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1.
Brain ; 143(2): 480-490, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040566

RESUMO

Ataxia, causing imbalance, dizziness and falls, is a leading cause of neurological disability. We have recently identified a biallelic intronic AAGGG repeat expansion in replication factor complex subunit 1 (RFC1) as the cause of cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) and a major cause of late onset ataxia. Here we describe the full spectrum of the disease phenotype in our first 100 genetically confirmed carriers of biallelic repeat expansions in RFC1 and identify the sensory neuropathy as a common feature in all cases to date. All patients were Caucasian and half were sporadic. Patients typically reported progressive unsteadiness starting in the sixth decade. A dry spasmodic cough was also frequently associated and often preceded by decades the onset of walking difficulty. Sensory symptoms, oscillopsia, dysautonomia and dysarthria were also variably associated. The disease seems to follow a pattern of spatial progression from the early involvement of sensory neurons, to the later appearance of vestibular and cerebellar dysfunction. Half of the patients needed walking aids after 10 years of disease duration and a quarter were wheelchair dependent after 15 years. Overall, two-thirds of cases had full CANVAS. Sensory neuropathy was the only manifestation in 15 patients. Sixteen patients additionally showed cerebellar involvement, and six showed vestibular involvement. The disease is very likely to be underdiagnosed. Repeat expansion in RFC1 should be considered in all cases of sensory ataxic neuropathy, particularly, but not only, if cerebellar dysfunction, vestibular involvement and cough coexist.

2.
Clin Genet ; 97(2): 276-286, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600844

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) is a late-onset, Mendelian mitochondrial disorder characterised by paresis of the extraocular muscles, ptosis, and skeletal-muscle restricted multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Although dominantly inherited, pathogenic variants in POLG, TWNK and RRM2B are among the most common genetic defects of adPEO, identification of novel candidate genes and the underlying pathomechanisms remains challenging. We report the clinical, genetic and molecular investigations of a patient who presented in the seventh decade of life with PEO. Oxidative histochemistry revealed cytochrome c oxidase-deficient fibres and occasional ragged red fibres showing subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulation in skeletal muscle, while molecular studies identified the presence of multiple mtDNA deletions. Negative candidate screening of known nuclear genes associated with PEO prompted diagnostic exome sequencing, leading to the prioritisation of a novel heterozygous c.547G>C variant in GMPR (NM_006877.3) encoding guanosine monophosphate reductase, a cytosolic enzyme required for maintaining the cellular balance of adenine and guanine nucleotides. We show that the novel c.547G>C variant causes aberrant splicing, decreased GMPR protein levels in patient skeletal muscle, proliferating and quiescent cells, and is associated with subtle changes in nucleotide homeostasis protein levels and evidence of disturbed mtDNA maintenance in skeletal muscle. Despite confirmation of GMPR deficiency, demonstrating marked defects of mtDNA replication or nucleotide homeostasis in patient cells proved challenging. Our study proposes that GMPR is the 19th locus for PEO and highlights the complexities of uncovering disease mechanisms in late-onset PEO phenotypes.

3.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 97: 156-166, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611080

RESUMO

Inheritance of the mitochondrial genome does not follow the rules of conventional Mendelian genetics. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is present in many copies per cell and is inherited through the maternal germline. In addition, mutations in the mtDNA will give rise to heteroplasmy, the coexistence of different mtDNA variants within a single cell, whose levels can vary considerably between cells, organs or organisms. The inheritance and subsequent accumulation of deleterious variants are the cause of severe progressive mitochondrial disorders and play a role in many other conditions, including aging, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we discuss the processes that give rise to cell-to-cell variability in mtDNA composition, focussing on somatic mtDNA segregation and on less conventional sources of heteroplasmy: non-maternal inheritance and mtDNA recombination. Understanding how mtDNA variants and mutations emerge and evolve within an organism is of crucial importance to prevent and cure mitochondrial disease and can potentially impact more common aging-associated conditions.

4.
Stem Cells ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778245

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones are regarded as the major controllers of metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in mammals. Although it has been demonstrated that thyroid hormone supplementation improves bovine embryo development in vitro, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects are so far unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of thyroid hormone in development of human preimplantation embryos. Embryos were cultured in the presence or absence of 10-7 M triiodothyronine (T3) till blastocyst stage. Inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) were separated mechanically and subjected to RNAseq or quantification of mitochondrial DNA copy number. Analyses were performed using DESeq (v1.16.0 on R v3.1.3), MeV4.9 and MitoMiner 4.0v2018 JUN platforms. We found that the exposure of human preimplantation embryos to T3 had a profound impact on nuclear gene transcription only in the cells of ICM (1178 regulated genes-10.5% of 11 196 expressed genes) and almost no effect on cells of TE (38 regulated genes-0.3% of expressed genes). The analyses suggest that T3 induces in ICM a shift in ribosome and oxidative phosphorylation activity, as the upregulated genes are contributing to the composition and organization of the respiratory chain and associated cofactors involved in mitoribosome assembly and stability. Furthermore, a number of genes affecting the citric acid cycle energy production have reduced expression. Our findings might explain why thyroid disorders in women have been associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcome. Our data also raise a possibility that supplementation of culture media with T3 may improve outcomes for women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(22): 3766-3776, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435670

RESUMO

BCS1L encodes a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae bcs1 protein, which has a known role in the assembly of Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Phenotypes reported in association with pathogenic BCS1L variants include growth retardation, aminoaciduria, cholestasis, iron overload, lactic acidosis and early death (GRACILE syndrome), and Björnstad syndrome, characterized by abnormal flattening and twisting of hair shafts (pili torti) and hearing problems. Here we describe two patients harbouring biallelic variants in BCS1L; the first with a heterozygous variant c.166C>T, p.(Arg56*) together with a novel heterozygous variant c.205C>T, p.(Arg69Cys) and a second patient with a novel homozygous c.325C>T, p.(Arg109Trp) variant. The two patients presented with different phenotypes; the first patient presented as an adult with aminoaciduria, seizures, bilateral sensorineural deafness and learning difficulties. The second patient was an infant who presented with a classical GRACILE syndrome leading to death at 4 months of age. A decrease in BCS1L protein levels was seen in both patients, and biochemical analysis of Complex III revealed normal respiratory chain enzyme activities in the muscle of both patients. A decrease in Complex III assembly was detected in the adult patient's muscle, whilst the paediatric patient displayed a combined mitochondrial respiratory chain defect in cultured fibroblasts. Yeast complementation studies indicate that the two missense variants, c.205C>T, p.(Arg69Cys) and c.325C>T, p.(Arg109Trp), impair the respiratory capacity of the cell. Together, these data support the pathogenicity of the novel BCS1L variants identified in our patients.

6.
Cell Res ; 29(10): 781-782, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366991
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3280, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337756

RESUMO

Somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) have been linked to multiple disease conditions and to ageing itself. In Drosophila, knock-in of a proofreading deficient mtDNA polymerase (POLG) generates high levels of somatic point mutations and also small indels, but surprisingly limited impact on organismal longevity or fitness. Here we describe a new mtDNA mutator model based on a mitochondrially-targeted cytidine deaminase, APOBEC1. mito-APOBEC1 acts as a potent mutagen which exclusively induces C:G>T:A transitions with no indels or mtDNA depletion. In these flies, the presence of multiple non-synonymous substitutions, even at modest heteroplasmy, disrupts mitochondrial function and dramatically impacts organismal fitness. A detailed analysis of the mutation profile in the POLG and mito-APOBEC1 models reveals that mutation type (quality) rather than quantity is a critical factor in impacting organismal fitness. The specificity for transition mutations and the severe phenotypes make mito-APOBEC1 an excellent mtDNA mutator model for ageing research.

8.
Ann Neurol ; 86(2): 310-315, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187502

RESUMO

Distinct clinical syndromes have been associated with pathogenic MT-ATP6 variants. In this cohort study, we identified 125 individuals (60 families) including 88 clinically affected individuals and 37 asymptomatic carriers. Thirty-one individuals presented with Leigh syndrome and 7 with neuropathy ataxia retinitis pigmentosa. The remaining 50 patients presented with variable nonsyndromic features including ataxia, neuropathy, and learning disability. We confirmed maternal inheritance in 39 families and demonstrated that tissue segregation patterns and phenotypic threshold are variant dependent. Our findings suggest that MT-ATP6-related mitochondrial DNA disease is best conceptualized as a mitochondrial disease spectrum disorder and should be routinely included in genetic ataxia and neuropathy gene panels. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:310-315.

9.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(7): 631-642, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by progressive generalised dystonia and brain iron accumulation. We assessed whether the iron chelator deferiprone can reduce brain iron and slow disease progression. METHODS: We did an 18-month, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (TIRCON2012V1), followed by a pre-planned 18-month, open-label extension study, in patients with PKAN in four hospitals in Germany, Italy, England, and the USA. Patients aged 4 years or older with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of PKAN, a total score of at least 3 points on the Barry-Albright Dystonia (BAD) scale, and no evidence of iron deficiency, neutropenia, or abnormal hepatic or renal function, were randomly allocated (2:1) to receive an oral solution of either deferiprone (30 mg/kg per day divided into two equal doses) or placebo for 18 months. Randomisation was done with a centralised computer random number generator and with stratification based on age group at onset of symptoms. Patients were allocated to groups by a randomisation team not masked for study intervention that was independent of the study. Patients, caregivers, and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Co-primary endpoints were the change from baseline to month 18 in the total score on the BAD scale (which measures severity of dystonia in eight body regions) and the score at month 18 on the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) scale, which is a patient-reported interpretation of symptom improvement. Efficacy analyses were done on all patients who received at least one dose of the study drug and who provided a baseline and at least one post-baseline efficacy assessment. Safety analyses were done for all patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. Patients who completed the randomised trial were eligible to enrol in a single-arm, open-label extension study of another 18 months, in which all participants received deferiprone with the same regimen as the main study. The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01741532, and EudraCT, number 2012-000845-11. FINDINGS: Following a screening of 100 prospective patients, 88 were randomly assigned to the deferiprone group (n=58) or placebo group (n=30) between Dec 13, 2012, and April 21, 2015. Of these, 76 patients completed the study (49 in the deferiprone group and 27 in the placebo group). After 18 months, the BAD score worsened by a mean of 2·48 points (SE 0·63) in patients in the deferiprone group versus 3·99 points (0·82) for patients in the control group (difference -1·51 points, 95% CI -3·19 to 0·16, p=0·076). No subjective change was detected as assessed by the PGI-I scale: mean scores at month 18 were 4·6 points (SE 0·3) for patients in the deferiprone group versus 4·7 points (0·4) for those in the placebo group (p=0·728). In the extension study, patients continuing deferiprone retained a similar rate of disease progression as assessed by the BAD scale (1·9 points [0·5] in the first 18 months vs 1·4 points [0·4] in the second 18 months, p=0·268), whereas progression in patients switching from placebo to deferiprone seemed to slow (4·4 points [1·1] vs 1·4 points [0·9], p=0·021). Patients did not detect a change in their condition after the additional 18 months of treatment as assessed by the PGI-I scale, with mean scores of 4·1 points [0·2] in the deferiprone-deferiprone group and of 4·7 points [0·3] in the placebo-deferiprone group. Deferiprone was well tolerated and adverse events were similar between the treatment groups, except for anaemia, which was seen in 12 (21%) of 58 patients in the deferiprone group, but was not seen in any patients in the placebo group. No patient discontinued therapy because of anaemia, and three discontinued because of moderate neutropenia. There was one death in each group of the extension study and both were secondary to aspiration. Neither of these events was considered related to deferiprone use. INTERPRETATION: Deferiprone was well tolerated, achieved target engagement (lowering of iron in the basal ganglia), and seemed to somewhat slow disease progression at 18 months, although not significantly, as assessed by the BAD scale. These findings were corroborated by the results of an additional 18 months of treatment in the extension study. The subjective PGI-I scale was largely unchanged during both study periods, indicating that might not be an adequate tool for assessment of disease progression in patients with PKAN. Our trial provides the first indication of a decrease in disease progression in patients with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. The extensive information collected and long follow-up of patients in the trial will improve the definition of appropriate endpoints, increase the understanding of the natural history, and thus help to shape the design of future trials in this ultra-orphan disease. FUNDING: European Commission, US Food and Drug Administration, and ApoPharma Inc.

10.
Science ; 364(6442)2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123110

RESUMO

Approximately 2.4% of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome exhibits common homoplasmic genetic variation. We analyzed 12,975 whole-genome sequences to show that 45.1% of individuals from 1526 mother-offspring pairs harbor a mixed population of mtDNA (heteroplasmy), but the propensity for maternal transmission differs across the mitochondrial genome. Over one generation, we observed selection both for and against variants in specific genomic regions; known variants were more likely to be transmitted than previously unknown variants. However, new heteroplasmies were more likely to match the nuclear genetic ancestry as opposed to the ancestry of the mitochondrial genome on which the mutations occurred, validating our findings in 40,325 individuals. Thus, human mtDNA at the population level is shaped by selective forces within the female germ line under nuclear genetic control, which ensures consistency between the two independent genetic lineages.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Herança Materna , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Seleção Genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos
11.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 6, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA CN) exhibits interindividual and intercellular variation, but few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of directly assayed mtDNA CN exist. We undertook a GWAS of qPCR-assayed mtDNA CN in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the UK Blood Service (UKBS) cohort. After validating and harmonising data, 5461 ALSPAC mothers (16-43 years at mtDNA CN assay) and 1338 UKBS females (17-69 years) were included in a meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses restricted to females with white cell-extracted DNA and adjusted for estimated or assayed cell proportions. Associations were also explored in ALSPAC children and UKBS males. RESULTS: A neutrophil-associated locus approached genome-wide significance (rs709591 [MED24], ß (change in SD units of mtDNA CN per allele) [SE] - 0.084 [0.016], p = 1.54e-07) in the main meta-analysis of adult females. This association was concordant in magnitude and direction in UKBS males and ALSPAC neonates. SNPs in and around ABHD8 were associated with mtDNA CN in ALSPAC neonates (rs10424198, ß [SE] 0.262 [0.034], p = 1.40e-14), but not other study groups. In a meta-analysis of unrelated individuals (N = 11,253), we replicated a published association in TFAM (ß [SE] 0.046 [0.017], p = 0.006), with an effect size much smaller than that observed in the replication analysis of a previous in silico GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: In a hypothesis-generating GWAS, we confirm an association between TFAM and mtDNA CN and present putative loci requiring replication in much larger samples. We discuss the limitations of our work, in terms of measurement error and cellular heterogeneity, and highlight the need for larger studies to better understand nuclear genomic control of mtDNA copy number.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2279, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783114

RESUMO

Although mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI), the influence of mitochondrial genetic variability in this process remains unclear. We explored the association between the risk of post-cardiac bypass AKI and mitochondrial haplotype - inherited mitochondrial genomic variations of potentially functional significance. Our single-centre study recruited consecutive patients prior to surgery. Exclusions included stage 5 CKD, non-Caucasian race and subsequent off-pump surgery. Haplogroup analysis allowed characterisation of the study population using the common mutations and by phylogenetic supergroup (WXI and HV). Chi-square tests for association allowed the identification of potential predictors of AKI for use in logistic regression analysis. AKI occurred in 12.8% of the study population (n = 881; male 69.6%, non-diabetic 78.5%, median (interquartile range) age 68.0 (61.0-75.0) years). The haplogroup profile comprised H (42.7%), J (12.1%), T (10.9%), U (14.4%) and K (7.6%). Although the regression model was statistically significant (χ2 = 95.483, p < 0.0005), neither the phylogenetic supergroups nor any individual haplogroup was a significant contributor. We found no significant association between common European haplogroups and the risk of post-cardiac bypass AKI. However, given the major role of mitochondrial dysfunction in AKI, there is a need to replicate our findings in other cohorts and with other aetiologies of AKI.

13.
J Med Genet ; 56(3): 123-130, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683676

RESUMO

Primary genetic mitochondrial diseases are often difficult to diagnose, and the term 'possible' mitochondrial disease is used frequently by clinicians when such a diagnosis is suspected. There are now many known phenocopies of mitochondrial disease. Advances in genomic testing have shown that some patients with a clinical phenotype and biochemical abnormalities suggesting mitochondrial disease may have other genetic disorders. In instances when a genetic diagnosis cannot be confirmed, a diagnosis of 'possible' mitochondrial disease may result in harm to patients and their families, creating anxiety, delaying appropriate diagnosis and leading to inappropriate management or care. A categorisation of 'diagnosis uncertain', together with a specific description of the metabolic or genetic abnormalities identified, is preferred when a mitochondrial disease cannot be genetically confirmed.

14.
Neurosci Lett ; 710: 132932, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28668384

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disease, but its role as a driver in these processes is uncertain. Understanding the pathogenesis of inherited mitochondrial disorders may help us to uncover mechanisms involved during acquired mitochondrial dysfunction. We review the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and multiple sclerosis and discuss shared clinical and molecular features in both conditions. Targeting mitochondrial pathways involved in inflammation or apoptosis may be a possible therapeutic approach in multiple sclerosis.

15.
Mitochondrion ; 46: 302-306, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098421

RESUMO

The mitochondrial genome has recently become the focus of several high-impact next-generation sequencing studies investigating the effect of mutations in disease and assessing the efficacy of mitochondrial replacement therapies. However, these studies have failed to take into consideration the capture of recurring translocations of mitochondrial DNA to the nuclear genome, known as nuclear mitochondrial sequences (NUMTs), continuing to align sequence data to the revised Cambridge reference sequence alone. Here, using different mtDNA enrichment techniques and a variety of tissues, we demonstrate that NUMTs are present in sequence data and that, dependent upon downstream analysis, are at a level which affects variant calling.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Genet Med ; 21(4): 904-912, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214067

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To systematically study somatic variants arising during development in the human brain across a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS: In this study we developed a pipeline to identify somatic variants from exome sequencing data in 1461 diseased and control human brains. Eighty-eight percent of the DNA samples were extracted from the cerebellum. Identified somatic variants were validated by targeted amplicon sequencing and/or PyroMark® Q24. RESULTS: We observed somatic coding variants present in >10% of sampled cells in at least 1% of brains. The mutational signature of the detected variants showed a predominance of C>T variants most consistent with arising from DNA mismatch repair, occurred frequently in genes that are highly expressed within the central nervous system, and with a minimum somatic mutation rate of 4.25 × 10-10 per base pair per individual. CONCLUSION: These findings provide proof-of-principle that deleterious somatic variants can affect sizeable brain regions in at least 1% of the population, and thus have the potential to contribute to the pathogenesis of common neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4257, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323172

RESUMO

Somatic mutations during stem cell division are responsible for several cancers. In principle, a similar process could occur during the intense cell proliferation accompanying human brain development, leading to the accumulation of regionally distributed foci of mutations. Using dual platform >5000-fold depth sequencing of 102 genes in 173 adult human brain samples, we detect and validate somatic mutations in 27 of 54 brains. Using a mathematical model of neurodevelopment and approximate Bayesian inference, we predict that macroscopic islands of pathologically mutated neurons are likely to be common in the general population. The detected mutation spectrum also includes DNMT3A and TET2 which are likely to have originated from blood cell lineages. Together, these findings establish developmental mutagenesis as a potential mechanism for neurodegenerative disorders, and provide a novel mechanism for the regional onset and focal pathology in sporadic cases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Células Clonais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 682, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369864

RESUMO

mtDNA is transmitted through the maternal line and its sequence variability, which is population specific, is assumed to be phenotypically neutral. However, several studies have shown associations between the variants defining some genetic backgrounds and the susceptibility to several pathogenic phenotypes, including neurodegenerative diseases. Many of these studies have found that some of these variants impact many of these phenotypes, including the ones defining the Caucasian haplogroups H, J, and Uk, while others, such as the ones defining the T haplogroup, have phenotype specific associations. In this review, we will focus on those that have shown a pleiotropic effect in population studies in neurological diseases. We will also explore their bioenergetic and genomic characteristics in order to provide an insight into the role of these variants in disease. Given the importance of mitochondrial population variants in neurodegenerative diseases a deeper analysis of their effects might unravel new mechanisms of disease and help design new strategies for successful treatments.

19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2217, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319656

RESUMO

In order to limit the adverse effects of excessive inflammation, anti-inflammatory responses are stimulated at an early stage of an infection, but during sepsis these can lead to deactivation of immune cells including monocytes. In addition, there is emerging evidence that the up-regulation of mitochondrial quality control mechanisms, including mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, is important during the recovery from sepsis and inflammation. We aimed to describe the relationship between the compensatory immune and mitochondrial responses that are triggered following exposure to an inflammatory stimulus in human monocytic cells. Incubation with lipopolysaccharide resulted in a change in the immune phenotype of THP-1 cells consistent with the induction of endotoxin tolerance, similar to that seen in deactivated septic monocytes. After exposure to LPS there was also early evidence of oxidative stress, which resolved in association with the induction of antioxidant defenses and the stimulation of mitochondrial degradation through mitophagy. This was compensated by a parallel up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis that resulted in an overall increase in mitochondrial respiratory activity. These observations improve our understanding of the normal homeostatic responses that limit the adverse cellular effects of unregulated inflammation, and which may become ineffective when an infection causes sepsis.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Biogênese de Organelas , Endotoxinas/imunologia , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Monócitos/citologia , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Células THP-1
20.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(12): 1632-1639, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114415

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A minority of patients with sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit de novo germ line mutations in the autosomal dominant genes such as APP, PSEN1, or PSEN2. We hypothesized that negatively screened patients may harbor somatic variants in these genes. METHODS: We applied an ultrasensitive approach based on single-molecule molecular inversion probes followed by deep next generation sequencing of 11 genes to 100 brain and 355 blood samples from 445 sporadic patients with AD (>80% exhibited an early onset, <66 years). RESULTS: We identified and confirmed nine somatic variants (allele fractions: 0.2%-10.8%): two APP, five SORL1, one NCSTN, and one MARK4 variants by independent amplicon-based deep sequencing. DISCUSSION: Two of the SORL1 variant might have contributed to the disease, the two APP variants were interpreted as likely benign and the other variants remained of unknown significance. Somatic variants in the autosomal dominant AD genes may not be a common cause of sporadic AD, including early onset cases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Genes Dominantes/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
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