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1.
Blood ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905580

RESUMO

Agammaglobulinemia is the most profound primary antibody deficiency that can occur due to an early termination of B-cell development. We here investigated three novel patients, including the first known adult, from unrelated families with agammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Two of them also presented with intermittent or severe chronic neutropenia. We identified homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in the gene for Folliculin interacting protein 1 (FNIP1), leading to loss of the FNIP1 protein. B-cell metabolism, including mitochondrial numbers and activity and PI3K/AKT pathway, was impaired. These defects recapitulated the Fnip1-/- animal model. Moreover, we identified either uniparental disomy or copy number variants [CNV] in two patients, expanding the variant spectrum of this novel inborn error of immunity. The results indicate that FNIP1 deficiency can be caused by complex genetic mechanisms and support the clinical utility of exome sequencing and CNV analysis in patients with broad phenotypes, including agammaglobulinemia and HCM. FNIP1 deficiency is a novel inborn error of immunity characterized by early and severe B-cell development defect, agammaglobulinemia, variable neutropenia, and HCM. Our findings elucidate a functional and relevant role of FNIP1 in B-cell development and metabolism and potentially neutrophil activity.

3.
J Clin Invest ; 130(10): 5272-5286, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865517

RESUMO

Human natural killer cell deficiency (NKD) arises from inborn errors of immunity that lead to impaired NK cell development, function, or both. Through the understanding of the biological perturbations in individuals with NKD, requirements for the generation of terminally mature functional innate effector cells can be elucidated. Here, we report a cause of NKD resulting from compound heterozygous mutations in minichromosomal maintenance complex member 10 (MCM10) that impaired NK cell maturation in a child with fatal susceptibility to CMV. MCM10 has not been previously associated with monogenic disease and plays a critical role in the activation and function of the eukaryotic DNA replisome. Through evaluation of patient primary fibroblasts, modeling patient mutations in fibroblast cell lines, and MCM10 knockdown in human NK cell lines, we have shown that loss of MCM10 function leads to impaired cell cycle progression and induction of DNA damage-response pathways. By modeling MCM10 deficiency in primary NK cell precursors, including patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, we further demonstrated that MCM10 is required for NK cell terminal maturation and acquisition of immunological system function. Together, these data define MCM10 as an NKD gene and provide biological insight into the requirement for the DNA replisome in human NK cell maturation and function.

4.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; : 1-13, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822560

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genetic testing of patients with clinically diagnosed or suspected primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) constitutes standard of care. Choice of testing modality and patient attributes can impact the likelihood of securing a diagnosis. AREAS COVERED: Published diagnostic rates for gene panel testing, exome sequencing (WES), and whole genome sequencing are compared among cohorts identified within PubMed. Performance of the testing platforms is reviewed in PIDs taken as a whole, followed by separate cohorts of patients with suspected PIDs, specific PIDs, and clinical phenotypes that can be associated with underlying PIDs. EXPERT OPINION: Massively parallel high-throughput sequencing clearly represents the most expedient method for diagnosis of PIDs. For patients from highly consanguineous backgrounds, WES and whole genome sequencing should be performed to obtain optimal diagnostic yield. For patients for whom familial consanguinity is unlikely, choice of platform depends upon the phenotype. In patients with suspected PIDs, assessment for copy number variants is important, whether as part of gene panel bioinformatic analyses or combined with WES. Diagnostic rates overall for massively parallel sequencing are high for clinically diagnosed and suspected PIDs. WES may have a slightly higher overall yield, but gene panel testing represents a cost-effective and efficient reasonable initial step.

6.
Science ; 369(6500): 202-207, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647003

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency often coincides with hyperactive immune disorders such as autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, or atopy, but this coincidence is rarely understood on a molecular level. We describe five patients from four families with immunodeficiency coupled with atopy, lymphoproliferation, and cytokine overproduction harboring mutations in NCKAP1L, which encodes the hematopoietic-specific HEM1 protein. These mutations cause the loss of the HEM1 protein and the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) or disrupt binding to the WRC regulator, Arf1, thereby impairing actin polymerization, synapse formation, and immune cell migration. Diminished cortical actin networks caused by WRC loss led to uncontrolled cytokine release and immune hyperresponsiveness. HEM1 loss also blocked mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)-dependent AKT phosphorylation, T cell proliferation, and selected effector functions, leading to immunodeficiency. Thus, the evolutionarily conserved HEM1 protein simultaneously regulates filamentous actin (F-actin) and mTORC2 signaling to achieve equipoise in immune responses.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Fator 1 de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Linhagem , Fosforilação , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/química , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/metabolismo
7.
J Clin Invest ; 130(8): 4411-4422, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484799

RESUMO

Patients with common variable immunodeficiency associated with autoimmune cytopenia (CVID+AIC) generate few isotype-switched B cells with severely decreased frequencies of somatic hypermutations (SHMs), but their underlying molecular defects remain poorly characterized. We identified a CVID+AIC patient who displays a rare homozygous missense M466V mutation in ß-catenin-like protein 1 (CTNNBL1). Because CTNNBL1 binds activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) that catalyzes SHM, we tested AID interactions with the CTNNBL1 M466V variant. We found that the M466V mutation interfered with the association of CTNNBL1 with AID, resulting in decreased AID in the nuclei of patient EBV-transformed B cell lines and of CTNNBL1 466V/V Ramos B cells engineered to express only CTNNBL1 M466V using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. As a consequence, the scarce IgG+ memory B cells from the CTNNBL1 466V/V patient showed a low SHM frequency that averaged 6.7 mutations compared with about 18 mutations per clone in healthy-donor counterparts. In addition, CTNNBL1 466V/V Ramos B cells displayed a decreased incidence of SHM that was reduced by half compared with parental WT Ramos B cells, demonstrating that the CTNNBL1 M466V mutation is responsible for defective SHM induction. We conclude that CTNNBL1 plays an important role in regulating AID-dependent antibody diversification in humans.

8.
J Clin Invest ; 130(1): 507-522, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714901

RESUMO

X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, EBV infection, and neoplasia (XMEN) disease are caused by deficiency of the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1) gene. We studied 23 patients with XMEN, 8 of whom were EBV naive. We observed lymphadenopathy (LAD), cytopenias, liver disease, cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), and increased CD4-CD8-B220-TCRαß+ T cells (αßDNTs), in addition to the previously described features of an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio, CD4+ T lymphocytopenia, increased B cells, dysgammaglobulinemia, and decreased expression of the natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor. EBV-associated B cell malignancies occurred frequently in EBV-infected patients. We studied patients with XMEN and patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) by deep immunophenotyping (32 immune markers) using time-of-flight mass cytometry (CyTOF). Our analysis revealed that the abundance of 2 populations of naive B cells (CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4++CD10+CD38+ and CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4+CD10-CD38-) could differentially classify XMEN, ALPS, and healthy individuals. We also performed glycoproteomics analysis on T lymphocytes and show that XMEN disease is a congenital disorder of glycosylation that affects a restricted subset of glycoproteins. Transfection of MAGT1 mRNA enabled us to rescue proteins with defective glycosylation. Together, these data provide new clinical and pathophysiological foundations with important ramifications for the diagnosis and treatment of XMEN disease.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(1): 46-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568798

RESUMO

Genetic testing has become an integral component of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases. Results of genetic testing can have a profound effect on clinical management decisions. Therefore clinical providers must demonstrate proficiency in interpreting genetic data. Because of the need for increased knowledge regarding this practice, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Committee established a work group that reviewed and summarized information concerning appropriate methods, tools, and resources for evaluating variants identified by genetic testing. Strengths and limitations of tests frequently ordered by clinicians were examined. Summary statements and tables were then developed to guide the interpretation process. Finally, the need for research and collaboration was emphasized. Greater understanding of these important concepts will improve the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases.

11.
Blood ; 134(18): 1510-1516, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501153

RESUMO

Dysregulated immune responses are essential underlying causes of a plethora of pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiency. We here investigated 4 patients from unrelated families presenting with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and malignancy. We identified 4 distinct homozygous mutations in TNFRSF9 encoding the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member CD137/4-1BB, leading to reduced, or loss of, protein expression. Lymphocytic responses crucial for immune surveillance, including activation, proliferation, and differentiation, were impaired. Genetic reconstitution of CD137 reversed these defects. CD137 deficiency is a novel inborn error of human immunity characterized by lymphocytic defects with early-onset Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. Our findings elucidate a functional role and relevance of CD137 in human immune homeostasis and antitumor responses.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Linfoma/genética , Membro 9 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Linfoma/imunologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Membro 9 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/deficiência
12.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 303, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417880

RESUMO

Nuclear factor kappa-B subunit 2 (NF-κB2/p100/p52), encoded by NFKB2 (MIM: 164012) belongs to the NF-κB family of transcription factors that play a critical role in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Heterozygous C-terminal mutations in NFKB2 have been associated with early-onset common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), central adrenal insufficiency and ectodermal dysplasia. Only two previously reported cases have documented decreased natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, and little is known about the role of NF-κB2 in NK cell maturation and function. Here we report a 13-year-old female that presented at 6 years of age with a history of early onset recurrent sinopulmonary infections, progressive hair loss, and hypogamaglobulinemia consistent with a clinical diagnosis of CVID. At 9 years of age she had cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia that responded to ganciclovir treatment. Functional NK cell testing demonstrated decreased NK cell cytotoxicity despite normal NK cell numbers, consistent with a greater susceptibility to systemic CMV infection. Research exome sequencing (ES) was performed and revealed a novel de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation in NFKB2 (c.2611C>T, p.Gln871*) that was not carried by either of her parents. The variant was Sanger sequenced and confirmed to be de novo in the patient. At age 12, she presented with a reactivation of the systemic CMV infection that was associated with severe and progressive nephrotic syndrome with histologic evidence of pedicellar effacement and negative immunofluorescence. To our knowledge, this is the third NF-κB2 deficient patient in which an abnormal NK cell function has been observed, suggesting a role for non-canonical NF-κB2 signaling in NK cell cytotoxicity. NK cell function should be assessed in patients with mutations in the non-canonical NF-κB pathway to explore the risk for systemic viral infections that may lead to severe complications and impact patient survival. Similarly NF-κB2 should be considered in patients with combined immunodeficiency who have aberrant NK cell function. Further studies are needed to characterize the role of NF-κB2 in NK cell cytotoxic function.

14.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 105, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984724

RESUMO

Granulomatous-Lymphocytic Interstitial Lung disease (GLILD) is a granulomatous and lymphoproliferative condition occurring in ~25% of Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) patients with the highest prevalence in the late teen to young adult years. GLILD was first described in adults and carries a poor prognosis with survival estimated to be reduced by half. Here we report a pediatric case of CVID-associated GLILD that presented with rapid deterioration over 3 months and responded to adult-based treatment with dual chemotherapeutic agents (rituximab and azathioprine), resulting in complete resolution of clinical findings and near complete resolution of radiologic findings. This case highlights the opportunity to achieve a favorable outcome in GLILD following appropriate diagnosis and therapy.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 422-438, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773277

RESUMO

SPONASTRIME dysplasia is an autosomal-recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, metaphyseal striations, and disproportionate short stature. Scoliosis, coxa vara, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia have also been reported in this disorder. Although an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been hypothesized, pathogenic variants in a specific gene have not been discovered in individuals with SPONASTRIME dysplasia. Here, we identified bi-allelic variants in TONSL, which encodes the Tonsoku-like DNA repair protein, in nine subjects (from eight families) with SPONASTRIME dysplasia, and four subjects (from three families) with short stature of varied severity and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with or without immunologic and hematologic abnormalities, but no definitive metaphyseal striations at diagnosis. The finding of early embryonic lethality in a Tonsl-/- murine model and the discovery of reduced length, spinal abnormalities, reduced numbers of neutrophils, and early lethality in a tonsl-/- zebrafish model both support the hypomorphic nature of the identified TONSL variants. Moreover, functional studies revealed increased amounts of spontaneous replication fork stalling and chromosomal aberrations, as well as fewer camptothecin (CPT)-induced RAD51 foci in subject-derived cell lines. Importantly, these cellular defects were rescued upon re-expression of wild-type (WT) TONSL; this rescue is consistent with the hypothesis that hypomorphic TONSL variants are pathogenic. Overall, our studies in humans, mice, zebrafish, and subject-derived cell lines confirm that pathogenic variants in TONSL impair DNA replication and homologous recombination-dependent repair processes, and they lead to a spectrum of skeletal dysplasia phenotypes with numerous extra-skeletal manifestations.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Cromossômica , Dano ao DNA , Variação Genética , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/patologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 30(6): 791-797, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234646

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic testing serves an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency. In this review, the strengths and limitations of various genetic testing methods are summarized, providing a foundation for the clinical approach to achieving a molecular diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Rapid advances in sequencing technology have enabled the incorporation of comprehensive genetic testing into first-line clinical diagnostics. Recent articles enable comparisons of the diagnostic utility of new testing strategies while simultaneously reminding clinicians of the strengths of traditional methods. SUMMARY: Genetic testing in primary immunodeficiency cannot be standardized, but instead needs to be personalized based on the presenting phenotype and a basic understanding of the utility of different molecular methods. These tools, when correctly employed, can achieve a molecular diagnosis and inform the natural history, prognosis, recurrence risk, and therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genômica , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
18.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 19(10): e522-e530, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis poses significant challenges due to limited tools to guide clinical decisions in a population at high risk of death. We sought to assess whether disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatobiliary dysfunction, significant comorbidities seen in critical care settings, would identify hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients with increased risk of mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Single-center PICU. PATIENTS: All patients admitted to a tertiary care children's hospital diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis from 2005 to 2012. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-three patients were diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with median age of 61 months. The 5-year overall survival was 51% (22/43). Univariate analyses revealed ferritin levels greater than 10,000 (ng/mL), international normalized ratio greater than 1.5, or platelet counts less than 100,000/µL at initiation of dexamethasone were individually associated with mortality. Development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatobiliary dysfunction, or both increased the likelihood of death in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients (relative risk; 95% CI) (6; 1.4-34; p < 0.05), (4.1; 1.8-10; p < 0.05), and (7.5; 1.8-42; p < 0.05). Of 12 autopsies performed, 75% had at least one active infection, 66% had chronic lymphopenia, 50% had lymphocyte depletion in the spleen, thymus, or bone marrow, 42% had evidence of microvascular thrombosis, and 92% had evidence of hepatocellular injury. CONCLUSIONS: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis continues to have high mortality with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-1994/2004 (dexamethasone/etoposide), the current standard of care for all children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients who developed disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatobiliary dysfunction, or both had higher risk of death with mortalities of 60%, 77%, and 77%, respectively. Phenotypic classifications are urgently needed to guide individualized treatment strategies to improve outcomes for children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Biliares/epidemiologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/mortalidade , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Hepatopatias/patologia , Masculino , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 171-187, 2018 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032986

RESUMO

Premature termination codon (PTC)-bearing transcripts are often degraded by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) resulting in loss-of-function (LoF) alleles. However, not all PTCs result in LoF mutations, i.e., some such transcripts escape NMD and are translated to truncated peptide products that result in disease due to gain-of-function (GoF) effects. Since the location of the PTC is a major factor determining transcript fate, we hypothesized that depletion of protein-truncating variants (PTVs) within the gene region predicted to escape NMD in control databases could provide a rank for genic susceptibility for disease through GoF versus LoF. We developed an NMD escape intolerance score to rank genes based on the depletion of PTVs that would render them able to escape NMD using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) control databases, which was further used to screen the Baylor-Center for Mendelian Genomics disease database. This analysis revealed 1,996 genes significantly depleted for PTVs that are predicted to escape from NMD, i.e., PTVesc; further studies provided evidence that revealed a subset as candidate genes underlying Mendelian phenotypes. Importantly, these genes have characteristically low pLI scores, which can cause them to be overlooked as candidates for dominant diseases. Collectively, we demonstrate that this NMD escape intolerance score is an effective and efficient tool for gene discovery in Mendelian diseases due to production of truncated or altered proteins. More importantly, we provide a complementary analytical tool to aid identification of genes associated with dominant traits through a mechanism distinct from LoF.


Assuntos
Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Mutação/genética , Alelos , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido/genética , Fenótipo
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1126-1142, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805043

RESUMO

The proteasome processes proteins to facilitate immune recognition and host defense. When inherently defective, it can lead to aberrant immunity resulting in a dysregulated response that can cause autoimmunity and/or autoinflammation. Biallelic or digenic loss-of-function variants in some of the proteasome subunits have been described as causing a primary immunodeficiency disease that manifests as a severe dysregulatory syndrome: chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE). Proteasome maturation protein (POMP) is a chaperone for proteasome assembly and is critical for the incorporation of catalytic subunits into the proteasome. Here, we characterize and describe POMP-related autoinflammation and immune dysregulation disease (PRAID) discovered in two unrelated individuals with a unique constellation of early-onset combined immunodeficiency, inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis, and autoimmunity. We also begin to delineate a complex genetic mechanism whereby de novo heterozygous frameshift variants in the penultimate exon of POMP escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and result in a truncated protein that perturbs proteasome assembly by a dominant-negative mechanism. To our knowledge, this mechanism has not been reported in any primary immunodeficiencies, autoinflammatory syndromes, or autoimmune diseases. Here, we define a unique hypo- and hyper-immune phenotype and report an immune dysregulation syndrome caused by frameshift mutations that escape NMD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Mutação/genética , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido/genética , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Éxons/genética , Família , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Imunofenotipagem , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Síndrome , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
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