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2.
Int J Cancer ; 150(1): 132-141, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287840

RESUMO

Although cancer is highly heterogeneous, all metastatic cancer is considered American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV disease. The purpose of this project was to redefine staging of metastatic cancer. Internal validation of nationally representative patient data from the National Cancer Database (n = 461 357; 2010-2013), and external validation using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (n = 106 595; 2014-2015) were assessed using the concordance index for evaluation of survival prediction. A Cox proportional hazards model was used for overall survival by considering identified phenotypes (latent classes) and other confounding variables. Latent class analysis was performed for phenotype identification, where Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and sample-size-adjusted BIC were used to select the optimal number of distinct clusters. Kappa coefficients assessed external cluster validation. Latent class analysis identified five metastatic phenotypes with differences in overall survival (P < .0001): (Stage IVA) nearly exclusive bone-only metastases (n = 59 049, 12.8%; median survival 12.7 months; common in lung, breast and prostate cancers); (IVB) predominant lung metastases (n = 62 491, 13.5%; 11.4 months; common in breast, stomach, kidney, ovary, uterus, thyroid, cervix and soft tissue cancers); (IVC) predominant liver/lung metastases (n = 130 014, 28.2%; 7.0 months; common in colorectum, pancreatic, lung, esophagus and stomach cancers); (IVD) bone/liver/lung metastases predominant over brain (n = 61 004, 13.2%; 5.9 months; common in lung and breast cancers); and (IVE) brain/lung metastases predominant over bone/liver (n = 148 799, 32.3%; 5.7 months; lung cancer and melanoma). Long-term survivors were identified, particularly in Stages IVA-B. A pan-cancer nomogram model to predict survival (STARS: site, tumor, age, race, sex) was created, validated and provides 13% better prognostication than AJCC: 1-month concordance index of 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66-0.67) vs 0.61 (95% CI: 0.60-0.61). STARS is simple, uses easily accessible variables, better prognosticates survival outcomes and provides a platform to develop novel metastasis-directed clinical trials.

3.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the joint association of red and processed meat intake and food insecurity with hypertension. METHODS: Adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2016 were included. Total red meat intake was estimated using 24 h dietary recalls. Food insecurity was defined as having three or more affirmative responses using the Food Security Survey Module. Hypertension was defined as having mean SBP at least 130 mmHg or DBP at least 85 mmHg or use of antihypertensive drugs. Multivariable surveylogistic regression models were used to examine the independent and joint associations of total red meat and food insecurity with hypertension. RESULTS: A total of 31 314 participants [mean (SE) age of 46.8 (0.3) years] were included, of whom 18.3% were food insecure. Total red meat consumption and food insecurity were independently associated with higher odds of hypertension. Compared with the first quintile of total red meat intake, participants in the fourth and fifth quintiles of total red meat intake had 29 and 39% higher odds of hypertension, respectively (P = 0.003). These associations were stronger among food insecure participants (P value for interaction <0.001). Substituting one serving/day of poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, or plant-based protein sources for total red meat was each associated with 8-15% lower odds of hypertension. CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence regarding the health hazards of total red meat consumption in relation with hypertension and calls for more awareness among food insecure groups.

4.
Stat Methods Med Res ; : 9622802211047177, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779672

RESUMO

Longitudinal binary data in crossover designs with missing data due to ignorable and nonignorable dropout is common. This paper evaluates available conditional and marginal models and establishes the relationship between the conditional and marginal parameters with the primary objective of comparing the treatment mean effects. We perform extensive simulation studies to investigate these models under complete data and the selection models under missing data with different parametric distributions and missingness patterns and mechanisms. The generalized estimating equations and the generalized linear mixed-effects models with pseudo-likelihood estimation are advocated for valid and robust inference. We also propose a controlled multiple imputation method as a sensitivity analysis of the missing data assumption. Lastly, we implement the proposed models and the sensitivity analysis in two real data examples with binary data.

5.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(12): 862-872, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacogenetic studies in asthma cohorts, primarily made up of White people of European descent, have identified loci associated with response to inhaled beta agonists and corticosteroids (ICSs). Differences exist in how individuals from different ancestral backgrounds respond to long-acting beta agonist (LABA) and ICSs. Therefore, we sought to understand the pharmacogenetic mechanisms regulating therapeutic responsiveness in individuals of African descent. METHODS: We did ancestry-based pharmacogenetic studies of children (aged 5-11 years) and adolescents and adults (aged 12-69 years) from the Best African Response to Drug (BARD) trials, in which participants with asthma uncontrolled with low-dose ICS (fluticasone propionate 50 µg in children, 100 µg in adolescents and adults) received different step-up combination therapies. The hierarchal composite outcome of pairwise superior responsiveness in BARD was based on asthma exacerbations, a 31-day difference in annualised asthma-control days, or a 5% difference in percentage predicted FEV1. We did whole-genome admixture mapping of 15 159 ancestral segments within 312 independent regions, stratified by the two age groups. The two co-primary outcome comparisons were the step up from low-dose ICS to the quintuple dose of ICS (5 × ICS: 250 µg twice daily in children and 500 µg twice daily in adolescents and adults) versus double dose (2-2·5 × ICS: 100 µg twice daily in children, 250 µg twice daily in adolescents and adults), and 5 × ICS versus 100 µg fluticasone plus a LABA (salmeterol 50 µg twice daily). We used a genome-wide significance threshold of p<1·6 × 10-4, and tested for replication using independent cohorts of individuals of African descent with asthma. FINDINGS: We included 249 unrelated children and 267 unrelated adolescents and adults in the BARD pharmacogenetic analysis. In children, we identified a significant admixture mapping peak for superior responsiveness to 5 × ICS versus 100 µg fluticasone plus salmeterol on chromosome 12 (odds ratio [ORlocal African] 3·95, 95% CI 2·02-7·72, p=6·1 × 10-5) fine mapped to a locus adjacent to RNFT2 and NOS1 (rs73399224, ORallele dose 0·17, 95% CI 0·07-0·42, p=8·4 × 10-5). In adolescents and adults, we identified a peak for superior responsiveness to 5 × ICS versus 2·5 × ICS on chromosome 22 (ORlocal African 3·35, 1·98-5·67, p=6·8 × 10-6) containing a locus adjacent to TPST2 (rs5752429, ORallele dose 0·21, 0·09-0·52, p=5·7 × 10-4). We replicated rs5752429 and nominally replicated rs73399224 in independent African American cohorts. INTERPRETATION: BARD is the first genome-wide pharmacogenetic study of LABA and ICS response in clinical trials of individuals of African descent to detect and replicate genome-wide significant loci. Admixture mapping of the composite BARD trial outcome enabled the identification of novel pharmacogenetic variation accounting for differential therapeutic responses in people of African descent with asthma. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27457, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731120

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in young women is low. Women aged 21 to 65 years in the United States (U.S.) have not reached the Healthy People 2020 objective of 93% for cervical cancer screening. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPV vaccination status and cervical cancer screening among privately insured women aged 21 to 26 years in the U.S.This was a retrospective cohort study using the IBM MarketScan database (2006-2016). The study population included 190,982 HPV-vaccinated women and 763,928 matched unvaccinated women. Adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using the generalized estimating equations models with a Poisson distribution.Among a total of 954,910 women included in the analysis, age (mean [SD]) was 23.3 [1.6] years. During 967,317 person-years of follow-up, a total of 475,702 incidents of cervical cancer screening were identified. The incidence density rates of cervical cancer screening were 461 per 1000 person-years (PY) for unvaccinated women and 787 per 1000 PY for those who received 3 doses of the HPV vaccine. After adjusting for other covariates, the IRR of cervical cancer screening was 34% higher among HPV-vaccinated women with at least one vaccine dose than unvaccinated women (adjusted IRR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.33-1.35; P < .0001). The IRR of cervical cancer screening varied by the dose of HPV vaccination. There was evidence of a linear dose-response relationship between the number of HPV vaccine doses and cervical cancer screening (P-trend < .0001). Compared with unvaccinated women, the IRR of cervical cancer screening were 14%, 39%, and 60% higher among those who received 1, 2, and 3 doses of the HPV vaccine, respectively.In this large retrospective cohort study of privately insured women, HPV-vaccinated women were more likely to be screened for cervical cancer compared with unvaccinated women.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Trials ; 22(1): 809, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to describe the utility of various recruitment modalities utilized in the Working to Increase Stability through Exercise (WISE) study. WISE is a pragmatic randomized trial that is testing the impact of a 3-year, multicomponent (strength, balance, aerobic) physical activity program led by trained volunteers or delivered via DVD on the rate of serious fall-related injuries among adults 65 and older with a past history of fragility fractures (e.g., vertebral, fall-related). The modified goal was to recruit 1130 participants over 2 years in three regions of Pennsylvania. METHODS: The at-risk population was identified primarily using letters mailed to patients of three health systems and those over 65 in each region, as well as using provider alerts in the health record, proactive recruitment phone calls, radio advertisements, and presentations at community meetings. RESULTS: Over 24 months of recruitment, 209,301 recruitment letters were mailed, resulting in 6818 telephone interviews. The two most productive recruitment methods were letters (72% of randomized participants) and the research registries at the University of Pittsburgh (11%). An average of 211 letters were required to be mailed for each participant enrolled. Of those interviewed, 2854 were ineligible, 2,825 declined to enroll and 1139 were enrolled and randomized. Most participants were female (84.4%), under age 75 (64.2%), and 50% took an osteoporosis medication. Not having a prior fragility fracture was the most common reason for not being eligible (87.5%). The most common reason provided for declining enrollment was not feeling healthy enough to participate (12.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The WISE study achieved its overall recruitment goal. Bulk mailing was the most productive method for recruiting community-dwelling older adults at risk of serious fall-related injury into this long-term physical activity intervention trial, and electronic registries are important sources and should be considered.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Exercício Físico , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
8.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional status (FS) is dynamic and changes over time. We examined how changes in FS while awaiting liver transplantation influence post-transplant outcomes. METHODS: Data on adult liver transplants performed in the United States during the MELD era were obtained through September 2020. Patient and graft survival were compared between groups with no change or improved FS, and those with worsening FS. RESULTS: Of the 90,210 transplant recipients included in the analysis, 39,193 (43%) had worsening FS, which was associated with longer waiting-list time (187 vs. 329 days, p < 0.001) and worse patient survival after liver transplant (1858 vs. 1727 days, p < 0.001). A consistent and dose-dependent relationship was observed for each 10-point decrease in Karnofsky Performance Score and post-transplant survival. Multivariable regression analysis confirmed that a decline in FS was associated with worse patient survival (HR 1.15, p < 0.001). Similar findings were observed for graft survival. CONCLUSION: A decline in FS on the waiting-list is associated with significantly greater post-liver transplant mortality in recipients. These results should be taken into consideration when allocating organs and determining transplant candidacy. Strategies to optimize FS prior to transplantation should be prioritized as even subtle decreases in FS are associated with inferior post-transplantation outcomes.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128568, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643720

RESUMO

Importance: Short-term and long-term persistent postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) have not been systematically evaluated. The incidence and evolution of PASC are dependent on time from infection, organ systems and tissue affected, vaccination status, variant of the virus, and geographic region. Objective: To estimate organ system-specific frequency and evolution of PASC. Evidence Review: PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, the World Health Organization Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease, and CoronaCentral databases were searched from December 2019 through March 2021. A total of 2100 studies were identified from databases and through cited references. Studies providing data on PASC in children and adults were included. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for abstracting data were followed and performed independently by 2 reviewers. Quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies. The main outcome was frequency of PASC diagnosed by (1) laboratory investigation, (2) radiologic pathology, and (3) clinical signs and symptoms. PASC were classified by organ system, ie, neurologic; cardiovascular; respiratory; digestive; dermatologic; and ear, nose, and throat as well as mental health, constitutional symptoms, and functional mobility. Findings: From a total of 2100 studies identified, 57 studies with 250 351 survivors of COVID-19 met inclusion criteria. The mean (SD) age of survivors was 54.4 (8.9) years, 140 196 (56%) were male, and 197 777 (79%) were hospitalized during acute COVID-19. High-income countries contributed 45 studies (79%). The median (IQR) proportion of COVID-19 survivors experiencing at least 1 PASC was 54.0% (45.0%-69.0%; 13 studies) at 1 month (short-term), 55.0% (34.8%-65.5%; 38 studies) at 2 to 5 months (intermediate-term), and 54.0% (31.0%-67.0%; 9 studies) at 6 or more months (long-term). Most prevalent pulmonary sequelae, neurologic disorders, mental health disorders, functional mobility impairments, and general and constitutional symptoms were chest imaging abnormality (median [IQR], 62.2% [45.8%-76.5%]), difficulty concentrating (median [IQR], 23.8% [20.4%-25.9%]), generalized anxiety disorder (median [IQR], 29.6% [14.0%-44.0%]), general functional impairments (median [IQR], 44.0% [23.4%-62.6%]), and fatigue or muscle weakness (median [IQR], 37.5% [25.4%-54.5%]), respectively. Other frequently reported symptoms included cardiac, dermatologic, digestive, and ear, nose, and throat disorders. Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review, more than half of COVID-19 survivors experienced PASC 6 months after recovery. The most common PASC involved functional mobility impairments, pulmonary abnormalities, and mental health disorders. These long-term PASC effects occur on a scale that could overwhelm existing health care capacity, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Limitação da Mobilidade , Debilidade Muscular/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e043967, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607857

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is a renewed interest in the use of whole blood (WB) to manage patients with life-threatening bleeding. We aimed to estimate mortality and complications risk between WB and blood component therapy for haemostatic resuscitation of major bleeding. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published between 1 January 1980 and 1 January 2020, identified from PubMed and Scopus databases. Population will be patients who require blood transfusion (traumatic operative, obstetric and gastrointestinal bleeding). Intervention is WB transfusion such as fresh WB (WB unit stored for less than 48 hours), leukoreduced modified WB (with platelets removed during filtration), warm fresh WB (stored warm at 22°C for up to 8 hours and then for a maximum of an additional 24 hours at 4°C). The primary outcomes will be the 24-hour and 30-day survival rates (in-hospital mortality). Comparator is blood component therapy (red blood cells, fresh-frozen plasma and platelets given together in a 1:1:1 unit ratio). The Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomised controlled trials and Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions (ROBINS-I) for observation studies will be used to assess the risk of bias of included studies. We will use random-effects models for the pooling of studies. Interstudy heterogeneity will be assessed by the Cochran Q statistic, where p<0.10 will be considered statistically significant and quantified by I2 statistic, where I2 ≥50% will indicate substantial heterogeneity. We will perform subgroup and meta-regression analyses to assess geographical differences and other study-level factors explaining variations in the reported mortality risk. Results will be reported as risk ratios and their 95% CIs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethics clearance is required as no primary data will be collected. The results will be presented at scientific conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal.


Assuntos
Hemostáticos , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128980, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668944

RESUMO

Importance: Low diastolic blood pressure (DBP) has been found to be associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events; however, it is unknown whether intensifying blood pressure therapy in patients with an already low DBP to achieve a lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) target is safe or effective. Objective: To evaluate whether there is an association of baseline DBP and intensification of blood pressure-lowering therapy with the outcomes of all-cause death and cardiovascular events. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed patients who were randomized to intensive or standard BP control in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes-Blood Pressure (ACCORD-BP) trial and Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Data were collected from September 1999 to June 2009 (ACCORD-BP) and from October 2010 to August 2015 (SPRINT). Data were analyzed from December 2020 to June 2021. Exposures: Baseline DBP as a continuous variable. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause death and a composite cardiovascular end point (CVE) that included cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Results: A total of 14 094 patients (mean [SD] age, 66.2 [8.9] years; 8504 [60.4%] men) were included in this analysis. There were significant nonlinear associations between baseline DBP and all-cause death (eg, baseline DBP 50 vs 80 mm Hg: hazard ratio [HR], 1.48; 95% CI, 1.06-2.08; P = .02) and the composite CVE (eg, baseline DBP 50 vs 80 mm Hg: HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.27-3.04; P = .003) observed among all participants. Findings for the interaction between baseline DBP and treatment group assignment for all cause death did not reach statistical significance. For intensive vs standard therapy, the HR of death for a baseline DBP of 50 mm Hg was 1.80 (95% CI, 0.95-3.39; P = .07) and that for a baseline DBP of 80 mm Hg was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.59-1.01; P = .05). Overall, there was no interaction found between baseline DBP and treatment group assignment for the composite CVE. Over the range of baseline DBP values, significant reductions in the composite CVE for patients assigned to intensive vs standard therapy were found for baseline DBP values of 80 mm Hg (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62-0.98; P = .03) and 90 mm Hg (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: This pooled cohort study found no evidence of a significant interaction between baseline DBP and treatment intensity for all-cause death or for a composite CVE. These results are hypothesis generating and merit further study.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20654, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675321

RESUMO

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, gun violence (GV) in the United States (U.S.) was postulated to increase strain on already taxed healthcare resources, such as blood products, intensive care beds, personal protective equipment, and even hospital staff. This report aims to estimate the relative risk of GV in the U.S. during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic. Daily police reports corresponding to gun-related injuries and deaths in the 50 states and the District of Columbia from February 1st, 2019, to March 31st, 2021 were obtained from the GV Archive. Generalized linear mixed-effects models in the form of Poisson regression analysis were utilized to estimate the state-specific rates of GV. Nationally, GV rates were 30% higher between March 01, 2020, and March 31, 2021 (during the pandemic), compared to the same period in 2019 (before the pandemic) [intensity ratio (IR) = 1.30; 95% CI 1.29, 1.32; p < 0.0001]. The risk of GV was significantly higher in 28 states and significantly lower in only one state. National and state-specific rates of GV were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the same timeframe 1 year prior. State-specific steps to mitigate violence, or at a minimum adequately prepare for its toll during the COVID-19 pandemic, should be taken.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Crime , Bases de Dados Factuais , Armas de Fogo , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Distribuição Normal , Pandemias , Distribuição de Poisson , Estados Unidos
13.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 80, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether mushroom consumption, which is a rich source of potent antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione, vitamins, and minerals (e.g., selenium & copper), is associated with a lower mortality risk is not well understood. This study aimed to examine the association between mushroom consumption and risk of mortality in a prospective cohort study and a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS: We followed 30,378 participants from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) extant data (2003-2014). Dietary mushroom intake was assessed using up to two 24-h recalls. Mortality was evaluated in all participants linked to the National Death Index mortality data through December 31, 2015. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We also conducted a meta-analysis, including results from our present study and 4 other cohort studies. RESULTS: During a mean (SD) of 6.7 (3.4) years of follow-up, a total of 2855 death cases were documented among NHANES participants. In our analysis of continuous NHANES, we found a non-significant association between mushroom consumption and all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.67-1.06) after adjusting for demographic, major lifestyle factors, overall diet quality, and other dietary factors, including total energy. The meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, including 601,893 individuals, showed that mushroom consumption was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (pooled risk ratio: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.98). CONCLUSION: In a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, mushroom consumption was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Humanos , Mortalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578984

RESUMO

Obesity-associated breast cancer recurrence is mechanistically linked with elevated insulin levels and insulin resistance. Exercise and weight loss are associated with decreased breast cancer recurrence, which may be mediated through reduced insulin levels and improved insulin sensitivity. This is a secondary analysis of the WISER Survivor clinical trial examining the relative effect of exercise, weight loss and combined exercise and weight loss interventions on insulin and insulin resistance. The weight loss and combined intervention groups showed significant reductions in levels of: insulin, C-peptide, homeostatic model assessment 2 (HOMA2) insulin resistance (IR), and HOMA2 beta-cell function (ß) compared to the control group. Independent of intervention group, weight loss of ≥10% was associated with decreased levels of insulin, C-peptide, and HOMA2-IR compared to 0-5% weight loss. Further, the combination of exercise and weight loss was particularly important for breast cancer survivors with clinically abnormal levels of C-peptide.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Glicemia/análise , Peptídeo C/sangue , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Kidney Dis (Basel) ; 7(4): 323-333, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395547

RESUMO

Introduction: CKD is associated with decreased quality of life (QOL). Peer mentoring (PM) leads to improved QOL in various chronic diseases. The effectiveness of PM on QOL of patients with CKD has not been previously studied. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of face-to-face (FTF) and online mentoring by trained peers, compared with usual care, on CKD patients' QOL. Methods: We randomized 155 patients in one of 3 groups: (1) FTF PM (n = 52), (2) online PM (n = 52), and (3) textbook only (n = 51). Peer mentors were patients with CKD, who received formal training through 16 h of instruction. Participants in all 3 groups received a copy of an informational textbook about CKD. Participants assigned to PM received either 6 months of FTF or online PM. The outcomes included time-related changes in domain scores of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL)-36 for each of the groups over the 18-month study period. Results: Compared with baseline, online PM led to improved scores in domains of the KDQOL-36 at 18 months: Effects of Kidney Disease (p = 0.01), Burden of Kidney Disease (p = 0.01), Symptoms and Problems of Kidney Disease (p = 0.006), SF-12 Physical Composite Summary (p = 0.001), and SF-12 Mental Composite Summary (p < 0.001). There were no statistically significant changes from baseline in domain scores of KDQOL-36 within the FTF PM and textbook-only groups. Conclusions: Among patients with CKD, online PM led to increased scores in domains of the KDQOL-36 at 18 months. The study was limited to English-speaking subjects with computer literacy and internet access.

16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2120736, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424308

RESUMO

Importance: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common congenital infection and the leading acquired cause of developmental disabilities and sensorineural deafness, yet a reliable assessment of the infection burden is lacking. Objectives: To estimate the birth prevalence of cCMV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs), characterize the rate by screening methods, and delineate associated risk factors of the infection. Data Sources: MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases were searched from January 1, 1960, to March 1, 2021, and a total of 1322 studies were identified. Study Selection: Studies that provided data on the prevalence of cCMV derived from universal screening of infants younger than 3 weeks were included. Targeted screening studies were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guideline was followed. Extraction was performed independently by 3 reviewers. Quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was undertaken. Metaregression was conducted to evaluate the association of sociodemographic characteristics, maternal seroprevalence, population-level HIV prevalence, and screening methods with the prevalence of cCMV. Main Outcomes and Measures: Birth prevalence of cCMV ascertained through universal screening of infants younger than 3 weeks for CMV from urine, saliva, or blood samples. Results: Seventy-seven studies comprising 515 646 infants met the inclusion criteria from countries representative of each World Bank income level. The estimated pooled overall prevalence of cCMV was 0.67% (95% CI, 0.54%-0.83%). The pooled birth prevalence of cCMV was 3-fold greater in LMICs (1.42%; 95% CI, 0.97%-2.08%; n = 23 studies) than in HICs (0.48%; 95% CI, 0.40%-0.59%, n = 54 studies). Screening methods with blood samples demonstrated lower rates of cCMV than urine or saliva samples (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.23-0.66). Higher maternal CMV seroprevalence (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.11-1.28), higher population-level HIV prevalence (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.40), lower socioeconomic status (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 2.05-4.47), and younger mean maternal age (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.92, older age was associated with lower rates) were associated with higher rates of cCMV. Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis, LMICs appeared to incur the most significant infection burden. Lower rates of cCMV were reported by studies using only blood or serum as a screening method.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 686-692, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mushrooms contain numerous bioactive compounds that may be associated with reduced anxiety including vitamin B12, nerve growth factor, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory agents. We hypothesized that mushroom consumption is associated with a lower risk of depression in American adults. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2016 was used. Up to two days of 24 h dietary recall were analyzed to assess mushroom intake frequency. Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, score ≥ 10). We used multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Among 24,699 participants (mean (SE) age: 45.5 (0.3) years), the weighted prevalence of depression was 5.9%. Mushrooms were consumed by 5.2% of participants. Compared with the lowest tertile of mushroom intake, participants in the middle tertile (median intake = 4.9 g/d, number of cases = 16) had lower odds of depression (adjusted OR = 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16, 0.60) while those in the highest tertile did not differ (median intake = 19.6 g/d, adjusted OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.78, number of cases = 22) (P-trend = 0.42). LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional data and lack of information on specific types of mushrooms consumed. CONCLUSION: Mushroom consumers had a lower odd of depression. However, we did not observe a dose-response relationship.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(9): 1558-1565, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery has been found to be effective in the treatment of severe obesity. Studies have shown that the majority of eligible patients do not undergo surgery. OBJECTIVES: It is important to identify variables that may impact patient decision making and potentially lead to the disproportionate underutilization of bariatric surgery. SETTING: The study was conducted at one academic medical center in central Pennsylvania. METHODS: Bariatric patients who participated in a preoperative psychological assessment from 2017 to early 2020 completed comprehensive self-report questionnaires addressing sociodemographic variables, health history, psychopathology, and eating behaviors. Body mass index was calculated based on clinical measurements of each patient at the start of the preoperative program. Sociodemographic variables and self-report instrument scores were compared between those who completed surgery and those who did not. RESULTS: Of the 1234 participants, significant differences were found between the compared variables. All minority groups were less likely to undergo surgery than White patients. Participants reporting higher impairment were less likely to progress to surgery. Impairments across 3 behavioral eating assessments were associated with a lower likelihood of surgery. CONCLUSION: There are multiple factors that contribute to patient progression to surgery, and ultimately whether the patient undergoes bariatric surgery. Results show a need for further investigation surrounding the sociodemographic and psychosocial variables that influence the patient's advancement to surgery. Both providers and patients could benefit from a deeper understanding of potential barriers to utilization of bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327571

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sulfur amino acid (SAA) consumption in Western countries is far greater than recommended levels. In preclinical studies, reduced SAA intake enhanced longevity and reduced risk for numerous chronic diseases. The current objective was to examine for associations between the intake of total SAA, including methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys), and all-cause and disease-specific mortality US adults. METHODS: This prospective analysis included 15,083 US adult participants (mean age = 46.7 years) from the Third National Examination and Nutritional Health Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) with available mortality status (National Death Registry, 1988-2011). Dietary SAA intake was obtained from 24-h recall data. Associations between quintile (Q) of SAA intake (expressed as absolute intake or protein density) and mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models and expressed as hazard ratio (HR). RESULTS: During follow-up (mean = 16.9 years), 4636 deaths occurred. After multivariable adjustment (including demographics and traditional risk factors, such as fat and other micronutrients intake), diabetes-caused mortality rates were nearly threefold higher in the highest compared to lowest SAA intake quintiles [HRQ5-Q1 total SAA, 2.68 (1.46-4.90); HRQ5-Q1 methionine, 2.45 (1.37-4.38); HRQ5-Q1 cysteine, 2.91 (1.57-5.37)] (P < 0.01)]. Higher total SAA protein density was also associated with diabetes-caused mortality [HRQ5-Q1 1.75 (1.31-2.35)]. Associations between SAA intake and all-cause mortality, and mortality caused by other major diseases were not detected. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that high-SAA diets are associated with increased risk for diabetes mortality and that lowering intake towards to Recommended Dietary Allowance levels could lead to reductions in lifetime risk.

20.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; : e1490, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence supporting the efficacy of exercise oncology programs to improve physical and psychosocial outcomes during active treatment. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the effect of exercise on healthcare utilization and cost analyzes of exercise oncology programs. AIMS: Our objective was to assess the effects of a pragmatic exercise oncology program (ENACT) during active chemotherapy treatment on healthcare utilization and associated costs. METHODS: We conducted post-hoc analyzes on 160 ENACT participants and 75 comparison participants matched on cancer site, stage, age range, and gender. We obtained complete healthcare utilization histories for each patient (specific to emergency department [ED] visits and hospital admissions) coinciding with their participation in ENACT. A sub-analysis was conducted for advanced stage breast, gastrointestinal, and pancreatic cancer patients. RESULTS: Healthcare costs for patients who participated in the ENACT exercise oncology intervention were numerically lower than healthcare costs for the comparison group, even after accounting for the cost of the intervention. However, the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that an exercise oncology program during active chemotherapy treatment are at least cost neutral for all cancer patients, including advanced stage cancers. Additional research is warranted to evaluate the potential for exercise oncology programs to reduce healthcare utilization, particularly in advanced cancer patients.

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