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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714901

RESUMO

X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and neoplasia (XMEN) disease is caused by deficiency of the magnesium transporter 1 gene (MAGT1). We studied 23 XMEN patients, 8 of whom were EBV-naïve. We observed lymphadenopathy (LAD), cytopenias, liver disease, cavum septum pellucidum, and increased CD4-CD8-B220-TCRalpha/beta+ T (abDNT) cells, in addition to the previously described features of an inverted CD4:CD8 ratio, CD4+ T lymphocytopenia, increased B cells, dysgammaglobulinemia, and decreased expression of the "Natural-Killer Group 2, member D" (NKG2D) receptor. EBV-associated B cell malignancies occurred frequently in EBV-infected patients. We investigated XMEN patients and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) patients by deep immunophenotyping (32 immune markers) using Time of Flight Mass Cytometry (CyTOF). Our analysis revealed that the abundance of two populations of naïve B cells (CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4++CD10+CD38+ and CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4+CD10-CD38-) could differentially classify XMEN, ALPS, and normal individuals. We also performed glycoproteomics analysis on T lymphocytes and show that XMEN disease is a congenital disorder of glycosylation that affects a restricted subset of glycoproteins. Transfection of MAGT1 mRNA enabled us to rescue proteins with defective glycosylation. Together, these data provide new clinical and pathophysiological foundations with important ramifications for the diagnosis and treatment of XMEN disease.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568798

RESUMO

Genetic testing has become an integral component of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases. Results of genetic testing can have a profound effect on clinical management decisions. Therefore clinical providers must demonstrate proficiency in interpreting genetic data. Because of the need for increased knowledge regarding this practice, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Committee established a work group that reviewed and summarized information concerning appropriate methods, tools, and resources for evaluating variants identified by genetic testing. Strengths and limitations of tests frequently ordered by clinicians were examined. Summary statements and tables were then developed to guide the interpretation process. Finally, the need for research and collaboration was emphasized. Greater understanding of these important concepts will improve the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases.

4.
Blood ; 134(18): 1510-1516, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501153

RESUMO

Dysregulated immune responses are essential underlying causes of a plethora of pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiency. We here investigated 4 patients from unrelated families presenting with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and malignancy. We identified 4 distinct homozygous mutations in TNFRSF9 encoding the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member CD137/4-1BB, leading to reduced, or loss of, protein expression. Lymphocytic responses crucial for immune surveillance, including activation, proliferation, and differentiation, were impaired. Genetic reconstitution of CD137 reversed these defects. CD137 deficiency is a novel inborn error of human immunity characterized by lymphocytic defects with early-onset Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. Our findings elucidate a functional role and relevance of CD137 in human immune homeostasis and antitumor responses.

5.
Pediatr Rev ; 40(5): 229-242, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043442
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 422-438, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773277

RESUMO

SPONASTRIME dysplasia is an autosomal-recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, metaphyseal striations, and disproportionate short stature. Scoliosis, coxa vara, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia have also been reported in this disorder. Although an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been hypothesized, pathogenic variants in a specific gene have not been discovered in individuals with SPONASTRIME dysplasia. Here, we identified bi-allelic variants in TONSL, which encodes the Tonsoku-like DNA repair protein, in nine subjects (from eight families) with SPONASTRIME dysplasia, and four subjects (from three families) with short stature of varied severity and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with or without immunologic and hematologic abnormalities, but no definitive metaphyseal striations at diagnosis. The finding of early embryonic lethality in a Tonsl-/- murine model and the discovery of reduced length, spinal abnormalities, reduced numbers of neutrophils, and early lethality in a tonsl-/- zebrafish model both support the hypomorphic nature of the identified TONSL variants. Moreover, functional studies revealed increased amounts of spontaneous replication fork stalling and chromosomal aberrations, as well as fewer camptothecin (CPT)-induced RAD51 foci in subject-derived cell lines. Importantly, these cellular defects were rescued upon re-expression of wild-type (WT) TONSL; this rescue is consistent with the hypothesis that hypomorphic TONSL variants are pathogenic. Overall, our studies in humans, mice, zebrafish, and subject-derived cell lines confirm that pathogenic variants in TONSL impair DNA replication and homologous recombination-dependent repair processes, and they lead to a spectrum of skeletal dysplasia phenotypes with numerous extra-skeletal manifestations.

8.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 30(6): 791-797, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234646

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic testing serves an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency. In this review, the strengths and limitations of various genetic testing methods are summarized, providing a foundation for the clinical approach to achieving a molecular diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Rapid advances in sequencing technology have enabled the incorporation of comprehensive genetic testing into first-line clinical diagnostics. Recent articles enable comparisons of the diagnostic utility of new testing strategies while simultaneously reminding clinicians of the strengths of traditional methods. SUMMARY: Genetic testing in primary immunodeficiency cannot be standardized, but instead needs to be personalized based on the presenting phenotype and a basic understanding of the utility of different molecular methods. These tools, when correctly employed, can achieve a molecular diagnosis and inform the natural history, prognosis, recurrence risk, and therapeutic options.

9.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 19(10): e522-e530, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis poses significant challenges due to limited tools to guide clinical decisions in a population at high risk of death. We sought to assess whether disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatobiliary dysfunction, significant comorbidities seen in critical care settings, would identify hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients with increased risk of mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Single-center PICU. PATIENTS: All patients admitted to a tertiary care children's hospital diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis from 2005 to 2012. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-three patients were diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with median age of 61 months. The 5-year overall survival was 51% (22/43). Univariate analyses revealed ferritin levels greater than 10,000 (ng/mL), international normalized ratio greater than 1.5, or platelet counts less than 100,000/µL at initiation of dexamethasone were individually associated with mortality. Development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatobiliary dysfunction, or both increased the likelihood of death in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients (relative risk; 95% CI) (6; 1.4-34; p < 0.05), (4.1; 1.8-10; p < 0.05), and (7.5; 1.8-42; p < 0.05). Of 12 autopsies performed, 75% had at least one active infection, 66% had chronic lymphopenia, 50% had lymphocyte depletion in the spleen, thymus, or bone marrow, 42% had evidence of microvascular thrombosis, and 92% had evidence of hepatocellular injury. CONCLUSIONS: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis continues to have high mortality with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-1994/2004 (dexamethasone/etoposide), the current standard of care for all children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients who developed disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatobiliary dysfunction, or both had higher risk of death with mortalities of 60%, 77%, and 77%, respectively. Phenotypic classifications are urgently needed to guide individualized treatment strategies to improve outcomes for children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 171-187, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032986

RESUMO

Premature termination codon (PTC)-bearing transcripts are often degraded by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) resulting in loss-of-function (LoF) alleles. However, not all PTCs result in LoF mutations, i.e., some such transcripts escape NMD and are translated to truncated peptide products that result in disease due to gain-of-function (GoF) effects. Since the location of the PTC is a major factor determining transcript fate, we hypothesized that depletion of protein-truncating variants (PTVs) within the gene region predicted to escape NMD in control databases could provide a rank for genic susceptibility for disease through GoF versus LoF. We developed an NMD escape intolerance score to rank genes based on the depletion of PTVs that would render them able to escape NMD using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) control databases, which was further used to screen the Baylor-Center for Mendelian Genomics disease database. This analysis revealed 1,996 genes significantly depleted for PTVs that are predicted to escape from NMD, i.e., PTVesc; further studies provided evidence that revealed a subset as candidate genes underlying Mendelian phenotypes. Importantly, these genes have characteristically low pLI scores, which can cause them to be overlooked as candidates for dominant diseases. Collectively, we demonstrate that this NMD escape intolerance score is an effective and efficient tool for gene discovery in Mendelian diseases due to production of truncated or altered proteins. More importantly, we provide a complementary analytical tool to aid identification of genes associated with dominant traits through a mechanism distinct from LoF.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1126-1142, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805043

RESUMO

The proteasome processes proteins to facilitate immune recognition and host defense. When inherently defective, it can lead to aberrant immunity resulting in a dysregulated response that can cause autoimmunity and/or autoinflammation. Biallelic or digenic loss-of-function variants in some of the proteasome subunits have been described as causing a primary immunodeficiency disease that manifests as a severe dysregulatory syndrome: chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE). Proteasome maturation protein (POMP) is a chaperone for proteasome assembly and is critical for the incorporation of catalytic subunits into the proteasome. Here, we characterize and describe POMP-related autoinflammation and immune dysregulation disease (PRAID) discovered in two unrelated individuals with a unique constellation of early-onset combined immunodeficiency, inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis, and autoimmunity. We also begin to delineate a complex genetic mechanism whereby de novo heterozygous frameshift variants in the penultimate exon of POMP escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and result in a truncated protein that perturbs proteasome assembly by a dominant-negative mechanism. To our knowledge, this mechanism has not been reported in any primary immunodeficiencies, autoinflammatory syndromes, or autoimmune diseases. Here, we define a unique hypo- and hyper-immune phenotype and report an immune dysregulation syndrome caused by frameshift mutations that escape NMD.

12.
Cell Rep ; 23(4): 1112-1123, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694889

RESUMO

The cellular sensor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) initiates type I interferon (IFN) and cytokine production following association with cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) generated from intracellular bacteria or via a cellular synthase, cGAS, after binding microbial or self-DNA. Although essential for protecting the host against infection, unscheduled STING signaling is now known to be responsible for a variety of autoinflammatory disorders. Here, we report a gain-of-function mutation in STING (R284S), isolated from a patient who did not require CDNs to augment activity and who manifested a constitutively active phenotype. Control of the Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) pathway, which has previously been shown to influence STING function, was potently able to suppress STING (R284S) activity to alleviate cytokine production. Our findings add to the growing list of inflammatory syndromes associated with spontaneous STING signaling and provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of STING-induced inflammatory disease.

13.
Blood ; 132(1): 89-100, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632024

RESUMO

The HLH-2004 criteria are used to diagnose hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), yet concern exists for their misapplication, resulting in suboptimal treatment of some patients. We sought to define the genomic spectrum and associated outcomes of a diverse cohort of children who met the HLH-2004 criteria. Genetic testing was performed clinically or through research-based whole-exome sequencing. Clinical metrics were analyzed with respect to genomic results. Of 122 subjects enrolled over the course of 17 years, 101 subjects received genetic testing. Biallelic familial HLH (fHLH) gene defects were identified in only 19 (19%) and correlated with presentation at younger than 1 year of age (P < .0001). Digenic fHLH variants were observed but lacked statistical support for disease association. In 28 (58%) of 48 subjects, research whole-exome sequencing analyses successfully identified likely molecular explanations, including underlying primary immunodeficiency diseases, dysregulated immune activation and proliferation disorders, and potentially novel genetic conditions. Two-thirds of patients identified by the HLH-2004 criteria had underlying etiologies for HLH, including genetic defects, autoimmunity, and malignancy. Overall survival was 45%, and increased mortality correlated with HLH triggered by infection or malignancy (P < .05). Differences in survival did not correlate with genetic profile or extent of therapy. HLH should be conceptualized as a phenotype of critical illness characterized by toxic activation of immune cells from different underlying mechanisms. In most patients with HLH, targeted sequencing of fHLH genes remains insufficient for identifying pathogenic mechanisms. Whole-exome sequencing, however, may identify specific therapeutic opportunities and affect hematopoietic stem cell transplantation options for these patients.

14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(2): 605-617.e7, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in PI3K110δ lead to lymphadenopathy, lymphoid hyperplasia, EBV and cytomegalovirus viremia, and sinopulmonary infections. OBJECTIVE: The known role of natural killer (NK) cell function in the control of EBV and cytomegalovirus prompted us to investigate the functional and phenotypic effects of PI3K110δ mutations on NK cell subsets and cytotoxic function. METHODS: Mutations in patients were identified by using whole-exome or targeted sequencing. We performed NK cell phenotyping and functional analysis of patients' cells using flow cytometry, standard Cr51 cytotoxicity assays, and quantitative confocal microscopy. RESULTS: PI3K110δ mutations led to an altered NK cell developmental phenotype and cytotoxic dysfunction. Impaired NK cell cytotoxicity was due to decreased conjugate formation with susceptible target cells and abrogated activation of cell machinery required for target cell killing. These defects were restored partially after initiation of treatment with rapamycin in 3 patients. CONCLUSION: We describe novel NK cell functional deficiency caused by PI3K110δ mutation, which is a likely contributor to the severe viremia observed in these patients. Rapamycin treatment partially restores NK cell function, providing a further rationale for its use in patients with this disease.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(6): 2142-2155.e5, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are critical innate effector cells whose development is dependent on the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway. NK cell deficiency can result in severe or refractory viral infections. Patients with STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have increased viral susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate NK cell function in patients with STAT1 GOF mutations. METHODS: NK cell phenotype and function were determined in 16 patients with STAT1 GOF mutations. NK cell lines expressing patients' mutations were generated with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas9)-mediated gene editing. NK cells from patients with STAT1 GOF mutations were treated in vitro with ruxolitinib. RESULTS: Peripheral blood NK cells from patients with STAT1 GOF mutations had impaired terminal maturation. Specifically, patients with STAT1 GOF mutations have immature CD56dim NK cells with decreased expression of CD16, perforin, CD57, and impaired cytolytic function. STAT1 phosphorylation was increased, but STAT5 was aberrantly phosphorylated in response to IL-2 stimulation. Upstream inhibition of STAT1 signaling with the small-molecule Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib in vitro and in vivo restored perforin expression in CD56dim NK cells and partially restored NK cell cytotoxic function. CONCLUSIONS: Properly regulated STAT1 signaling is critical for NK cell maturation and function. Modulation of increased STAT1 phosphorylation with ruxolitinib is an important option for therapeutic intervention in patients with STAT1 GOF mutations.

16.
Front Pediatr ; 5: 156, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770187

RESUMO

Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency has proven successful in identifying infants with T-cell deficiencies before they become severely ill. Additionally, the newborn screen can detect subtle early phenotypes that may become severe later in life. We present the case of siblings with features suggestive of T-cell lymphopenia identified as having low T-cell receptor excision circles counts by newborn screening. Expanded immune testing showed robust lymphocyte mitogen and antigen responses with normal vaccine responses and immunoglobulin levels for both boys over time. Genetic analysis revealed an Xq13.1 duplication in each child not found in the mother. The variant is downstream of the IL2RG gene with potential regulatory significance, suggesting a mechanism for the T-cell lymphopenia. The newborn screen provided these patients heightened surveillance and patient-specific management, including delayed live vaccines and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis. Fortunately, the brothers have not suffered invasive or opportunistic infections and are well at ages 3 and 4 years. In this report, we illustrate the challenges of managing seemingly asymptomatic immunodeficient patients without a definitive genetic diagnosis and show how unbiased genetic analysis can expand understanding about primary immunodeficiency phenotypes.

17.
Front Immunol ; 8: 576, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28603521

RESUMO

With the advent of high-throughput genomic sequencing techniques, novel genetic etiologies are being uncovered for previously unexplained Mendelian phenotypes, and the underlying genetic architecture of disease is being unraveled. Although most of these "mendelizing" disease traits represent phenotypes caused by single-gene defects, a percentage of patients have blended phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in multiple genes. We describe an adult patient with susceptibility to bacterial, herpesviral, and fungal infections. Immunologic defects included CD8+ T cell lymphopenia, decreased T cell proliferative responses to mitogens, hypogammaglobulinemia, and radiation sensitivity. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in ZAP70. Biallelic mutations in ZAP70 are known to produce a spectrum of immune deficiency that includes the T cell abnormalities observed in this patient. Analyses for variants in genes associated with radiation sensitivity identified the presence of a homozygous RNF168 variant of unknown significance. RNF168 deficiency causes radiosensitivity, immunodeficiency, dysmorphic features, and learning difficulties syndrome and may account for the radiation sensitivity. Thus, the patient was found to have a novel blended phenotype associated with multilocus genomic variation: i.e., separate and distinct genetic defects. These findings further illustrate the clinical utility of applying genomic testing in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases.

18.
Front Pediatr ; 5: 17, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28239602

RESUMO

Severe infections with Histoplasma capsulatum are commonly observed in patient with secondary immunodeficiency disorders. We report a two and a half years old boy previously healthy with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis. Using whole exome sequencing, we found an indel mutation at the CD40LG gene, suggesting a diagnosis of hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndrome, even in the absence of the usual features for the disease. Interestingly, the patient lives in a region endemic for histoplasmosis. The unusual infections in our case suggest that in children with severe histoplasmosis and resident in endemic areas, HIGM syndrome should be considered as a diagnosis.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(3S): S1-S46, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28041678

RESUMO

Human immunoglobulin preparations for intravenous or subcutaneous administration are the cornerstone of treatment in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases affecting the humoral immune system. Intravenous preparations have a number of important uses in the treatment of other diseases in humans as well, some for which acceptable treatment alternatives do not exist. We provide an update of the evidence-based guideline on immunoglobulin therapy, last published in 2006. Given the potential risks and inherent scarcity of human immunoglobulin, careful consideration of its indications and administration is warranted.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Animais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Imunomodulação , Injeções Subcutâneas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
20.
J Clin Invest ; 127(1): 306-320, 2017 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27893462

RESUMO

Human NK cell deficiencies are rare yet result in severe and often fatal disease, particularly as a result of viral susceptibility. NK cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells, and few monogenic errors that specifically interrupt NK cell development have been reported. Here we have described biallelic mutations in IRF8, which encodes an interferon regulatory factor, as a cause of familial NK cell deficiency that results in fatal and severe viral disease. Compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in IRF8 in 3 unrelated families resulted in a paucity of mature CD56dim NK cells and an increase in the frequency of the immature CD56bright NK cells, and this impairment in terminal maturation was also observed in Irf8-/-, but not Irf8+/-, mice. We then determined that impaired maturation was NK cell intrinsic, and gene expression analysis of human NK cell developmental subsets showed that multiple genes were dysregulated by IRF8 mutation. The phenotype was accompanied by deficient NK cell function and was stable over time. Together, these data indicate that human NK cells require IRF8 for development and functional maturation and that dysregulation of this function results in severe human disease, thereby emphasizing a critical role for NK cells in human antiviral defense.


Assuntos
Alelos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Mutação , Viroses , Animais , Antígeno CD56/genética , Antígeno CD56/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Viroses/genética , Viroses/imunologia
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