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1.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 23, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was initiated to examine the psychometric components of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES) by translating and validating the scale into the Malay language (DES-M) which is the main language spoken in Malaysia. This study can determine the level of empowerment among diabetic patients towards diabetes management. In addition, the reliability and validity of the DES-M was also demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 151 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited (between June 2016 and October 2016) to complete sets of questionnaires, which were DES-M, the Malay versions of the Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) for Adults and Summary of Diabetes Self Care Activities Questionnaire (SDSCA). Confirmatory and Exploratory factor analysis (CFA and EFA) were carried out to determine the factor structures of the DES-M. RESULTS: There were 100 males and 51 females with ages ranging from 19 to 81 years old (55 ± 13) included in this study. The instrument displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α =0.920) and the respective coefficients ranged from 0.65-0.84. Discriminant validity showed adequate correlations ranged from 0.257-0.744. Concurrent validity with SDSCA (Pearson's correlation = 0.313, p = 0.012). Predictive validity with DQOL (B = 0.27, p = 0.016). CFA indicated that four factor model of the DES-M has good fit to the data. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the DES-M has a good internal consistency and validity. Therefore, it is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing empowerment score among patients with diabetes in Malaysia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NMRR-16-805-30503 (IIR).

2.
Midwifery ; 81: 102586, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in gestational diabetes mellitus ranges from 10.2% to 39.9% based on previous studies in Malaysia. Presence of depression, anxiety or stress in pregnancy may increase the risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neonatal outcomes and its association among mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus with and without the presence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in Malaysia. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary hospitals in Malaysia. PARTICIPANTS: Mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 418) who deliver their neonates at two major tertiary hospitals in Malaysia. MEASUREMENTS: Neonatal outcomes, such as low birth weight, preterm birth, macrosomia, metabolic and electrolyte disorders, neonatal respiratory distress and congenital anomalies were determined. FINDINGS: Prevalence of low birth weight in neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus was 14.6%, followed by metabolic and electrolyte disorders 10.5%, preterm birth 9.1%, macrosomia 4.8%, neonatal respiratory distress 5.8% and congenital anomalies (2.4%). Among the adverse neonatal outcomes, neonatal respiratory distress was significantly associated with the presence of depression symptoms in mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus using univariate analysis (p = 0.010). After controlling for confounding factors, predictors for neonatal respiratory distress at delivery were the presence of depression symptoms in mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (Adjusted OR = 3.87, 95% CI = 1.32-11.35), living without a husband (Adjusted OR = 9.74, 95% CI = 2.04-46.51), preterm delivery (Adjusted OR = 7.20, 95% CI = 2.23-23.30), caesarean section (Adjusted OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 1.09-10.15), being nulliparous and primiparous (Adjusted OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 1.17-11.17) and having family history of diabetes (Adjusted OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.11-9.21). KEY CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrate the positive association of neonatal respiratory distress with the presence of depression symptoms in mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: It is therefore important to identify depression symptoms after a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant mothers is made to enable early referral and interventions.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783578

RESUMO

The protective effects of probiotic supplementation against radiation-induced diarrhea (RID) have been reported in previous systematic reviews; however so far, only non-conclusive results have been obtained. The objective of this study was to systematically update and evaluate the available evidence for probiotic supplementation. The protocol of this systematic review has been registered (CRD42018106059) with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). The primary efficacy outcome was the incidence of RID. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of watery stool, soft stool, and antidiarrheal medication use. There were eight trials, and a total of 1116 participants were included in the primary analysis. Compared with placebo, probiotics were associated with a lower risk of RID [risk ratio (RR) = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.46, 0.83]. A requisite heterogeneity-adjusted trial sequential analysis indicated conclusive evidence for this beneficial effect. No statistically significant reduction in RID (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.14, 1.91) was observed on subgroup analysis in patients receiving both radiation therapy and chemotherapy. However, those patients receiving only radiation therapy (RT) demonstrated significant benefit (RR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.48, 0.78). There was a significant difference in the antidiarrheal medication use (RR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.35, 0.84) observed with the use of probiotics. However, no significant difference was observed for the incidence of soft and watery stool. The use of probiotics is beneficial in preventing RID in patients receiving RT.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1602, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information regarding the knowledge on the action to be taken during stroke and good recognition of stroke symptoms is mandatory in helping to plan out educational strategies to deliver health education to the community. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 and above attending a blood pressure screening program in community in conjunction with May Measurement Month 2017 in Malaysia. A structured self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants who gave verbal consent. Data analysis was done using SPSS v. 23 and multiple logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of knowledge on actions to be taken during stroke and recognition of stroke symptoms. RESULTS: Out of 4096 respondents, 82.9-92.1% of them able to recognise the common stroke symptoms. and 74.2% of the study respondents will go to hospital within 4.5 h of stroke onset. According to binomial logistic regression analyses, adults aged 45 years old and above (OR 1.39 95%CI 1.01-1.92), being Malay (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.27-2.40), being non-smokers (OR = 2.491, 95% CI: 1.64-3.78), hypertensives (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.02-2.42)and diabetics (OR: 2.54, 95% CI:1.38-4.69) are determinants of right actions to be taken during stroke. Meanwhile, respondents aged 45 years old and older (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.39-2.03), being Malay (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.24-1.79), hypertensive (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.04-1.66) and those who had a previous history of stroke (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.01-5.00) are determinants of good recognition of stroke symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The overall knowledge of stroke in our study population was good. Older age, being Malay, non-smokers, hypertensives and diabetics are determinants of right actions to be taken during stroke. Meanwhile, older age, being Malay, hypertensive and those who had a previous history of stroke are determinants of good recognition of stroke symptoms.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801286

RESUMO

The association of candidate genes and psychological symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Malaysia was determined in this study, followed by the determination of their odds of getting psychological symptoms, adjusted for socio-demographical background, maternal, and clinical characteristics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) recorded a significant association between SNP of EPHX2 (rs17466684) and depression symptoms (AOR = 7.854, 95% CI = 1.330-46.360) and stress symptoms (AOR = 7.664, 95% CI = 1.579-37.197). Associations were also observed between stress symptoms and SNP of OXTR (rs53576) and (AOR = 2.981, 95% CI = 1.058-8.402) and SNP of NRG1 (rs2919375) (AOR = 9.894, 95% CI = 1.159-84.427). The SNP of EPHX2 (rs17466684) gene polymorphism is associated with depression symptoms among Malaysian women with GDM. SNP of EPHX2 (rs17466684), OXTR (rs53576) and NRG1 (rs2919375) are also associated with stress symptoms.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224649, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693677

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Self-care has been shown to improve clinical outcome of hypertension. Gauging the level of self-care among patients with hypertension enables the design of their personalized care plans. This study aimed to determine the self-care profiles and its determinants among patients with hypertension in the Malaysian primary care setting. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted between 1 October 2016-30 April 2017 in three primary care clinics in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. All adults aged 18 years and above with hypertension for at least 6 months were recruited with a systematic random sampling of 1:2 ratio. The participants were assisted in the administration of the structured questionnaire, which included socio-demographic information, medical information and the Hypertension Self-Care Profile (HTN SCP) tool. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Multiple linear regression was performed to determine the determinants for self-care. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 59.5 (SD10.2) years old. There were more women (52.5%) and most were Malays (44.0%) follow by Chinese (34%) and Indians (21%). Majority (84.2%) had secondary or primary school level of education. A third (30.7%) had a family history of hypertension. The mean total HTN-SCP score was 124.2 (SD 22.8) out of 180. The significant determinants that influenced the HTN-SCP scores included being men (B-4.5, P-value0.008), Chinese ethnicity (B-14.7, P-value<0.001), primary level education/no formal school education level (B-15.7, P-value<0.001), secondary level education (B-9.2, P-value<0.001) and family history of hypertension (B 4.4, P-value 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: The overall hypertension self-care profile among patients in this multi-ethnic country was moderate. Being men, Chinese, lower education level and without family history of hypertension were associated with lower hypertension self-care profile score. Healthcare intervention programmes to address self-care should target this group of patients.

8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 367, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on antenatal depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is lacking in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with antenatal depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms among Malaysian women with GDM. METHODS: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study of 526 women with GDM. Depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms are defined as the final score in mild to extremely severe risk in the severity rating scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS v.21, while multiple logistic regression was used to identify predictors of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms. RESULTS: Prevalence of anxiety symptoms was highest (39.9%), followed by depressive symptoms (12.5%) and stress symptoms (10.6%) among women with GDM. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, younger age (OR = 0.955, 95% CI = 0.919-0.993), comorbidity with asthma (OR = 2.436, 95% CI = 1.219-4.870) and a family history of depression and anxiety (OR = 4.782, 95% CI = 1.281-17.853) had significant associations with antenatal anxiety symptoms. Being non-Muslim (OR = 2.937, 95% CI = 1.434-6.018) and having a family history of depression and anxiety (OR = 4.706, 95% CI = 1.362-16.254) had significant associations with antenatal depressive symptoms. Furthermore, being non-Muslim (OR = 2.451, 95% CI = 1.273-4.718) had a significant association with antenatal stress symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Within a population of women with GDM in Malaysia, those at higher risk of having depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms can be identified from several baseline clinical characteristics. Clinicians should be more alert so that the high-risk patients can be referred earlier for further intervention.

9.
Indian J Med Res ; 149(6): 706-714, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496523

RESUMO

Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are human filarial diseases belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases, leading to permanent and long-term disability in infected individuals in the endemic countries such as Africa and India. Microfilaricidal drugs such as ivermectin and albendazole have been used as the standard therapy in filariasis, although their efficacy in eliminating the diseases is not fully established. Anti-Wolbachia therapy employs antibiotics and is a promising approach showing potent macrofilaricidal activity and also prevents embryogenesis. This has translated to clinical benefits resulting in successful eradication of microfilarial burden, thus averting the risk of adverse events from target species as well as those due to co-infection with loiasis. Doxycycline shows potential as an anti-Wolbachia treatment, leading to the death of adult parasitic worms. It is readily available, cheap and safe to use in adult non-pregnant patients. Besides doxycycline, several other potential antibiotics are also being investigated for the treatment of LF and onchocerciasis. This review aims to discuss and summarise recent developments in the use of anti-Wolbachia drugs to treat onchocerciasis and LF.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e024702, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the salt content in instant noodles sold in Malaysia. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was done involving 707 different flavours and packaging of instant noodles sold in six hypermarkets and retailer chains in Malaysia and the corresponding brand's official websites in 2017. METHODS: The salt content (gram per serving and per 100 g) was collected from the product packaging and corresponding brand's official website. RESULTS: Of the 707 different packaging and flavours of instant noodles, only 62.1% (n=439) provided the salt content in their food label.The mean (±SD) salt per 100 g of instant noodles was 4.3±1.5 g and is nearly four times higher than the salt content of food classified in Malaysia as a high salt content (>1.2 g salt per 100 g). The salt content for instant noodle per packaging ranged from 0.7 to 8.5 g. 61.7% of the instant noodles exceeded the Pacific Salt Reduction Target, 11.8% exceeded the WHO recommended daily salt intake of <5.0 per day and 5.50% exceeded Malaysia Salt Action Target. 98% of instant noodles will be considered as high salt food according to the Malaysia Guidelines.The probability of the instant noodles without mixed flavour (n=324) exceeding the Pacific Salt Reduction Target was tested on univariate and multivariate analysis. Instant noodles with soup, Tom Yam flavour, pork flavour and other flavours were found to be predictors of instant noodles with the tendency to exceed Pacific Salt Reduction Target when compared with instant noodles without mixed flavours (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Only 62% of instant noodles displayed the salt content on their food label. Salt content in instant noodles is very high, with 90% exceeding the daily salt intake recommended by WHO. Prompt action from regulatory and health authorities is needed to reduce the salt content in instant noodles.

11.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 21(Suppl D): D77-D79, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043885

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a growing burden worldwide, leading to over 10 million deaths each year. However there are still many individuals, particularly in many countries in Asia, who have poor BP control. In Malaysia, less than two-fifths have achieved BP control. We participated in BP screening in Malaysia in conjunction with the May Measurement Month 2017 (MMM17), a global initiative by the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) aimed at screening more individuals for earlier detection of hypertension. A nationwide screening of adults aged ≥18 was carried out through health campaigns at clinics, hospitals, during family day events, and charity runs from 1 April 2017 to 31 May 2017 in 42 centres. We used the detailed protocol provided by ISH for data collection. A total of 4116 individuals were screened during MMM17. After multiple imputation, 32.4% (n = 1317/4059) had hypertension. Out of this, 63.9% (842/1317) of those with hypertension were on treatment. Of individuals receiving antihypertensive medication with an imputed BP, 59.5% (n = 496/834) of them had controlled BP. MMM17 was the largest organized BP screening campaign undertaken by health professionals in Malaysia. This study identified that 32.4% of screened individuals had hypertension and 59.5% individuals with treated hypertension had achieved BP control.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 501, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to determine the association between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and subsequent fatal and non-fatal events in a general population. METHODS: The Norfolk (UK) based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) recruited 25,639 participants between 1993 and 1997. FEV1 measured by portable spirometry, was categorized into sex-specific quintiles. Mortality and morbidity from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and respiratory disease were collected from 1997 up to 2015. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used with adjustment for socio-economic factors, physical activity and co-morbidities. RESULTS: Mean age of the population was 58.7 ± 9.3 years, mean FEV1 for men was 294± 74 cL/s and 214± 52 cL/s for women. The adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality for participants in the highest fifth of the FEV1 category was 0.63 (0.52, 0.76) for men and 0.62 (0.51, 0.76) for women compared to the lowest quintile. Adjusted HRs for every 70 cL/s increase in FEV1 among men and women were 0.77 (p < 0.001) and 0.68 (p < 0.001) for total mortality, 0.85 (p<0.001) and 0.77 (p<0.001) for CVD and 0.52 (p <0.001) and 0.42 (p <0.001) for respiratory disease. CONCLUSIONS: Participants with higher FEV1 levels had a lower risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. Measuring the FEV1 with a portable handheld spirometry measurement may be used as a surrogate marker for cardiovascular risk. Every effort should be made to identify those with poorer lung function even in the absence of cardiovascular disease as they are at greater risk of total and CV mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria/métodos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
13.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 79, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methanol extract (MECN) of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (family Acanthaceae) demonstrated peripherally and centrally mediated antinociceptive activity via the modulation of opioid/NO-mediated, but cGMP-independent pathway. In the present study, MECN was sequentially partitioned to obtain petroleum ether extract of C. nutans (PECN), which was subjected to antinociceptive study with aims of establishing its antinociceptive potential and determining the role of opioid receptors and L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (L-arg/NO/cGMP) pathway in the observed antinociceptive activity. METHODS: The antinociceptive potential of orally administered PECN (100, 250, 500 mg/kg) was studied using the abdominal constriction-, hot plate- and formalin-induced paw licking-test in mice (n = 6). The effect of PECN on locomotor activity was also evaluated using the rota rod assay. The role of opioid receptors was determined by pre-challenging 500 mg/kg PECN (p.o.) with antagonist of opioid receptor subtypes, namely ß-funaltrexamine (ß-FNA; 10 mg/kg; a µ-opioid antagonist), naltrindole (NALT; 1 mg/kg; a δ-opioid antagonist) or nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 1 mg/kg; a κ-opioid antagonist) followed by subjection to the abdominal constriction test. In addition, the role of L-arg/NO/cGMP pathway was determined by prechallenging 500 mg/kg PECN (p.o.) with L-arg (20 mg/kg; a NO precursor), 1H-[1, 2, 4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 2 mg/kg; a specific soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor), or the combinations thereof (L-arg + ODQ) for 5 mins before subjection to the abdominal constriction test. PECN was also subjected to phytoconstituents analyses. RESULTS: PECN significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited nociceptive effect in all models in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose of PECN (500 mg/kg) also did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the locomotor activity of treated mice. The antinociceptive activity of PECN was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by all antagonists of µ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors. In addition, the antinociceptive activity of PECN was significantly (p < 0.05) reversed by L-arg, but insignificantly (p > 0.05) affected by ODQ. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of at least cinnamic acid in PECN. CONCLUSION: PECN exerted antinocicpetive activity at peripheral and central levels possibly via the activation of non-selective opioid receptors and modulation of the NO-mediated/cGMP-independent pathway partly via the synergistic action of phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Acanthaceae/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcanos , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e025322, 2019 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the reproducibility of visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) in clinical practice. We also determined the minimum number of blood pressure (BP) measurements needed to estimate long-term visit-to-visit BPV for predicting 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk. DESIGN: Retrospective study SETTING: A primary care clinic in a university hospital in Malaysia. PARTICIPANTS: Random sampling of 1403 patients aged 30 years and above without any CV event at baseline. OUTCOMES MEASURES: The effect of the number of BP measurement for calculation of long-term visit-to-visit BPV in predicting 10-year CV risk. CV events were defined as fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease, fatal and non-fatal stroke, heart failure and peripheral vascular disease. RESULTS: The mean 10-year SD of systolic blood pressure (SBP) for this cohort was 13.8±3.5 mm Hg. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the SD of SBP based on the first eight and second eight measurements was 0.38 (p<0.001). In a primary care setting, visit-to-visit BPV (SD of SBP calculated from 20 BP measurements) was significantly associated with CV events (adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.13, p=0.009). Using SD of SBP from 20 measurement as reference, SD of SBP from 6 measurements (median time 1.75 years) has high reliability (ICC 0.74, p<0.001), with a mean difference of 0.6 mm Hg. Hence, a minimum of six BP measurements is needed for reliably estimating intraindividual BPV for CV outcome prediction. CONCLUSION: Long-term visit-to-visit BPV is reproducible in clinical practice. We suggest a minimum of six BP measurements for calculation of intraindividual visit-to-visit BPV. The number and duration of BP readings to derive BPV should be taken into consideration in predicting long-term CV risk.

15.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 13, 2019 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of HTRA1 rs11200638 and ARMS2 rs10490924 gene polymorphisms with response to intravitreal ranibizumab therapy among neovascular AMD (nAMD) subjects in Malaysia was determined in this study, followed by the expression of HTRA1 and ARMS2 genes. RESULTS: Both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) recorded a significant association between nAMD and controls with HTRA1 rs11200638 at P = 0.018 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.07-215) and ARMS2 rs10490924 at P < 0.001 (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.75-3.42). An association was also observed in response to ranibizumab for both SNPs in a logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). The mRNA levels in the HTRA1 variant between responder and non-responder groups were significantly different for the homozygous non-risk GG genotype (P = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: The HTRA1 rs11200638 and ARMS2 rs10490924 gene polymorphisms are associated with nAMD among Malaysians. Both gene polymorphisms were also correlated with response to intravitreal ranibizumab therapy based on visual and anatomical outcomes especially the HTRA1 rs11200638 variant.


Assuntos
Serina Peptidase 1 de Requerimento de Alta Temperatura A/genética , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Macular/genética , Proteínas/genética , Ranibizumab/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 561-571, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666154

RESUMO

Background: Celecoxib has previously been shown to be effective in reducing recurrent colorectal adenomas, but its long-term effects are unknown. In addition, safety issues are of major concern. Therefore, we examined the efficacy and safety of celecoxib as a chemopreventive agent along with its posttreatment effect. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing celecoxib at various doses (400 mg once daily, 200 mg twice daily, and 400 mg twice daily) vs placebo in persons with history of colorectal adenomas. Several databases were searched from inception up to April 2018. Long-term follow-ups of RCTs were also included to evaluate posttreatment effect. Primary outcome was the incidence of recurrent colorectal adenomas. Various safety outcomes were evaluated, especially cardiovascular (CV) events. Risk-benefit integrated analyses were also performed. Results: A total of three RCTs (4,420 patients) and three post-trial studies (2,159 patients) were included in the analysis. Use of celecoxib at any dose for 1-3 years significantly reduced the incidence of recurrent advanced adenomas (risk ratio, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.34-0.53]) and any adenomas (0.67 [95% CI, 0.62-0.72]) compared with placebo. Subgroup analysis on different dosing suggested a greater effect with 400 mg twice daily. However, celecoxib 400 mg twice daily significantly increased the risk of serious adverse (1.2 [95% CI, 1.0-1.5]) and CV events (3.42 [95% CI, 1.56-7.46]), while celecoxib at 400 mg/day, especially with once daily dosing, did not increase CV risk (1.01 [95% CI, 0.70-1.46]). Analysis of post-trial studies indicated that the treatment effect disappeared (1.15 [95% CI, 0.88-1.49]) after discontinuing celecoxib for >2 years. Conclusion: Celecoxib 400 mg once daily dosing could potentially be considered as a viable chemopreventive option in patients with high risk of adenomas but with low CV risk. Long-term trials on celecoxib at a dose of ≤400 mg either once or twice daily are warranted.

17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 494, 2018 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a of the major public health issues in Asia. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for GDM in Asia via a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid, Scopus and ScienceDirect for observational studies in Asia from inception to August 2017. We selected cross sectional studies reporting the prevalence and risk factors for GDM. A random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of GDM and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Eighty-four studies with STROBE score ≥ 14 were included in our analysis. The pooled prevalence of GDM in Asia was 11.5% (95% CI 10.9-12.1). There was considerable heterogeneity (I2 > 95%) in the prevalence of GDM in Asia, which is likely due to differences in diagnostic criteria, screening methods and study setting. Meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk factors of GDM include history of previous GDM (OR 8.42, 95% CI 5.35-13.23); macrosomia (OR 4.41, 95% CI 3.09-6.31); and congenital anomalies (OR 4.25, 95% CI 1.52-11.88). Other risk factors include a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (OR 3.27, 95% CI 2.81-3.80); pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR 3.20, 95% CI 2.19-4.68); family history of diabetes (OR 2.77, 2.22-3.47); history of stillbirth (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.68-3.40); polycystic ovary syndrome (OR 2.33, 95% CI1.72-3.17); history of abortion (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.54-3.29); age ≥ 25 (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.96-2.41); multiparity ≥2 (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.24-1.52); and history of preterm delivery (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.21-3.07). CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of GDM among the Asian population. Asian women with common risk factors especially among those with history of previous GDM, congenital anomalies or macrosomia should receive additional attention from physician as high-risk cases for GDM in pregnancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (2017: CRD42017070104 ).


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
18.
Clin Epidemiol ; 10: 1433-1445, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349391

RESUMO

Background: Various interventions have been tested as primary prevention of colorectal cancers (CRC), but comprehensive evidence comparing them is absent. We examined the effects of various chemopreventive agents (CPAs) on CRC incidence and mortality. Methods: We did a network meta-analysis based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared at least one CPA (aspirin, antioxidants, folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D, alone or in combination) to placebo or other CPA in persons without history of CRC. Several databases were searched from inception up to March 2017. Primary outcomes were early and long-term CRC incidence and mortality. Results: Twenty-one RCTs comprising 281,063 participants, 9 RCTS comprising 160,101 participants, and 7 RCTs comprising 24,001 participants were included in the network meta-analysis for early risk of CRC incidence, long-term risk of CRC incidence and mortality, respectively. For early CRC incidence, no CPAs were found to be effective. For long-term CRC incidence and mortality, aspirin was the only intervention that showed protective effects with potential dose-dependent effects (risk ratio [RR], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.57-0.97] for high-dose [≥325 mg/day] and RR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98] for very-low-dose [≤100 mg/day]). Similar trend was found for mortality (RR, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.23-0.81] for low-dose [>100-325 mg/day] and RR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.45-0.94] for very-low-dose). However, in net clinical benefit analysis, when combining risk estimates on mortality from CRC, cardiovascular disease, and pooled risk estimates of major gastrointestinal bleeding, low-dose aspirin provided the highest net survival gain (%) of 1.736 [95% CI, 1.010-2.434]. Conclusion: Aspirin at the dose range of 75-325 mg/day is a safe and effective primary prevention for long-term CRC among people at average risk. None of the other CPAs were found to be effective. There may potentially be differential effects among various doses of aspirin that needs further investigation.

19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(9): e0006817, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaysia experienced an unprecedented dengue outbreak from the year 2014 to 2016 that resulted in an enormous increase in the number of cases and mortality as compared to previous years. The causes that attribute to a dengue outbreak can be multifactorial. Viral factors, such as dengue serotype and genotype, are the components of interest in this study. Although only a small number of studies investigated the association between the serotype of dengue virus and clinical manifestations, none of these studies included analyses on dengue genotypes. The present study aims to investigate dengue serotype and genotype-specific clinical characteristics among dengue fever and severe dengue cases from two Malaysian tertiary hospitals between 2014 and mid-2017. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 120 retrospective dengue serum specimens were subjected to serotyping and genotyping by Taqman Real-Time RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Subsequently, the dengue serotype and genotype data were statistically analyzed for 101 of 120 corresponding patients' clinical manifestations to generate a descriptive relation between the genetic components and clinical outcomes of dengue infected patients. During the study period, predominant dengue serotype and genotype were found to be DENV 1 genotype I. Additionally, non-severe clinical manifestations were commonly observed in patients infected with DENV 1 and DENV 3. Meanwhile, patients with DENV 2 infection showed significant warning signs and developed severe dengue (p = 0.007). Cases infected with DENV 2 were also commonly presented with persistent vomiting (p = 0.010), epigastric pain (p = 0.018), plasma leakage (p = 0.004) and shock (p = 0.038). Moreover, myalgia and arthralgia were highly prevalent among DENV 3 infection (p = 0.015; p = 0.014). The comparison of genotype-specific clinical manifestations showed that DENV 2 Cosmopolitan was significantly common among severe dengue patients. An association was also found between genotype I of DENV 3 and myalgia. In a similar vein, genotype III of DENV 3 was significantly common among patients with arthralgia. CONCLUSION: The current data contended that different dengue serotype and genotype had caused distinct clinical characteristics in infected patients.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/patologia , Dengue/virologia , Genótipo , Sorogrupo , Adolescente , Criança , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sorotipagem , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 18(1): 206, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blended learning (BL) is a learning innovation that applies the concept of face-to-face learning and online learning. However, examples of these innovations are still limited in the teaching of postgraduate education within the field of family medicine. Malaysian postgraduate clinical training, is an in-service training experience and face-to-face teaching with the faculty members can be challenging. Given this, we took the opportunity to apply BL in their training. This study provides an exploration of the perceptions of the educators and students toward the implementation of BL. METHODS: A qualitative approach was employed using focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews (IDI) at an academic centre that trains family physicians. Twelve trainees, all of whom were in their hospital specialty's rotations and five faculty members were purposively selected. Three FGDs among the trainees, one FGD and two IDIs among the faculty members were conducted using a semi-structured topic guide. Data were collected through audio-recorded interviews, transcribed verbatim and checked for accuracy. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: There were four main themes that emerged from the analysis. Both educators and trainees bill the perspective that BL encouraged continuity in learning. They agreed that BL bridges the gap in student-teacher interactions. Although educators perceived that BL is in concordance with trainees learning style, trainees felt differently about this. Some educators and trainees perceived BL to be an extra burden in teaching and learning. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a mix positive and negative perceptions of BL by educators and trainees. BL were perceived positively for continuity in learning and student-teacher interaction. However, educator and learner have mismatched perception of learning style. BL was also perceived to cause extra burden to both educators and learners. Integrating BL to a traditional learning curriculum is still a challenge. By knowing the strengths of BL in this setting, family medicine trainees in Malaysia can use it to enhance their current learning experience. Future study can investigate different pedagogical designs that suit family medicine trainees and educators in promoting independent learning in postgraduate training.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Aprendizagem , Malásia , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensino
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