast agent that is tailored toward lymphatic mapping techniques implementing near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence image-guided navigation in the planning and surgical treatment of cancers would significantly aid in enabling the real-time visualization of the potential metastatic tumor-draining lymph node(s) for their needed surgical biopsy and/or removal, thereby ensuring unmissed disease to prevent recurrence and improve patient survival rates. Here, the development of the first NIR fluorescent rosol dye (THQ-Rosol) tailored to overcome the limitations arising from the suboptimal properties of the generic molecular fluorescent dyes commonly used for such applications is described. In developing THQ-Rosol, we prepared a progressive series of torsionally restrictive N-substituted non-NIR fluorescent rosol dyes based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, wherein we discerned high correlations amongst their calculated energetics, modeled N-C3' torsion angles, and evaluated properties. We leveraged these strong relationships to rationally design THQ-Rosol, wherein DFT calculations inspired an innovative approach and synthetic strategy to afford an uncharged xanthene core-based scaffold/molecular platform with an aptly elevated p Ka value alongside NIR fluorescence emission (ca.700-900 nm). THQ-Rosol exhibited 710 nm NIR fluorescence emission, a 160 nm Stokes shift, robust photostability, and an aptly elevated p Ka value (5.85) for affording pH-insensitivity and optimal contrast upon designed use. We demonstrated the efficacy of THQ-Rosol for lymphatic mapping with in vitro and in vivo studies, wherein it revealed timely tumor drainage and afforded definitive lymph node visualization upon its administration and accumulation. THQ-Rosol serves as a proof-of-concept for the effective tailoring of an uncharged xanthene core-based scaffold/molecular platform toward a specific imaging application using rational design.

11.
Stroke ; 50(2): 373-380, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636572

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Noninvasive imaging of brain perfusion has the potential to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Moyamoya disease and enable clinical imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to select revascularization therapies for patients. We used hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology to characterize the distribution of hypoperfusion in Moyamoya disease and its relationship to vessel stenosis severity, through comparisons with a normative perfusion database of healthy controls. Methods- To image CBF, we acquired [15O]-water PET as a reference and simultaneously acquired arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI scans in 20 Moyamoya patients and 15 age-matched, healthy controls on a PET/MRI scanner. The ASL MRI scans included a standard single-delay ASL scan with postlabel delay of 2.0 s and a multidelay scan with 5 postlabel delays (0.7-3.0s) to estimate and account for arterial transit time in CBF quantification. The percent volume of hypoperfusion in patients (determined as the fifth percentile of CBF values in the healthy control database) was the outcome measure in a logistic regression model that included stenosis grade and location. Results- Logistic regression showed that anterior ( P<0.0001) and middle cerebral artery territory regions ( P=0.003) in Moyamoya patients were susceptible to hypoperfusion, whereas posterior regions were not. Cortical regions supplied by arteries with stenosis on MR angiography showed more hypoperfusion than normal arteries ( P=0.001), but the extent of hypoperfusion was not different between mild-moderate versus severe stenosis. Multidelay ASL did not perform differently from [15O]-water PET in detecting perfusion abnormalities, but standard ASL overestimated the extent of hypoperfusion in patients ( P=0.003). Conclusions- This simultaneous PET/MRI study supports the use of multidelay ASL MRI in clinical evaluation of Moyamoya disease in settings where nuclear medicine imaging is not available and application of a normative perfusion database to automatically identify abnormal CBF in patients.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Artéria Cerebral Média , Doença de Moyamoya , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Moyamoya/fisiopatologia , Marcadores de Spin
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 264, 2018 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504860

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by the altered integration of reward histories and reduced responding of the striatum. We have posited that this reduced striatal activation in MDD is due to tonically decreased stimulation of striatal dopamine synapses which results in decremented propagation of information along the cortico-striatal-pallido-thalamic (CSPT) spiral. In the present investigation, we tested predictions of this formulation by conducting concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 11C-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) in depressed and control (CTL) participants. We scanned 16 depressed and 14 CTL participants with simultaneous fMRI and 11C-raclopride PET. We estimated raclopride binding potential (BPND), voxel-wise, and compared MDD and CTL samples with respect to BPND in the striatum. Using striatal regions that showed significant between-group BPND differences as seeds, we conducted whole-brain functional connectivity analysis using the fMRI data and identified brain regions in each group in which connectivity with striatal seed regions scaled linearly with BPND from these regions. We observed increased BPND in the ventral striatum, bilaterally, and in the right dorsal striatum in the depressed participants. Further, we found that as BPND increased in both the left ventral striatum and right dorsal striatum in MDD, connectivity with the cortical targets of these regions (default-mode network and salience network, respectively) decreased. Deficits in stimulation of striatal dopamine receptors in MDD could account in part for the failure of transfer of information up the CSPT circuit in the pathophysiology of this disorder.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Racloprida
13.
J Labelled Comp Radiopharm ; 61(14): 1110-1114, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286517

RESUMO

[11 C] CO is a highly versatile synthon that allows for labeling at carbonyl positions of many molecules by means of transition metal-mediated carbonylation reactions. The intrinsic complexity of carbonylation reactions often requires tedious screening of reaction conditions for obtaining satisfying yields. Herein, a [11 C] CO dispending system for performing multiple reactions with a single batch of cyclotron-produced [11 C]CO2 is described. This semiautomated setup allows for more rapid and efficient screening of reactions and reaction conditions compared with the traditional "one beam for one reaction" strategy.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/química , Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Radioquímica/métodos , Monóxido de Carbono/síntese química , Radioquímica/instrumentação , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8992, 2018 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895966

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a progressive inflammatory condition caused by an unstable lesion, called thin-cap fibro atheromata (TCFA) that underlies coronary artery disease (CAD)-one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore, early clinical diagnosis and effective risk stratification is important for CAD management as well as preventing progression to catastrophic events. However, early detection could be difficult due to their small size, motion, obscuring 18F-FDG uptake by adjacent myocardium, and complex morphological/biological features. To overcome these limitations, we developed a catheter-based Circumferential-Intravascular-Radioluminescence-Photoacoustic-Imaging (CIRPI) system that can detect vulnerable plaques in coronary arteries and characterizes them with respect to pathology and biology. Our CIRPI system combined two imaging modalities: Circumferential Radioluminescence Imaging (CRI) and PhotoAcoustic Tomography (PAT) within a novel optical probe. The probe's CaF2:Eu based scintillating imaging window provides a 360° view of human (n = 7) and murine carotid (n = 10) arterial plaques by converting ß-particles into visible photons during 18F-FDG decay. A 60× and 63× higher radioluminescent signals were detected from the human and murine plaque inflammations, respectively, compared to the control. The system's photoacoustic imaging provided a comprehensive analysis of the plaque compositions and its morphologic information. These results were further verified with IVIS-200, immunohistochemical analysis, and autoradiography.


Assuntos
Autorradiografia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Medições Luminescentes , Imagem Multimodal , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(16): 2893-2912, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860333

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that has no cure. HD therapeutic development would benefit from a non-invasive translatable biomarker to track disease progression and treatment response. A potential biomarker is using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with a translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) radiotracer to detect microglial activation, a key contributor to HD pathogenesis. The ability of TSPO-PET to identify microglial activation in HD mouse models, essential for a translatable biomarker, or therapeutic efficacy in HD patients or mice is unknown. Thus, this study assessed the feasibility of utilizing PET imaging with the TSPO tracer, [18F]PBR06, to detect activated microglia in two HD mouse models and to monitor response to treatment with LM11A-31, a p75NTR ligand known to reduce neuroinflammation in HD mice. [18F]PBR06-PET detected microglial activation in striatum, cortex and hippocampus of vehicle-treated R6/2 mice at a late disease stage and, notably, also in early and mid-stage symptomatic BACHD mice. After oral administration of LM11A-31 to R6/2 and BACHD mice, [18F]PBR06-PET discerned the reductive effects of LM11A-31 on neuroinflammation in both HD mouse models. [18F]PBR06-PET signal had a spatial distribution similar to ex vivo brain autoradiography and correlated with microglial activation markers: increased IBA-1 and TSPO immunostaining/blotting and striatal levels of cytokines IL-6 and TNFα. These results suggest that [18F]PBR06-PET is a useful surrogate marker of therapeutic efficacy in HD mice with high potential as a translatable biomarker for preclinical and clinical HD trials.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Huntington/diagnóstico por imagem , Receptores de GABA/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/genética , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/administração & dosagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/química , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Huntington/genética , Doença de Huntington/patologia , Isoleucina/administração & dosagem , Isoleucina/análogos & derivados , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Ligação Proteica , Receptores de GABA/química , Receptores de GABA/genética
16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 102(4): 1183-1192, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859786

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumor hypoxia contributes to radiation resistance. A noninvasive assessment of tumor hypoxia would be valuable for prognostication and possibly selection for hypoxia-targeted therapies. 18F-pentafluorinated etanidazole (18F-EF5) is a nitroimidazole derivative that has demonstrated promise as a positron emission tomography (PET) hypoxia imaging agent in preclinical and clinical studies. However, correlation of imageable hypoxia by 18F-EF5 PET with clinical outcomes after radiation therapy remains limited. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Our study prospectively enrolled 28 patients undergoing radiation therapy for localized lung or other tumors to receive pretreatment 18F-EF5 PET imaging. Depending on the level of 18F-EF5 tumor uptake, patients underwent functional manipulation of tumor oxygenation with either carbogen breathing or oral dichloroacetate followed by repeated 18F-EF5 PET. The hypoxic subvolume of tumor was defined as the proportion of tumor voxels exhibiting higher 18F-EF5 uptake than the 95th percentile of 18F-EF5 uptake in the blood pool. Tumors with a hypoxic subvolume ≥ 10% on baseline 18F-EF5 PET imaging were classified as hypoxic by imaging. A Cox model was used to assess the correlation between imageable hypoxia and clinical outcomes after treatment. RESULTS: At baseline, imageable hypoxia was demonstrated in 43% of all patients (12 of 28), including 6 of 16 patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy and 6 of 12 patients with other cancers. Carbogen breathing was significantly associated with decreased imageable hypoxia, while dichloroacetate did not result in a significant change under our protocol conditions. Tumors with imageable hypoxia had a higher incidence of local recurrence at 12 months (30%) than those without (0%) (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive hypoxia imaging by 18F-EF5 PET identified imageable hypoxia in about 40% of tumors in our study population. Local tumor recurrence after highly conformal radiation therapy was higher in tumors with imageable hypoxia.


Assuntos
Etanidazol/análogos & derivados , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Radioterapia Conformacional , Hipóxia Tumoral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
J Neuroinflammation ; 15(1): 55, 2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cystine/glutamate antiporter (xc-) has been implicated in several neurological disorders and, specifically, in multiple sclerosis (MS) as a mediator of glutamate excitotoxicity and proinflammatory immune responses. We aimed to evaluate an xc-specific positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, (4S)-4-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-L-glutamate ([18F]FSPG), for its ability to allow non-invasive monitoring of xc- activity in a mouse model of MS. METHODS: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous injection of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55) peptide in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) followed by pertussis toxin. Control mice received CFA emulsion and pertussis toxin without MOG peptide, while a separate cohort of naïve mice received no treatment. PET studies were performed to investigate the kinetics and distribution of [18F]FSPG in naïve, control, pre-symptomatic, and symptomatic EAE mice, compared to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG). After final PET scans, each mouse was perfused and radioactivity in dissected tissues was measured using a gamma counter. Central nervous system (CNS) tissues were further analyzed using ex vivo autoradiography or western blot. [18F]FSPG uptake in human monocytes, and T cells pre- and post-activation was investigated in vitro. RESULTS: [18F]FSPG was found to be more sensitive than [18F]FDG at detecting pathological changes in the spinal cord and brain of EAE mice. Even before clinical signs of disease, a small but significant increase in [18F]FSPG signal was observed in the spinal cord of EAE mice compared to controls. This increase in PET signal became more pronounced in symptomatic EAE mice and was confirmed by ex vivo biodistribution and autoradiography. Likewise, in the brain of symptomatic EAE mice, [18F]FSPG uptake was significantly higher than controls, with the largest changes observed in the cerebellum. Western blot analyses of CNS tissues revealed a significant correlation between light chain of xc- (xCT) protein levels, the subunit of xc- credited with its transporter activity, and [18F]FSPG-PET signal. In vitro [18F]FSPG uptake studies suggest that both activated monocytes and T cells contribute to the observed in vivo PET signal. CONCLUSION: These data highlight the promise of [18F]FSPG-PET as a technique to provide insights into neuroimmune interactions in MS and the in vivo role of xc- in the development and progression of this disease, thus warranting further investigation.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Acídicos/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Flúor/metabolismo , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192662, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Myocardial infarction (MI) causes significant loss of cardiomyocytes, myocardial tissue damage, and impairment of myocardial function. The inability of cardiomyocytes to proliferate prevents the heart from self-regeneration. The treatment for advanced heart failure following an MI is heart transplantation despite the limited availability of the organs. Thus, stem-cell-based cardiac therapies could ultimately prevent heart failure by repairing injured myocardium that reverses cardiomyocyte loss. However, stem-cell-based therapies lack understanding of the mechanisms behind a successful therapy, including difficulty tracking stem cells to provide information on cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we have investigated the interaction between different types of stem and inflammatory cells and cell-targeted imaging molecules, 18F-FDG and 6-NBDG, to identify uptake patterns and pharmacokinetics in vitro. METHODS: Macrophages (both M1 and M2), human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), and human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were incubated with either 18F-FDG or 6-NBDG. Excess radiotracer and fluorescence were removed and a 100 µm-thin CdWO4 scintillator plate was placed on top of the cells for radioluminescence microscopy imaging of 18F-FDG uptake, while no scintillator was needed for fluorescence imaging of 6-NBDG uptake. Light produced following beta decay was imaged with a highly sensitive inverted microscope (LV200, Olympus) and an Electron Multiplying Charge-Couple Device (EM-CCD) camera. Custom-written software was developed in MATLAB for image processing. RESULTS: The average cellular activity of 18F-FDG in a single cell of hAMSCs (0.670±0.028 fCi/µm2, P = 0.001) was 20% and 36% higher compared to uptake in hiPSCs (0.540±0.026 fCi/µm2, P = 0.003) and macrophages (0.430±0.023 fCi/µm2, P = 0.002), respectively. hAMSCs exhibited the slowest influx (0.210 min-1) but the fastest efflux (0.327 min-1) rate compared to the other tested cell lines for 18F-FDG. This cell line also has the highest phosphorylation but exhibited the lowest rate of de-phosphorylation. The uptake pattern for 6-NBDG was very different in these three cell lines. The average cellular activity of 6-NBDG in a single cell of macrophages (0.570±0.230 fM/µm2, P = 0.004) was 38% and 14% higher compared to hiPSCs (0.350±0.160 fM/µm2, P = 0.001) and hAMSCs (0.490±0.028 fM/µm2, P = 0.006), respectively. The influx (0.276 min-1), efflux (0.612 min-1), phosphorylation (0.269 min-1), and de-phosphorylation (0.049 min-1) rates were also highest for macrophages compared to the other two tested cell lines. CONCLUSION: hAMSCs were found to be 2-3× more sensitive to 18F-FDG molecule compared to hiPSCs/macrophages. However, macrophages exhibited the most sensitivity towards 6-NBDG. Based on this result, hAMSCs targeted with 18F-FDG could be more suitable for understanding the mechanisms behind successful therapy for treating MI patients by gathering information on cell migration, proliferation and differentiation.


Assuntos
4-Cloro-7-nitrobenzofurazano/análogos & derivados , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Glucosamina/análogos & derivados , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , 4-Cloro-7-nitrobenzofurazano/farmacocinética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Glucosamina/farmacocinética , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos
19.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 38(1): 126-135, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28155582

RESUMO

15O-H2O PET imaging is an accurate method to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) but it requires an arterial input function (AIF). Historically, image-derived AIF estimation suffers from low temporal resolution, spill-in, and spill-over problems. Here, we optimized tracer dose on a time-of-flight PET/MR according to the acquisition-specific noise-equivalent count rate curve. An optimized dose of 850 MBq of 15O-H2O was determined, which allowed sufficient counts to reconstruct a short time-frame PET angiogram (PETA) during the arterial phase. This PETA enabled the measurement of the extent of spill-over, while an MR angiogram was used to measure the true arterial volume for AIF estimation. A segment of the high cervical arteries outside the brain was chosen, where the measured spill-in effects were minimal. CBF studies were performed twice with separate [15O]-H2O injections in 10 healthy subjects, yielding values of 88 ± 16, 44 ± 9, and 58 ± 11 mL/min/100 g for gray matter, white matter, and whole brain, with intra-subject CBF differences of 5.0 ± 4.0%, 4.1 ± 3.3%, and 4.5 ± 3.7%, respectively. A third CBF measurement after the administration of 1 g of acetazolamide showed 35 ± 23%, 29 ± 20%, and 33 ± 22% increase in gray matter, white matter, and whole brain, respectively. Based on these findings, the proposed noninvasive AIF method provides robust CBF measurement with 15O-H2O PET.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Adulto , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
20.
Magn Reson Med ; 79(1): 41-47, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28370458

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The most common γ-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) editing approach, MEGA-PRESS, uses J-editing to measure GABA distinct from larger overlapping metabolites, but suffers contamination from coedited macromolecules (MMs) comprising 40 to 60% of the observed signal. MEGA-SPECIAL is an alternative method with better MM suppression, but is not widely used primarily because of its relatively poor spatial localization. Our goal was to develop an improved MM-suppressed GABA editing sequence at 3 Tesla. METHODS: We modified a single-voxel MEGA-SPECIAL sequence with an oscillating readout gradient for improved spatial localization, and used very selective 30-ms editing pulses for improved suppression of coedited MMs. RESULTS: Simulation and in vivo experiments confirmed excellent MM suppression, insensitive to the range of B0 frequency drifts typically encountered in vivo. Both intersubject and intrasubject studies showed that MMs, when suppressed by the improved MEGA-SPECIAL method, contributed approximately 40% to the corresponding MEGA-PRESS measurements. From the intersubject study, the coefficient of variation for GABA+/Cre (MEGA-PRESS) was 11.2% versus 7% for GABA/Cre (improved MEGA-SPECIAL), demonstrating significantly reduced variance (P = 0.005), likely coming from coedited MMs. CONCLUSIONS: This improved MEGA-SPECIAL sequence provides unbiased GABA measurements with reduced variance as compared with conventional MEGA-PRESS. This approach is also relatively insensitive to the range of B0 drifts typically observed in in vivo human studies. Magn Reson Med 79:41-47, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/química , Algoritmos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Substâncias Macromoleculares , Distribuição Normal , Oscilometria , Imagens de Fantasmas , Ondas de Rádio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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