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1.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(2): 1563-1572, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006665

RESUMO

Biofouling negatively impacts modern society on a daily basis, especially with regard to the important industries of medicine, oil, and shipping. This manuscript describes the preparation and study of model antifouling coatings generated from the adsorption of unsymmetrical partially fluorinated spiroalkanedithiols on gold. The antifouling properties of the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) derived from the spiroalkanedithiols were compared to SAMs derived from analogous monodentate partially fluorinated and nonfluorinated alkanethiols. The antifouling properties were evaluated using in situ surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), ex situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, and ex situ ellipsometric thickness measurements. The resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption of the SAMs was evaluated with proteins having a wide range of properties and applications including protamine, lysozyme, bovine serum albumin, and fibrinogen. The results from the SPR and the QCM measurements demonstrated that in most cases, the SAM coatings derived from the partially fluorinated spiroalkanedithiols having mixed hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon tail groups exhibited better antifouling performance when compared to the SAMs derived from their single-component monodentate counterparts. The studies also revealed that while the SPR and the QCM measurements in most cases were able to distinguish the adsorption trends for the SAMs and proteins examined, the ellipsometric thickness measurements were markedly less discriminating. On the whole, these studies validate the use of unsymmetrical partially fluorinated spiroalkanedithiols for generating effective antifouling coatings on metal substrates.

2.
Molecules ; 23(10)2018 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322175

RESUMO

A custom-designed series of unsymmetrical spiroalkanedithiols having tailgroups comprised of a terminally fluorinated chain and a hydrocarbon chain of varying lengths were synthesized and used to prepare self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. The specific structure of the adsorbates was of the form [CH3(CH2)n][CF3(CF2)7(CH2)8]C[CH2SH]2, where n = 7, 9, and 15 (designated as F8H10-C10, F8H10-C12, and F8H10-C18, respectively). The influence of the length of the hydrocarbon chain in the bidentate dithiol on the structure and interfacial properties of the monolayer was explored. A structurally analogous partially fluorinated monodentate alkanethiol and the corresponding normal alkanethiols were used to generate appropriate SAMs as reference systems. Measurements of ellipsometric thickness showed an unexpectedly low film thickness for the SAMs derived from the bidentate adsorbates, possibly due to disruptions in interchain packing caused by the fluorocarbon chains (i.e., phase-incompatible fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon interactions), ultimately giving rise to loosely packed and disordered films. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were also consistent with a model in which the films were loosely packed; additionally, the XPS spectra confirmed the attachment of the sulfur headgroups of the bidentate adsorbates onto the gold substrates. Studies of the SAMs by polarization modulation-infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) suggested that as the length of the hydrocarbon chain in the adsorbates was extended, a more ordered surface was achieved by reducing the tilt of the fluorocarbon segment. The wettability data indicated that the adsorbates with longer alkyl chains were less wettable than those with shorter alkyl chains, likely due to an increase in interchain van der Waals forces in the former.


Assuntos
Alcanos/síntese química , Ouro/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/síntese química , Alcanos/química , Halogenação , Estrutura Molecular , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Molhabilidade
3.
ACS Omega ; 2(11): 8010-8019, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214234

RESUMO

This paper highlights the relation between the shape of iron oxide (Fe3O4) particles and their magnetic sensing ability. We synthesized Fe3O4 nanocubes and nanospheres having tunable sizes via solvothermal and thermal decomposition synthesis reactions, respectively, to obtain samples in which the volumes and body diagonals/diameters were equivalent. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) data showed that the saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity of 100-225 nm cubic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were, respectively, 1.4-3.0 and 1.1-8.4 times those of spherical MNPs on a same-volume and same-body diagonal/diameter basis. The Curie temperature for the cubic Fe3O4 MNPs for each size was also higher than that of the corresponding spherical MNPs; furthermore, the cubic Fe3O4 MNPs were more crystalline than the corresponding spherical MNPs. For applications relying on both higher contact area and enhanced magnetic properties, higher-Ms Fe3O4 nanocubes offer distinct advantages over Fe3O4 nanospheres of the same-volume or same-body diagonal/diameter. We evaluated the sensing potential of our synthesized MNPs using giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensing and force-induced remnant magnetization spectroscopy (FIRMS). Preliminary data obtained by GMR sensing confirmed that the nanocubes exhibited a distinct sensitivity advantage over the nanospheres. Similarly, FIRMS data showed that when subjected to the same force at the same initial concentration, a greater number of nanocubes remained bound to the sensor surface because of higher surface contact area. Because greater binding and higher Ms translate to stronger signal and better analytical sensitivity, nanocubes are an attractive alternative to nanospheres in sensing applications.

4.
Langmuir ; 33(8): 1751-1762, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107018

RESUMO

Organic thin-films on gold were prepared from a set of new, custom-designed bidentate alkanethiols possessing a mixture of normal alkane and methoxy-terminated tri(ethylene glycol) chains. The new unsymmetrical spiroalkanedithiol adsorbates were of the form [CH3O(CH2CH2O)3(CH2)5]-[CH3(CH2)n+1]C[CH2SH]2 where n = 3 and 14; designated EG3C7-C7 and EG3C7-C18, respectively. Their corresponding self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold were characterized and compared with monothiol SAMs derived from an analogous normal alkanethiol (C18SH) and an alkanethiol terminated with an oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) moiety (i.e., EG3C7SH). Ellipsometric data revealed reduced film thicknesses for the double-chained dithiolate SAMs, which perhaps arose from the phase-incompatible merger of a hydrocarbon chain with an OEG moiety, contributing to disorder in the films and/or an increase in chain tilt. The comparable wettabilities of the SAMs derived from EG3C7SH and EG3C7-C7, using water as the contacting liquid, are consistent with exposure of the OEG moieties at both interfaces, whereas the lower wettability of the SAM derived from EG3C7-C18 is consistent with exposure of hydrocarbon chains at the interface. The data collected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the new OEG-terminated dithiolate SAMs, and also revealed them as less densely packed monolayers due in part to the large molecular cross section of the OEG moieties and to their double-chained structure with dual surface bonds. Mixed SAMs formed from pairs of monothiols having chain compositions analogous to those of the chains of the new dithiols showed that an EG3C7SH/heptanethiol-mixed SAM and the EG3C7-C7 SAM produced almost identical characterization data, revealing the favorable film formation dynamics for adsorbate structures where the alkyl chains can assemble beneath the phase-incompatible OEG termini. For the mixed SAM formed from EG3C7SH/C18SH, the data indicate that the EG3C7SH component failed to incorporate in the film, demonstrating that the blending of phase-incompatible chains is sometimes best accomplished when both chains exist on a single adsorbate structure. Furthermore, the results of solution-phase thermal desorption tests revealed that the OEG-terminated films generated from the bidentate EG3C7-C7 and EG3C7-C18 adsorbates exhibit enhanced thermal stability when compared to the film generated from monodentate EG3C7SH. In a brief study of protein adsorption, the multicomponent SAMs showed a greater ability to resist the adsorption of fibrinogen on their surfaces when compared to the SAM derived from C18SH, but not better than the monolayer derived from EG3C7SH.

5.
Langmuir ; 31(49): 13341-9, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26575960

RESUMO

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were prepared on gold substrates from an unsymmetrical partially fluorinated spiroalkanedithiol adsorbate with the specific structure of [CH3(CH2)7][CF3(CF2)7(CH2)8]C[CH2SH]2 (SADT) and compared to SAMs formed from the semifluorinated monothiol F8H10SH [CF3(CF2)7(CH2)10SH] of analogous chain length and n-octadecanethiol. The adsorbate with two alkyl chains, one terminally fluorinated and the other nonfluorinated, was designed to form monolayers in which the bulky helical fluorocarbon segments assemble on top of an underlying layer of well-packed trans-extended alkyl chains. Different combinations of deposition solvents and temperatures were used to produce the bidentate SAMs. Characterization of the resulting monolayers revealed that SAMs formed in DMF at room temperature allow complete binding of the sulfur headgroups to the surface and exhibit higher conformational order than those produced using alternative solvent/temperature combinations. The reduced film thicknesses and enhanced wettability of the SADT SAMs, as compared to the SAMs generated from F8H10SH, suggest loose packing and an increase in the tilt of the terminal fluorocarbon chain segments. Nevertheless, the density of the underlying hydrocarbon chains of the SADT SAMs was higher than that of the F8H10SH SAMs, owing to the double-chained structure of the new adsorbate. The conformational orders of the SAM systems were observed to decrease as follows: C18SH > F8H10SH > SADT. However, the SAMs formed from this new double-chained bidentate adsorbate in DMF expose a fluorinated interface with a relatively low surface roughness, as determined by contact-angle hysteresis.

6.
Surf Coat Technol ; 224: 101-108, 2013 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23682201

RESUMO

This paper describes synthesis of ultrathin pinhole-free insulating aluminum oxide layers for electronic device protection in corrosive liquid environments, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or clinical fluids, to enable emerging biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensors. A pinhole-free 25-nm thick amorphous aluminum oxide layer has been achieved using ultra-high vacuum DC magnetron reactive sputtering of aluminum in oxygen/argon plasma followed by oxygen plasma post-processing. Deposition parameters were optimized to achieve the best corrosion protection of lithographically defined device structures. Electrochemical deposition of copper through the aluminum oxide layers was used to detect the presence (or absence) of pinholes. FTIR, XPS, and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the material properties of the protective layers. Electrical resistance of the copper device structures protected by the aluminum oxide layers and exposed to a PBS solution was used as a metric to evaluate the long-term stability of these device structures.

7.
Acc Chem Res ; 44(7): 511-9, 2011 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21612198

RESUMO

The spontaneous adsorption of organic molecules on a variety of planar and nonplanar substrates, that is, self assembly, can generate films just one molecule thick. These nanoscale, self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films have been extensively used to engineer surfaces with well-defined properties. Their utility has been demonstrated in a wide range of applications, including wetting, adhesion, lubrication, patterning, and molecular recognition. Many SAM systems have been investigated, but alkanethiols adsorbed on gold are the most successful combination. This pairing offers a variety of advantages, including the ability to tune precisely the interfacial properties of a surface through the well-established organic synthetic methodologies that have been developed for preparing custom ω-terminated alkanethiols. Alkanethiolate monolayers are moderately stable at room temperature; however, these films degrade over time and readily desorb upon moderate heating. This shortcoming limits the use of SAMs in applications involving elevated temperatures or harsh environments. Accordingly, new adsorbates with multiple bonding moieties have been created to enhance the stability and versatility of SAMs. In this Account, we examine a variety of multidentate adsorbate structures that have been used to generate SAMs on planar substrates and on nanoparticles. Each of these chelating adsorbates (bidentates and tridentates) has been designed to generate well-defined organic monolayer films with multiple attachment points to the underlying substrate. This bonding arrangement allows the formation of SAMs with enhanced stability through the entropy-driven "chelate effect". The research examined here demonstrates that multidentate adsorbates provide robust films: they enable the use of SAMs under conditions that are incompatible with SAMs derived from normal alkanethiols. Another advantage offered by multidentate adsorbates is the capacity for new paradigms in thin-film composition. In particular, appropriately designed chelating adsorbates can be engineered to have two or more chemically distinct terminal groups that are covalently linked to the same underlying headgroup, without adding steric bulk that might prove detrimental to the resultant assembly. This strategy allows the generation of homogeneously mixed multicomponent surfaces, overcoming the problem of phase separation or "islanding" that is pervasive when two or more chemically distinct adsorbates are used to form mixed SAMs. Such homogeneously mixed films offer the opportunity to fine-tune the interfacial properties of a substrate and to create unique heterogeneous interfaces that are well defined by the chemical composition of the tailgroups exposed at the surface. The insight derived from these studies opens the door to new uses for SAMs, both in surface engineering applications (such as corrosion resistance and soft lithographic patterning) and in the stabilization and manipulation of nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Adsorção , Alcanos/química , Quelantes/química , Ouro/química , Silício/química , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 2(4): 1254-65, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20423144

RESUMO

This paper describes the formation of a new series of monolayer films generated by the self-assembly of omega-cyclopropylalkanethiols, CyPr(CH(2))(n)SH (n = 9-13), onto the surface of gold. Procedures used to prepare the omega-cyclopropylalkanethiol adsorbates are also reported. Methyl-, vinyl-, and isopropyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were also prepared and used as reference films to evaluate the structure and properties of the new cyclopropyl-terminated films. Ellipsometry and polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) were used to examine the structure of the SAMs. A small but systematically lower thickness of the new films compared to that of analogous methyl-terminated SAMs was observed. Also, the orientation of the ring with respect to the surface normal was observed to vary systematically with the number of methylene groups in the adsorbate backbone (i.e., odd vs even chain lengths). Measurements of wettability by contact angle goniometry also revealed a small but reproducible "odd-even" effect for all contacting liquids used, except hexadecane, which almost completely wet the surfaces (theta(a) = 10-13 degrees ). When compared to the wettability data obtained from methyl- and isopropyl-terminated SAMs, the wettability data obtained from the cyclopropyl-terminated SAMs suggest that these films offer an increased density of atomic contacts per unit area across the surface, and thus enhanced attractive interactions with contacting liquids. Comparison of the wettabilities of vinyl-terminated and cyclopropyl-terminated films is complicated by dipole-induced dipole interactions and/or pi-pi interactions between the surfaces and the probe liquids. Furthermore, the significantly similar wettabilities of the cyclopropyl-terminated SAMs and the surface of polyethylene suggests that these SAMs (and perhaps other SAMs with judiciously designed tailgroups) can be used to mimic the interfacial properties of polymeric materials without complications arising from surface reconstruction.


Assuntos
Polietileno/química , Adsorção , Ouro/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Teste de Materiais , Modelos Químicos , Polímeros/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Molhabilidade
9.
Langmuir ; 25(3): 1265-71, 2009 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19123812

RESUMO

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold derived from the direct adsorption of thioacetic acid S-decyl ester (C10SAc) and thioacetic acid S-octadecyl ester (C18SAc) were compared to the corresponding SAMs derived from the analogous adsorption n-decanethiol (C10SH) and n-octadecanethiol (C18SH). All SAMs were characterized using ellipsometry, contact angle goniometry, polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The comparison revealed that the SAMs generated from the thioacetates are not as densely packed and well ordered as the SAMs generated from the thiols. Furthermore, studies of the kinetics of adsorption found that the thioacetates adsorb more slowly than the corresponding thiols.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Alcanos/química , Ouro/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Adsorção , Cinética , Análise Espectral
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