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1.
J Med Chem ; 64(1): 677-694, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370104

RESUMO

A search for structurally diversified Tyk2 JH2 ligands from 6 (BMS-986165), a pyridazine carboxamide-derived Tyk2 JH2 ligand as a clinical Tyk2 inhibitor currently in late development for the treatment of psoriasis, began with a survey of six-membered heteroaryl groups in place of the N-methyl triazolyl moiety in 6. The X-ray co-crystal structure of an early lead (12) revealed a potential new binding pocket. Exploration of the new pocket resulted in two frontrunners for a clinical candidate. The potential hydrogen bonding interaction with Thr599 in the pocket was achieved with a tertiary amide moiety, confirmed by the X-ray co-crystal structure of 29. When the diversity search was extended to nicotinamides, a single fluorine atom addition was found to significantly enhance the permeability, which directly led to the discovery of 7 (BMS-986202) as a clinical Tyk2 inhibitor that binds to Tyk2 JH2. The preclinical studies of 7, including efficacy studies in mouse models of IL-23-driven acanthosis, anti-CD40-induced colitis, and spontaneous lupus, will also be presented.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Oxazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , TYK2 Quinase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Catálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ciclopropanos/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Oxazóis/química , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , TYK2 Quinase/metabolismo
2.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073529

RESUMO

Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) provide targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents directly inside tumor cells. However, many ADCs targeting solid tumors have exhibited limited clinical efficacy, in part, due to insufficient penetration within tumors. To better understand the relationship between ADC tumor penetration and efficacy, previously applied Krogh cylinder models that explore tumor growth dynamics following ADC administration in preclinical species were expanded to a clinical framework by integrating clinical pharmacokinetics, tumor penetration, and tumor growth inhibition. The objective of this framework is to link ADC tumor penetration and distribution to clinical efficacy. The model was validated by comparing virtual patient population simulations to observed overall response rates from trastuzumab-DM1 treated patients with metastatic breast cancer. To capture clinical outcomes, we expanded upon previous Krogh cylinder models to include the additional mechanism of heterogeneous tumor growth inhibition spatially across the tumor. This expansion mechanistically captures clinical response rates by describing heterogeneous ADC binding and tumor cell killing; high binding and tumor cell death close to capillaries vs. low binding, and high tumor cell proliferation far from capillaries. Sensitivity analyses suggest that clinical efficacy could be optimized through dose fractionation, and that clinical efficacy is primarily dependent on the ADC-target affinity, payload potency, and tumor growth rate. This work offers a mechanistic basis to predict and optimize ADC clinical efficacy for solid tumors, allowing dosing strategy optimization to improve patient outcomes.

3.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 59(5): 617-627, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713224

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Elagolix is approved for the management of moderate-to-severe pain associated with endometriosis. The aim of this analysis was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that describes the enzyme-transporter interplay involved in the disposition of elagolix and to predict the magnitude of drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of elagolix as an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. METHODS: A PBPK model (SimCYP® version 15.0.86.0) was developed using elagolix data from in vitro, clinical PK and DDI studies. Data from DDI studies were used to quantify contributions of the uptake transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and CYP3A4 in the disposition of elagolix, and to quantitatively assess the perpetrator potential of elagolix as a CYP3A4 inducer and P-gp inhibitor. RESULTS: After accounting for the interplay between elagolix metabolism by CYP3A4 and uptake by OATP1B1, the model-predicted PK parameters of elagolix along with the DDI AUC∞ and Cmax ratios, were within 1.5-fold of the observed data. Based on model simulations, elagolix 200 mg administered twice daily is a moderate inducer of CYP3A4 (approximately 56% reduction in midazolam AUC∞). Simulations of elagolix 150 mg administered once daily with digoxin predicted an increase in digoxin Cmax and AUC∞ by 68% and 19%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A PBPK model of elagolix was developed, verified, and applied to characterize the disposition interplay between CYP3A4 and OATP1B1, and to predict the DDI potential of elagolix as a perpetrator under dosing conditions that were not tested clinically. PBPK model-based predictions were used to support labeling language for DDI recommendations of elagolix.

4.
J Med Chem ; 62(20): 8973-8995, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318208

RESUMO

Small molecule JAK inhibitors have emerged as a major therapeutic advancement in treating autoimmune diseases. The discovery of isoform selective JAK inhibitors that traditionally target the catalytically active site of this kinase family has been a formidable challenge. Our strategy to achieve high selectivity for TYK2 relies on targeting the TYK2 pseudokinase (JH2) domain. Herein we report the late stage optimization efforts including a structure-guided design and water displacement strategy that led to the discovery of BMS-986165 (11) as a high affinity JH2 ligand and potent allosteric inhibitor of TYK2. In addition to unprecedented JAK isoform and kinome selectivity, 11 shows excellent pharmacokinetic properties with minimal profiling liabilities and is efficacious in several murine models of autoimmune disease. On the basis of these findings, 11 appears differentiated from all other reported JAK inhibitors and has been advanced as the first pseudokinase-directed therapeutic in clinical development as an oral treatment for autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , TYK2 Quinase/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Heterocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Camundongos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
5.
J Med Chem ; 62(20): 8953-8972, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314518

RESUMO

As a member of the Janus (JAK) family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, TYK2 plays an important role in mediating the signaling of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-12, IL-23, and type 1 interferons. The nicotinamide 4, identified by a SPA-based high-throughput screen targeting the TYK2 pseudokinase domain, potently inhibits IL-23 and IFNα signaling in cellular assays. The described work details the optimization of this poorly selective hit (4) to potent and selective molecules such as 47 and 48. The discoveries described herein were critical to the eventual identification of the clinical TYK2 JH2 inhibitor (see following report in this issue). Compound 48 provided robust inhibition in a mouse IL-12-induced IFNγ pharmacodynamic model as well as efficacy in an IL-23 and IL-12-dependent mouse colitis model. These results demonstrate the ability of TYK2 JH2 domain binders to provide a highly selective alternative to conventional TYK2 orthosteric inhibitors.


Assuntos
Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Ácidos Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , TYK2 Quinase/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Humanos , Ligantes , Camundongos , Niacinamida/metabolismo , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Ácidos Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Xenobiotica ; 48(9): 904-910, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027832

RESUMO

1. Venetoclax is a novel, small molecule B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) inhibitor that has demonstrated clinical efficacy in a variety of haematological malignancies. Since venetoclax is an inhibitor of P glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter, a study was conducted in healthy, female volunteers to evaluate the effect of venetoclax on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin, a P-gp probe substrate. 2. Volunteers received a single oral dose of digoxin (0.5 mg) with or without a single oral dose of venetoclax (100  mg). Serial blood samples were obtained for pharmacokinetic assessments of digoxin and venetoclax and serial urine samples were obtained for measurement of digoxin concentrations. Safety was assessed throughout the study. 3. Coadministration of digoxin and venetoclax increased digoxin maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) by 35% and area under the plasma-concentration time curve (AUC0-∞) by 9%. Digoxin half-life, renal clearance and the fraction excreted unchanged in urine remained relatively similar. The results of this study indicate that venetoclax can increase the concentrations of P-gp substrates. Narrow therapeutic index P-gp substrates should be administered six hours prior to venetoclax to minimise the potential interaction.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacocinética , Digoxina/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Digoxina/administração & dosagem , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem
7.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 72(1): 109-15, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21382071

RESUMO

AIMS: It is well established that oxidative and conjugative enzyme activity differs between obese and healthy-weight adults. However, the effect of obesity on drug metabolism in children has not been studied extensively. This study examined whether obese and healthy-weight children vary with respect to oxidative enzyme activity of CYP1A2, xanthine oxidase (XO) and conjugative enzyme activity of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). METHODS: In vivo CYP1A2, XO and NAT2 activity was assessed in obese (n= 9) and lean (n= 16) children between the ages of 6-10 years using caffeine (118.3 ml Coca Cola®) as probe. Urine samples were collected in 2-h increments over 8 h. Caffeine and metabolites were measured using LC/MS, and urinary metabolic ratios were determined based on reported methods. RESULTS: Sixteen healthy-weight and nine obese children were evaluated. XO activity was elevated in paediatric obese volunteers compared with non-obese paediatric volunteers (XO metabolic ratio of 0.7 ± 0.06 vs. 0.6 ± 0.06, respectively, 95% CI 0.046, 0.154, P < 0.001). NAT2 activity was fivefold higher in the obese (1 ± 0.4) as compared with non-obese children (0.2 ± 0.1), 95% CI 0.26, 1.34, P < 0.05. However, no difference was observed in CYP1A2 activity between the groups (95% CI -2.72, 0.12, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that obese children have elevated XO and NAT2 enzyme activity when compared with healthy-weight controls. Further studies are needed to determine how this may impact the efficacy of therapeutic agents that may undergo metabolism by these enzymes.


Assuntos
Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Obesidade/enzimologia , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Peso Corporal , Cafeína/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos
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