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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614540

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening for cervical cancer among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients in an East African community. METHODS: During a July 2018 cervical cancer screen-and-treat in Mwanza, Tanzania, participants were offered free cervical VIA screening, cryotherapy when indicated, and HIV testing. Acetowhite lesions and/or abnormal vascularity were designated VIA positive in accordance with current guidelines. The association between VIA results and HIV status was compared using Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: Eight hundred and twenty-four of 921 consented participants underwent VIA screening and 25.0% (n = 206) were VIA positive. VIA-positive nonpregnant women (n = 147) received cryotherapy and 15 (1.8%) with cancerous-appearing lesions were referred to Bugando Hospital. Sixty-six women were HIV-positive and included 25 diagnosed with HIV at the cervical cancer VIA screening and 41 with a prior diagnosis of HIV who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of cervical cancer VIA screening. Sixty-four of these 66 patients, were screened with VIA. HIV infection was not associated with VIA findings. Abnormal VIA positive screening was observed in 20.3% (n = 13) of HIV-positive patients and in 24.4% (n = 145) of HIV-negative patients (p = 0.508). A nonsignificant trend of higher VIA positive screens among newly diagnosed HIV patients of 26.1% (n = 6) versus patients with preexisting HIV on ART of 17.1% (n = 7) was observed (p = 0.580). CONCLUSION: The unexpected lack of correlation between HIV infection and VIA positivity in a community with access to ART warrants additional research regarding the previously described role of ART in attenuating HPV-mediated neoplasia.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2120456, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379123

RESUMO

Importance: Prior studies on COVID-19 and pregnancy have reported higher rates of cesarean delivery and preterm birth and increased morbidity and mortality. Additional data encompassing a longer time period are needed. Objective: To examine characteristics and outcomes of a large US cohort of women who underwent childbirth with vs without COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study compared characteristics and outcomes of women (age ≥18 years) who underwent childbirth with vs without COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and February 28, 2021, at 499 US academic medical centers or community affiliates. Follow-up was limited to in-hospital course and discharge destination. Childbirth was defined by clinical classification software procedural codes of 134-137. A diagnosis of COVID-19 was identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis of U07.1. Data were analyzed from April 1 to April 30, 2021. Exposures: The presence of a COVID-19 diagnosis using ICD-10. Main Outcomes and Measures: Analyses compared demographic characteristics, gestational age, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and discharge status. Continuous variables were analyzed using t test, and categorical variables were analyzed using χ2. Results: Among 869 079 women, 18 715 (2.2%) had COVID-19, and 850 364 (97.8%) did not. Most women were aged 18 to 30 years (11 550 women with COVID-19 [61.7%]; 447 534 women without COVID-19 [52.6%]) and were White (8060 White women [43.1%] in the COVID-19 cohort; 499 501 White women (58.7%) in the non-COVID-19 cohort). There was no significant increase in cesarean delivery among women with COVID-19 (6088 women [32.5%] vs 273 810 women [32.3%]; P = .57). Women with COVID-19 were more likely to have preterm birth (3072 women [16.4%] vs 97 967 women [11.5%]; P < .001). Women giving birth with COVID-19, compared with women without COVID-19, had significantly higher rates of ICU admission (977 women [5.2%] vs 7943 women [0.9%]; odds ratio [OR], 5.84 [95% CI, 5.46-6.25]; P < .001), respiratory intubation and mechanical ventilation (275 women [1.5%] vs 884 women [0.1%]; OR, 14.33 [95% CI, 12.50-16.42]; P < .001), and in-hospital mortality (24 women [0.1%] vs 71 [<0.01%]; OR, 15.38 [95% CI, 9.68-24.43]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This retrospective cohort study found that women with COVID-19 giving birth had higher rates of mortality, intubation, ICU admission, and preterm birth than women without COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254066, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242273

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to be a global threat, with tremendous resources invested into identifying risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of male compared to female adults with COVID-19 who required hospitalization within US academic centers. METHODS: Using the Vizient clinical database, discharge records of adults with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and November 30, 2020 were reviewed. Outcome measures included demographics, characteristics, length of hospital stay, rate of respiratory intubation and mechanical ventilation, and rate of in-hospital mortality of male vs female according to age, race/ethnicity, and presence of preexisting comorbidities. RESULTS: Among adults with COVID-19, 161,206 were male while 146,804 were female. Adult males with COVID-19 were more likely to have hypertension (62.1% vs 59.6%, p <0.001%), diabetes (39.2% vs 36.0%, p <0.001%), renal failure (22.3% vs 18.1%, p <0.001%), congestive heart failure (15.3% vs 14.6%, p <0.001%), and liver disease (5.9% vs 4.5%, p <0.001%). Adult females with COVID-19 were more likely to be obese (32.3% vs 25.7%, p<0.001) and have chronic pulmonary disease (23.7% vs 18.1%, p <0.001). Gender was significantly different among races (p<0.001), and there was a lower proportion of males versus females in African American patients with COVID-19. Comparison in outcomes of male vs. female adults with COVID-19 is depicted in Table 2. Compared to females, males with COVID-19 had a higher rate of in-hospital mortality (13.8% vs 10.2%, respectively, p <0.001); a higher rate of respiratory intubation (21.4% vs 14.6%, p <0.001); and a longer length of hospital stay (9.5 ± 12.5 days vs. 7.8 ± 9.8 days, p<0.001). In-hospital mortality analyzed according to age groups, race/ethnicity, payers, and presence of preexisting comorbidities consistently showed higher death rate among males compared to females (Table 2). Adult males with COVID-19 were associated with higher odds of mortality compared to their female counterparts across all age groups, with the effect being most pronounced in the 18-30 age group (OR, 3.02 [95% CI, 2.41-3.78]). CONCLUSION: This large analysis of 308,010 COVID-19 adults hospitalized at US academic centers showed that males have a higher rate of respiratory intubation and longer length of hospital stay compared to females and have a higher death rate even when compared across age groups, race/ethnicity, payers, and comorbidity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
4.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 47(5): 605-611, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087086

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 related stay-at-home (SAH) orders created many economic and social stressors, possibly increasing the risk of drug/alcohol abuse in the community and trauma population.Objectives: Describe changes in alcohol/drug use in traumatically injured patients after SAH orders in California and evaluate demographic or injury pattern changes in alcohol or drug-positive patients.Methods: A retrospective analysis of 11 trauma centers in Southern California (1/1/2020-6/30/2020) was performed. Blood alcohol concentration, urine toxicology results, demographics, and injury characteristics were collected. Patients were grouped based on injury date - before SAH (PRE-SAH), immediately after SAH (POST-SAH), and a historical comparison (3/19/2019-6/30/2019) (CONTROL) - and compared in separate analyses. Groups were compared using chi-square tests for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U tests for continuous variables.Results: 20,448 trauma patients (13,634 male, 6,814 female) were identified across three time-periods. The POST-SAH group had higher rates of any drug (26.2% vs. 21.6% and 24.7%, OR = 1.26 and 1.08, p < .001 and p = .035), amphetamine (10.4% vs. 7.5% and 9.3%, OR = 1.43 and 1.14, p < .001 and p = .023), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (13.8% vs. 11.0% and 11.4%, OR = 1.30 and 1.25, p < .001 and p < .001), and 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA) (0.8% vs. 0.4% and 0.2%, OR = 2.02 and 4.97, p = .003 and p < .001) positivity compared to PRE-SAH and CONTROL groups. Alcohol concentration and positivity were similar between groups (p > .05).Conclusion: This Southern California multicenter study demonstrated increased amphetamine, MDMA, and THC positivity in trauma patients after SAH, but no difference in alcohol positivity or blood concentration. Drug prevention strategies should continue to be adapted within and outside of hospitals during a pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Traumatologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253767, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19's pulmonary manifestations are broad, ranging from pneumonia with no supplemental oxygen requirements to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with acute respiratory failure (ARF). In response, new oxygenation strategies and therapeutics have been developed, but their large-scale effects on outcomes in severe COVID-19 patients remain unknown. Therefore, we aimed to examine the trends in mortality, mechanical ventilation, and cost over the first six months of the pandemic for adult COVID-19 patients in the US who developed ARDS or ARF. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Vizient Clinical Data Base, a national database comprised of administrative, clinical, and financial data from academic medical centers, was queried for patients ≥ 18-years-old with COVID-19 and either ARDS or ARF admitted between 3/2020-8/2020. Demographics, mechanical ventilation, length of stay, total cost, mortality, and discharge status were collected. Mann-Kendall tests were used to assess for significant monotonic trends in total cost, mechanical ventilation, and mortality over time. Chi-square tests were used to compare mortality rates between March-May and June-August. 110,223 adult patients with COVID-19 ARDS or ARF were identified. Mean length of stay was 12.1±13.3 days and mean total cost was $35,991±32,496. Mechanical ventilation rates were 34.1% and in-hospital mortality was 22.5%. Mean cost trended downward over time (p = 0.02) from $55,275 (March) to $18,211 (August). Mechanical ventilation rates trended down (p<0.01) from 53.8% (March) to 20.3% (August). Overall mortality rates also decreased (p<0.01) from 28.4% (March) to 13.7% (August). Mortality rates in mechanically ventilated patients were similar over time (p = 0.45), but mortality in patients not requiring mechanical ventilation decreased from March-May compared to June-July (13.5% vs 4.6%, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the outcomes of a large cohort with COVID-19 ARDS or ARF and the subsequent decrease in cost, mechanical ventilation, and mortality over the first 6 months of the pandemic in the US.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Tempo de Internação , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/economia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(5): 1335-1342, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is mounting evidence that surgical patients with COVID-19 have higher morbidity and mortality than patients without COVID-19. Infection is prevalent amongst the trauma population, but any effect of COVID-19 on trauma patients is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on a trauma population, hypothesizing increased mortality and pulmonary complications for COVID-19-positive (COVID) trauma patients compared to propensity-matched COVID-19-negative (non-COVID) patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of trauma patients presenting to 11 Level-I and II trauma centers in California between 1/1/2019-6/30/2019 and 1/1/2020-6/30/2020 was performed. A 1:2 propensity score model was used to match COVID to non-COVID trauma patients using age, blunt/penetrating mechanism, injury severity score, Glasgow Coma Scale score, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and heart rate. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 20,448 trauma patients were identified during the study period. 53 COVID trauma patients were matched with 106 non-COVID trauma patients. COVID patients had higher rates of mortality (9.4% vs 1.9%, p = 0.029) and pneumonia (7.5% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.011), as well as a longer mean length of stay (LOS) (7.47 vs 3.28 days, p < 0.001) and intensive care unit LOS (1.40 vs 0.80 days, p = 0.008), compared to non-COVID patients. CONCLUSION: This multicenter retrospective study found increased rates of mortality and pneumonia, as well as a longer LOS, for COVID trauma patients compared to a propensity-matched cohort of non-COVID patients. Further studies are warranted to validate these findings and to elucidate the underlying pathways responsible for higher mortality in COVID trauma patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Traumatologia
7.
Surgery ; 170(3): 962-968, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 in the United States led to a variety of mandates intended to decrease population movement and "flatten the curve." However, there is evidence some are not able to stay-at-home due to certain disadvantages, thus remaining exposed to both coronavirus disease 2019 and trauma. We therefore sought to identify any unequal effects of the California stay-at-home orders between races and insurance statuses in a multicenter study utilizing trauma volume data. METHODS: A posthoc multicenter retrospective analysis of trauma patients presenting to 11 centers in Southern California between the dates of January 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, and January 1, 2019, and June 30, 2019, was performed. The number of trauma patients of each race/insurance status was tabulated per day. We then calculated the changes in trauma volume related to stay-at-home orders for each race/insurance status and compared the magnitude of these changes using statistical resampling. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, there was a 40.1% drop in total trauma volume, which occurred 20 days after stay-at-home orders. During stay-at-home orders, the average daily trauma volume of patients with Medicaid increased by 13.7 ± 5.3%, whereas the volume of those with Medicare, private insurance, and no insurance decreased. The average daily trauma volume decreased for White, Black, Asian, and Latino patients with the volume of Black and Latino patients dropping to a similar degree compared to White patients. CONCLUSION: This retrospective multicenter study demonstrated that patients with Medicaid had a paradoxical increase in trauma volume during stay-at-home orders, suggesting that the most impoverished groups remain disproportionately exposed to trauma during a pandemic, further exacerbating existing health disparities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/etnologia , California/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Surg Endosc ; 35(6): 3214-3220, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic and sometimes disabling disease. An important component in the surgical management of GERD is either laparoscopic or endoscopic restoration of the native gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV). Recently, a procedure combining laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair with transoral incisionless fundoplication (cTIF) was introduced. This relatively new operation is performed in collaboration between the gastrointestinal (GI) surgeon and the gastroenterologist. METHODS: By working together, both interventionalists gain new insight into the ideal GEFV by observing the same operation being performed from different perspectives. In the cTIF, the gastroenterologist learns from an external perspective, through the laparoscopic view, the importance of the crura in contributing to the antireflux barrier. Similarly, the GI surgeon gains understanding of the elements that define an effective and desirable GEFV through an endoscopic perspective. RESULTS: This collaboration with cTIF and seeing the procedure from different perspectives have led to our improved understanding of 1) factors contributing to an optimal surgically constructed GEFV and 2) the limitations of the GEFV constructed by the conventional laparoscopic total and partial fundoplications. CONCLUSION: The collaboration between GI surgery and gastroenterology with cTIF has led to an improved understanding in characteristics of an optimal antireflux barrier and allowed for a proposed technical modification of the current fundoplication technique to optimize the construct of the surgical GEFV.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Laparoscopia , Fundoplicatura , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 5(2): 516-519, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686379

RESUMO

As the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic continues to impact hospital systems both in the United States and throughout the world, it is important to understand how the pandemic has impacted the volume of hospital admissions. Using the Vizient Inc (Chicago, IL) clinical databases, we analyzed inpatient hospital discharges from the general medicine service and its subspecialty services including cardiology, neonatology, pulmonary/critical care, oncology, psychiatry, and neurology between December 2019 and July 2020. We compared baseline discharge data to that of the first six months of the pandemic, from February to July 2020. We set the baseline as discharges by specialty from February 2019 through January 2020, averaged over the 12 months. Compared to baseline, by April 2020 the volume of general medicine hospital discharge was reduced by -20.2%, from 235,581 to 188,027 discharges. We found that while overall the number of discharges decreased from baseline, with a nadir in April 2020, pulmonary/critical care services had an increase in hospital discharge volume throughout the pandemic, from 7534 at baseline to 15,792 discharges in April. These findings are important for understanding health care use during the pandemic and ensuring proper allocation of resources and funding throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(4): 714-721, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a statewide stay-at-home (SAH) order in California beginning March 19, 2020, forcing large-scale behavioral changes and taking an emotional and economic toll. The effects of SAH orders on the trauma population remain unknown. We hypothesized an increase in rates of penetrating trauma, gunshot wounds, suicide attempts, and domestic violence in the Southern California trauma population after the SAH order. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective analysis of all trauma patients presenting to 11 American College of Surgeons levels I and II trauma centers spanning seven counties in California was performed. Demographic data, injury characteristics, clinical data, and outcomes were collected. Patients were divided into three groups based on injury date: before SAH from January 1, 2020, to March 18, 2020 (PRE), after SAH from March 19, 2020, to June 30, 2020 (POST), and a historical control from March 19, 2019, to June 30, 2019 (CONTROL). POST was compared with both PRE and CONTROL in two separate analyses. RESULTS: Across all periods, 20,448 trauma patients were identified (CONTROL, 7,707; PRE, 6,022; POST, 6,719). POST had a significantly increased rate of penetrating trauma (13.0% vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001 and 13.0% vs. 9.9%, p < 0.001) and gunshot wounds (4.5% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.002 and 4.5% vs. 3.7%, p = 0.025) compared with PRE and CONTROL, respectively. POST had a suicide attempt rate of 1.9% and a domestic violence rate of 0.7%, which were similar to PRE (p = 0.478, p = 0.514) and CONTROL (p = 0.160, p = 0.618). CONCLUSION: This multicenter Southern California study demonstrated an increased rate of penetrating trauma and gunshot wounds after the COVID-19 SAH orders but no difference in attempted suicide or domestic violence rates. These findings may provide useful information regarding resource utilization and a target for societal intervention during the current or future pandemic(s). LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological, level IV.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Distanciamento Físico , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudo Historicamente Controlado , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(1): 105.e1-105.e9, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because the global disease burden of cervical cancer is greatest in Africa, the World Health Organization has endorsed visual inspection with acetic acid screening with cryotherapy triage for the screen-and-treat approach. With the lowest doctor-to-patient ratio worldwide (1:50,000), Tanzania has nearly 10,000 new cases of cervical cancer and 7000 deaths annually. OBJECTIVE: We report on the feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid in the severely resource-limited Mwanza district and on the impact of intervening education on baseline human papillomavirus and cervical cancer knowledge. STUDY DESIGN: Two 5-day free visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) clinics in urban Buzuruga and rural Sangabuye on the shores of Lake Victoria were approved by our university institutional review board and local Tanzanian health authorities. Participants completed a demographic survey and a 6-question (1 point per question) multiple choice test written in Kiswahili to assess baseline knowledge. A 15-minute educational video in Kiswahili (MedicalAidFilms: Understanding screening, treatment, and prevention of cervical cancer) was followed by repeated assessment using the same test, visual inspection with acetic acid screening, and optional HIV testing. Pre- and postvideo scores and change of score were analyzed via t test, analysis of variance, and multivariate regression. Significance was considered at P<.05. RESULTS: From July 2, 2018 to July 6, 2018, 825 women were screened, and 207 women (25.1%) were VIA positive (VIA+). One hundred forty-seven VIA+ nonpregnant women received same-day cryotherapy. Seven hundred sixty women participated in an educational intervention-61.6% of whom were from an urban site and 38.2% from a rural site. The mean age was 36.4 (standard deviation, 11.1). Primary languages were Kiswahili (62.2%) and Kisukuma (30.6%). Literacy was approximately 73%, and average education level was equivalent to the seventh grade (United States). Less than 20% of urban and rural women reported access to healthcare providers. Mean score of the participants before watching the video was 2.22 (standard deviation, 1.76) and was not different between VIA+ and VIA negative groups. Mean score of the participants after watching the video was 3.86 (standard deviation, 1.78). Postvideo scores significantly improved regardless of age group, clinic site, primary language, education level, literacy, or access to healthcare provider (P<.0001). Change of score after watching the video was significantly greater in participants from urban areas (1.99±2.07) than in those from rural areas (1.07±1.95) (P<.0001). Multivariate analysis identified urban site as an independent factor in change of score (P=.0211). CONCLUSION: Visual inspection with acetic acid screening for cervical cancer is feasible and accepted in northern Tanzania. Short video-based educational intervention improved baseline knowledge on the consequences of human papillomavirus infection in the studied populations. The impact was greater in the urban setting than in the rural setting.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Participação do Paciente , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , População Rural , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 32(1): 28-35, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804231

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although cervical cancer continues to decrease in incidence throughout the developed world because of rigorous screening and vaccination campaigns, the disease remains a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in resource-limited regions including sub-Saharan Africa. This review summarizes current efforts to implement cost-effective and widespread cervical cancer education, screening, and community-based interventions in Africa and the challenges faced by local healthcare workers. RECENT FINDINGS: Effective screening with cytology (with or without high-risk human papillomavirus [HPV] DNA testing) as well as HPV self-sampling remains problematic in African countries because of a paucity of cytopathologists and resources. Accordingly, visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) with cryotherapy triage has gained traction in mass-screening campaigns because of low-cost supplies. SUMMARY: Public education to facilitate screening is essential. VIA remains a strong community-based approach. The involvement of technology in teaching local providers, advertising screenings to the community, and helping improve follow-up may also improve screening efforts. Ultimately, the best form of prevention is through HPV vaccination, which also requires implementation of ongoing public education programs.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , África ao Sul do Saara , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Teste de Papanicolaou , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Exame Físico/métodos , Exame Físico/estatística & dados numéricos
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