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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094495

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of cancer and heart failure (HF) represents a significant clinical drawback as each disease interferes with the treatment of the other. In addition to shared risk factors, a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence reveals numerous commonalities in the biology underlying both pathologies. Inflammation emerges as a common hallmark for both diseases as it contributes to the initiation and progression of both HF and cancer. Under stress, malignant and cardiac cells change their metabolic preferences to survive, which makes these metabolic derangements a great basis to develop intersection strategies and therapies to combat both diseases. Furthermore, genetic predisposition and clonal haematopoiesis are common drivers for both conditions and they hold great clinical relevance in the context of personalized medicine. Additionally, altered angiogenesis is a common hallmark for failing hearts and tumours and represents a promising substrate to target in both diseases. Cardiac cells and malignant cells interact with their surrounding environment called stroma. This interaction mediates the progression of the two pathologies and understanding the structure and function of each stromal component may pave the way for innovative therapeutic strategies and improved outcomes in patients. The interdisciplinary collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists is essential to establish unified guidelines. To this aim, pre-clinical models that mimic the human situation, where both pathologies coexist, are needed to understand all the aspects of the bidirectional relationship between cancer and HF. Finally, adequately powered clinical studies, including patients from all ages, and men and women, with proper adjudication of both cancer and cardiovascular endpoints, are essential to accurately study these two pathologies at the same time.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068051

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently issued a position paper on the role of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in heart failure (HF). The present document provides an update of the position paper, based of new clinical trial evidence. Accordingly, the following recommendations are given: • Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin empagliflozin, or ertugliflozin have consistently demonstrated to be effective for the prevention of HF hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease or at high cardiovascular risk. The specifically listed agents are recommended. • Dapagliflozin or empagliflozin are recommended to reduce the combined risk of HF hospitalization and cardiovascular death in symptomatic patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, already receiving guideline-directed medical therapy, regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006257

RESUMO

Serum biomarkers are an important tool in the baseline risk assessment and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease in cancer patients receiving cardiotoxic cancer treatments. Increases in cardiac biomarkers including cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptides can be used to guide initiation of cardioprotective treatments for cancer patients during treatment and to monitor the response to cardioprotective treatments, and they also offer prognostic value. This position statement examines the role of cardiac biomarkers in the management of cancer patients. The Cardio-Oncology Study Group of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in collaboration with the Cardio-Oncology Council of the ESC have evaluated the current evidence for the role of cardiovascular biomarkers in cancer patients before, during and after cardiotoxic cancer therapies. The characteristics of the main two biomarkers troponin and natriuretic peptides are discussed, the link to the mechanisms of cardiovascular toxicity, and the evidence for their clinical use in surveillance during and after anthracycline chemotherapy, trastuzumab and HER2-targeted therapies, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, cyclophosphamide and radiotherapy. Novel surveillance clinical pathways integrating cardiac biomarkers for cancer patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy or trastuzumab biomarkers are presented and future direction in cardio-oncology biomarker research is discussed.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892431

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology has published a previous position paper and various guidelines over the past decade recognizing the value of palliative care for those affected by this burdensome condition. Integrating palliative care into evidence-based heart failure management remains challenging for many professionals, as it includes the identification of palliative care needs, symptom control, adjustment of drug and device therapy, advance care planning, family and informal caregiver support, and trying to ensure a 'good death'. This new position paper aims to provide day-to-day practical clinical guidance on these topics, supporting the coordinated provision of palliation strategies as goals of care fluctuate along the heart failure disease trajectory. The specific components of palliative care for symptom alleviation, spiritual and psychosocial support, and the appropriate modification of guideline-directed treatment protocols, including drug deprescription and device deactivation, are described for the chronic, crisis and terminal phases of heart failure.

5.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify patients at risk of in-hospital mortality and adverse outcomes during the vulnerable post-discharge period after the first acute heart failure episode (de novo AHF) attended at the emergency department. METHODS: This is a secondary review of de novo AHF patients included in the prospective, multicentre EAHFE (Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Emergency Department) Registry. We included consecutive patients with de novo AHF, for whom 29 independent variables were recorded. The outcomes were in-hospital all-cause mortality and all-cause mortality and readmission due to AHF within 90 days post-discharge. A follow-up check was made by reviewing the hospital medical records and/or by phone. RESULTS: We included 3422 patients. The mean age was 80 years, 52.1% were women. The in-hospital mortality was 6.9% and was independently associated with dementia (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.62-3.14), active neoplasia (1.97, 1.41-2.76), functional dependence (1.58, 1.02-2.43), chronic treatment with beta-blockers (0.62, 0.44-0.86) and severity of decompensation (6.38, 2.86-14.26 for high-/very high-risk patients). The 90-day post-discharge combined endpoint was observed in 19.3% of patients and was independently associated with hypertension (HR = 1.40, 1.11-1.76), chronic renal insufficiency (1.23, 1.01-1.49), heart valve disease (1.24, 1.01-1.51), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.22, 1.01-1.48), NYHA 3-4 at baseline (1.40, 1.12-1.74) and severity of decompensation (1.23, 1.01-1.50; and 1.64, 1.20-2.25; for intermediate and high-/very high-risk patients, respectively), with different risk factors for 90-day post-discharge mortality or rehospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of decompensation and some baseline characteristics identified de novo AHF patients at increased risk of developing adverse outcomes during hospitalisation and the vulnerable post-discharge phase, without significant differences in these risk factors according to patient age at de novo AHF presentation.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945600

RESUMO

Self-care is essential in the long-term management of chronic heart failure. Heart failure guidelines stress the importance of patient education on treatment adherence, lifestyle changes, symptom monitoring and adequate response to possible deterioration. Self-care is related to medical and person-centred outcomes in patients with heart failure such as better quality of life as well as lower mortality and readmission rates. Although guidelines give general direction for self-care advice, health care professionals working with patients with heart failure need more specific recommendations. The aim of the management recommendations in this paper is to provide practical advice for health professionals delivering care to patients with heart failure. Recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, medication adherence, psychological status, sleep, leisure and travel, smoking, immunization and preventing infections, symptom monitoring, and symptom management are consistent with information from guidelines, expert consensus documents, recent evidence and expert opinion.

7.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 74: 86-90, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829016

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We present a case of open surgical repair of an aortic arch pseudoaneurysm (AAP) without the use of hypothermic circulatory arrest in a patient with low ejection fraction and associated coronary artery disease (CAD) and discuss some issues regarding the management of this case. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE: A 69-year-old male with multiple pathologies and history of angina pectoris was transferred to our center from a local hospital with an initial diagnosis of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed stenotic lesions affecting all three coronary arteries. Multislice 3D contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT-scan) revealed a 36 × 27 mm AAP. Endovascular stent-grafting was deemed to be unsuitable due to hostile landing zone. Therefore, the heart team decided for simultaneou treatment of the AAP and percutaneous therapy of CAD. The AAP was excised, and repair was performed with a Dacron patch on beating heart. After the surgical procedure, PCI with drug-eluting stents (DES) was performed on the right coronary artery (RCA) and the left circumflex artery (LCx) in the operating room. The patient's postprocedural course was uneventful and after thirteen days, he was discharged in good shape. 3D CT-scan performed after three month showed no residual AAP. DISCUSSION: We established this approach as being the most suitable for our case based on favorable circumstances such as: stable CAD, beating heart procedure with low impact on myocardial ischemia, the impossibility of successful placement of an endovascular stent-graft, the presence of a pseudoaneurysm neck with minimum calcification. CONCLUSION: We consider the best approach for individual cases is tailoring the treatment plan and the procedure to the patient's specific anatomy and pathology.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(9): 1495-1503, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618086

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is common and associated with a poor prognosis, despite advances in treatment. Over the last decade cardiovascular outcome trials with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated beneficial effects for three SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) in reducing hospitalisations for HF. More recently, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF or death from cardiovascular causes in patients with chronic HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. A number of additional trials in HF patients with reduced and/or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction are ongoing and/or about to be reported. The present position paper summarises recent clinical trial evidence and discusses the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, pending the results of ongoing trials in different populations of patients with HF.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(9): 1504-1524, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621569

RESUMO

Cardiovascular (CV) imaging is an important tool in baseline risk assessment and detection of CV disease in oncology patients receiving cardiotoxic cancer therapies. This position statement examines the role of echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, nuclear cardiac imaging and computed tomography in the management of cancer patients. The Imaging and Cardio-Oncology Study Groups of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in collaboration with the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) and the Cardio-Oncology Council of the ESC have evaluated the current evidence for the value of modern CV imaging in the cardio-oncology field. The most relevant echocardiographic parameters, including global longitudinal strain and three-dimensional ejection fraction, are proposed. The protocol for baseline pre-treatment evaluation and specific surveillance algorithms or pathways for anthracycline chemotherapy, HER2-targeted therapies such as trastuzumab, vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, BCr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors are presented. The indications for CV imaging after completion of oncology treatment are considered. The typical consequences of radiation therapy and the possibility of their identification in the long term are also summarized. Special populations are discussed including female survivors planning pregnancy, patients with carcinoid disease, patients with cardiac tumours and patients with right heart failure. Future directions and ongoing CV imaging research in cardio-oncology are discussed.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463967

RESUMO

This position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Cardio-Oncology Study Group in collaboration with the International Cardio-Oncology Society presents practical, easy-to-use and evidence-based risk stratification tools for oncologists, haemato-oncologists and cardiologists to use in their clinical practice to risk stratify oncology patients prior to receiving cancer therapies known to cause heart failure or other serious cardiovascular toxicities. Baseline risk stratification proformas are presented for oncology patients prior to receiving the following cancer therapies: anthracycline chemotherapy, HER2-targeted therapies such as trastuzumab, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, second and third generation multi-targeted kinase inhibitors for chronic myeloid leukaemia targeting BCR-ABL, multiple myeloma therapies (proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs), RAF and MEK inhibitors or androgen deprivation therapies. Applying these risk stratification proformas will allow clinicians to stratify cancer patients into low, medium, high and very high risk of cardiovascular complications prior to starting treatment, with the aim of improving personalised approaches to minimise the risk of cardiovascular toxicity from cancer therapies.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(8): 1315-1341, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469155

RESUMO

Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a complex multifactorial clinical syndrome with extremely high mortality, developing as a continuum, and progressing from the initial insult (underlying cause) to the subsequent occurrence of organ failure and death. There is a large spectrum of CS presentations resulting from the interaction between an acute cardiac insult and a patient's underlying cardiac and overall medical condition. Phenotyping patients with CS may have clinical impact on management because classification would support initiation of appropriate therapies. CS management should consider appropriate organization of the health care services, and therapies must be given to the appropriately selected patients, in a timely manner, whilst avoiding iatrogenic harm. Although several consensus-driven algorithms have been proposed, CS management remains challenging and substantial investments in research and development have not yielded proof of efficacy and safety for most of the therapies tested, and outcome in this condition remains poor. Future studies should consider the identification of the new pathophysiological targets, and high-quality translational research should facilitate incorporation of more targeted interventions in clinical research protocols, aimed to improve individual patient outcomes. Designing outcome clinical trials in CS remains particularly challenging in this critical and very costly scenario in cardiology, but information from these trials is imperiously needed to better inform the guidelines and clinical practice. The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the definition, epidemiology, underlying causes, pathophysiology and management of CS based on important lessons from clinical trials and registries, with a focus on improving in-hospital management.

14.
15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(8): 1298-1314, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347648

RESUMO

Acute coronary syndrome is a precipitant of acute heart failure in a substantial proportion of cases, and the presence of both conditions is associated with a higher risk of short-term mortality compared to acute coronary syndrome alone. The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of acute heart failure can be challenging. Patients may present with atypical or absent chest pain, electrocardiograms can be confounded by pre-existing abnormalities, and cardiac biomarkers are frequently elevated in patients with chronic or acute heart failure, independently of acute coronary syndrome. It is important to distinguish transient or limited myocardial injury from primary myocardial infarction due to vascular events in patients presenting with acute heart failure. This paper outlines various clinical scenarios to help differentiate between these conditions and aims to provide clinicians with tools to aid in the recognition of acute coronary syndrome as a cause of acute heart failure. Interpretation of electrocardiogram and biomarker findings, and imaging techniques that may be helpful in the diagnostic work-up are described. Guidelines recommend an immediate invasive strategy for patients with acute heart failure and acute coronary syndrome, regardless of electrocardiographic or biomarker findings. Pharmacological management of patients with acute coronary syndrome and acute heart failure should follow guidelines for each of these syndromes, with priority given to time-sensitive therapies for both. Studies conducted specifically in patients with the combination of acute coronary syndrome and acute heart failure are needed to better define the management of these patients.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(9): 1698-1707, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227620

RESUMO

AIMS: Over the last 30 years, many medicine development programmes in acute and chronic heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have failed, in contrast to those in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We explore how the neutral results in larger HF trials may be attributable to chance and/or the dilution of statistical power. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using simulations, we examined the probability that a positive finding in a Phase 2 trial would result in the study of a truly effective medicine in a Phase 3 trial. We assessed the similarity of clinical trial and registry patient populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of paired Phase 2 and 3 trials in HFrEF and acute HF examining the associations of trial phase and size with placebo event rates and treatment effects for HF events and death. We estimated loss in trial power attributable to dilution with increasing trial size. Appropriately powered Phase 3 trials should have yielded ∼35% positive results. Patient populations in Phase 3 trials are similar to those in Phase 2 trials but both differ substantially from the populations of 'real-life' registries. We observed decreasing placebo event rates and smaller treatment effects with increasing trial size, especially for HF events (and less so for mortality). This was more pronounced in trials in acute HF patients. CONCLUSIONS: The selection of more positive Phase 2 trials for further development does not explain the failure of HFpEF and acute HF medicine development. Increasing sample size may lead to reduced event rates and smaller treatment effects, resulting in a high rate of neutral Phase 3 trials.

17.
Heart Surg Forum ; 23(1): E030-E033, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118539

RESUMO

We consider mitral valve disease requiring surgery in a patient with dextrocardia and situs inversus totalis to be an exceptional finding. The transseptal approach for mitral valve surgery in dextrocardia represents a technical challenge owing to its anatomic particulars. We present the case of a 56-year-old female patient who had been diagnosed with situs inversus totalis in childhood and with chronic atrial fibrillation in adulthood and was under oral anticoagulant treatment. She was referred to our hospital for increasing dyspnea and palpitation. Transthoracic echocardiography detected severe mitral regurgitation associated with moderate tricuspid regurgitation, with normal left and right ventricular function. Contrast chest computed tomography (CT) and preoperative abdominal CT showed both dextrocardia and situs inversus totalis, with normal continuity of the inferior vena cava. Biatrial cannulation was performed with the surgeon standing on the right side of the patient, and mitral valve replacement using a transseptal approach was performed with the surgeon standing on the left side of the patient. In this case report, we emphasize the rarity of mitral valve disease in a patient with dextrocardia and the inherent potential difficulty that can appear in this particular anatomic condition.

18.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 34(3): 491-499, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278544

RESUMO

Superior vena cava collapsibility index (SVC-CI) and stroke volume variation (SVV) have been shown to predict fluid responsiveness. SVC-CI has been validated only with conventional transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the SVC long axis, on the basis of SVC diameter variations, but not in the SVC short axis or by SVC area variations. SVV was not previously tested in vascular surgery patients. Forty consecutive adult patients undergoing open major vascular surgical procedures received 266 intraoperative volume loading tests (VLTs), with 500 ml of gelatine over 10 min. The hSVC-CI was measured using a miniaturized transoesophageal echocardiography probe (hTEE). The SVV and cardiac index (CI) were measured using Vigileo-FloTrac technology. VLTs were considered 'positive' (≥ 11% increase in CI) or 'negative' (< 11% increase in CI). We compared SVV and hSVC-CI measurements in the SVC short axis to predict fluid responsiveness. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for hSVC-CI and SVV were not significantly different (P = 0.56), and both showed good predictivity at values of 0.92 (P < 0.001) and 0.89 (P < 0.001), respectively. The cutoff values for hSVC-CI and SVV were 37% (sensitivity 90%, specificity of 83%) and 15% (sensitivity 78%, specificity of 100%), respectively. Our study validated the value of the SVC-CI measured as area variations in the SVC short axis to predict fluid responsiveness in anesthetized patients. An hTEE probe was used to monitor and measure the hSVC-CI but conventional TEE may also offer this new dynamic parameter. In our cohort of significant preoperative hypovolemic patients undergoing major open vascular surgery, hSVC-CI and SVV cutoff values of 37% and 15%, respectively, predicted fluid responsiveness with good accuracy.

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