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1.
Nat Plants ; 5(4): 358-362, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936438

RESUMO

In several plant species, inflorescence formation is accompanied by stem elongation. Both processes are accelerated in rice upon perception of shortening days. Here, we show that PREMATURE INTERNODE ELONGATION 1 (PINE1), encoding a rice zinc-finger transcription factor, reduces the sensitivity of the stem to gibberellin (GA). The florigens reduce PINE1 expression to increase stem responsiveness to GA and promote flowering. These data indicate the existence of a regulatory network coordinating flowering and GA-dependent growth.


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco/fisiologia
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 88, 2018 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29776387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Texture is one of the most important fruit quality attributes. In peach, stony hard (SH) is a recessive monogenic trait (hd/hd) that confers exceptionally prolonged firm flesh to fully ripe fruit. Previous studies have shown that the SH mutation affects the fruit ability to synthesize appropriate amounts of indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), which orchestrates the ripening processes through the activation of system 2 ethylene pathway. Allelic variation in a TC microsatellite located within the first intron of PpYUC11-like (a YUCCA-like auxin-biosynthesis gene) has been recently proposed as the causal mutation of the SH phenotype. RESULTS: The simple genetic determinism of the SH trait has been clarified through genome-wide association and LD analyses in a diverse set of accessions, restricting the hd locus to an interval of about 1.8 Mbp in chromosome 6. The comparison of fruit transcriptome data from non-SH (melting flesh) and SH accessions provided an expression patterns overview of the annotated transcripts within the hd locus, confirming the absence of PpYUC11-like expression in SH fruits. To explore further possible associations between genomic variants at the hd locus and the SH phenotype, re-sequencing data of the SH accession 'D41-62' were compared with several SH and non-SH accessions with different genetic backgrounds. A further step of validation was provided through the evaluation of variant-trait association in two bi-parental F2 populations issued from the SH accession 'D41-62' and a panel of advanced breeding selections, showing perfect co-segregation of the PpYUC11-like intron TC20 allele and the SH phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we provide a multi-level validation of the genetic control of the SH trait through the integration of genome-wide association mapping, transcriptome analysis and whole-genome resequencing data for SH and non-SH accessions, and marker-trait association in a panel of advanced breeding selections and segregating progenies. Collectively, our data confirm with high confidence the role of allelic variation at PpYUC11-like locus as the genetic determinant of the SH trait, opening interesting perspectives at both biological and applied research level.

3.
Genes (Basel) ; 9(2)2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462877

RESUMO

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) low phytic acid (lpa1) biofortified genotype produces seeds with improved nutritional characteristics and does not display negative pleiotropic effects. Here we demonstrated that lpa1 plants establish an efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Rhizobium etli CE3. The lpa1 nodules showed a higher expression of nodule-function related genes than the nodules of the parental wild type genotype (BAT 93). We analyzed the response to water stress of lpa1 vs. BAT 93 plants grown under fertilized or under symbiotic N2-fixation conditions. Water stress was induced by water withholding (up to 14% soil moisture) to fertilized or R. etli nodulated plants previously grown with normal irrigation. The fertilized lpa1 plants showed milder water stress symptoms during the water deployment period and after the rehydration recovery period when lpa1 plants showed less biomass reduction. The symbiotic water-stressed lpa1 plants showed decreased nitrogenase activity that coincides with decreased sucrose synthase gene expression in nodules; lower turgor weight to dry weight (DW) ratio, which has been associated with higher drought resistance index; downregulation of carbon/nitrogen (C/N)-related and upregulation of stress-related genes. Higher expression of stress-related genes was also observed in bacteroids of stressed lpa1 plants that also displayed very high expression of the symbiotic cbb3 oxidase (fixNd).

4.
J Texture Stud ; 2017 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29266307

RESUMO

The increase of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit shelf-life is one of the most important objectives of breeding activities, as peach is a highly perishable fruit which undergoes rapid softening during ripening. The loss of fruit firmness is accompanied by a modification of textural properties. At least four distinct textures were described in peach: melting, non-melting, stony-hard, and slow-melting (better defined as "slow-softening"). Flesh textures are usually discriminated using different approaches, specific for each type. Objective of this work was the development of a reliable method to assess flesh texture variants in peach fruit, with special attention to the slow-softening type which is currently scored by sensorial evaluation. A puncture-based test using a digital penetrometer was performed on 20 accessions belonging to the four textural groups, obtaining a series of rheological measures related to mechanical flesh properties and including Young's Modulus, Upper Yield Point, and Slope of Yield Stress. Among the components of elasto-plastic behavior of the fruits, the texture dynamic index (TD) was shown to be a reliable parameter to distinguish the group of melting flesh texture from slow-softening, non-melting, and stony-hard, these last resulting characterized by similar mechanical properties. The TD index can be applied to discriminate slow-softening and melting fruits, although variability within the different texture groups suggests the existence of accessions with intermediate phenotypes and minor quantitative trait variation. The availability of an objective method to clearly distinguish the melting from the slow-softening phenotypes paves the road to phenotype segregating progenies in order to find molecular markers associated to the slow-softening trait. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The TD index could be considered to determine different textures in fleshy fruits in preharvest and postharvest, to support evaluation of quality for the intended use.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1558, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27833621

RESUMO

Plants are often facing several stresses simultaneously. Understanding how they react and the way pathogens adapt to such combinational stresses is poorly documented. Here, we developed an experimental system mimicking field intermittent drought on rice followed by inoculation by the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. This experimental system triggers an enhancement of susceptibility that could be correlated with the dampening of several aspects of plant immunity, namely the oxidative burst and the transcription of several pathogenesis-related genes. Quite strikingly, the analysis of fungal transcription by RNASeq analysis under drought reveals that the fungus is greatly modifying its virulence program: genes coding for small secreted proteins were massively repressed in droughted plants compared to unstressed ones whereas genes coding for enzymes involved in degradation of cell-wall were induced. We also show that drought can lead to the partial breakdown of several major resistance genes by affecting R plant gene and/or pathogen effector expression. We propose a model where a yet unknown plant signal can trigger a change in the virulence program of the pathogen to adapt to a plant host that was affected by drought prior to infection.

6.
Plant Cell Environ ; 39(9): 1982-93, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27111837

RESUMO

Plants show a high degree of developmental plasticity in response to external cues, including day length and environmental stress. Water scarcity in particular can interfere with photoperiodic flowering, resulting in the acceleration of the switch to reproductive growth in several species, a process called drought escape. However, other strategies are possible and drought stress can also delay flowering, albeit the underlying mechanisms have never been addressed at the molecular level. We investigated these interactions in rice, a short day species in which drought stress delays flowering. A protocol that allows the synchronization of drought with the floral transition was set up to profile the transcriptome of leaves subjected to stress under distinct photoperiods. We identified clusters of genes that responded to drought differently depending on day length. Exposure to drought stress under floral-inductive photoperiods strongly reduced transcription of EARLY HEADING DATE 1 (Ehd1), HEADING DATE 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1), primary integrators of day length signals, providing a molecular connection between stress and the photoperiodic pathway. However, phenotypic and transcriptional analyses suggested that OsGIGANTEA (OsGI) does not integrate drought and photoperiodic signals as in Arabidopsis, highlighting molecular differences between long and short day model species.


Assuntos
Secas , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
BMC Biol ; 8: 13, 2010 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20144217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lignification of the fruit endocarp layer occurs in many angiosperms and plays a critical role in seed protection and dispersal. This process has been extensively studied with relationship to pod shatter or dehiscence in Arabidopsis. Dehiscence is controlled by a set of transcription factors that define the fruit tissue layers and whether or not they lignify. In contrast, relatively little is known about similar processes in other plants such as stone fruits which contain an extremely hard lignified endocarp or stone surrounding a single seed. RESULTS: Here we show that lignin deposition in peach initiates near the blossom end within the endocarp layer and proceeds in a distinct spatial-temporal pattern. Microarray studies using a developmental series from young fruits identified a sharp and transient induction of phenylpropanoid, lignin and flavonoid pathway genes concurrent with lignification and subsequent stone hardening. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies revealed that specific phenylpropanoid (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase) and lignin (caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, peroxidase and laccase) pathway genes were induced in the endocarp layer over a 10 day time period, while two lignin genes (p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase and cinnamoyl CoA reductase) were co-regulated with flavonoid pathway genes (chalcone synthase, dihydroflavanol 4-reductase, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygen-ase and flavanone-3-hydrosylase) which were mesocarp and exocarp specific. Analysis of other fruit development expression studies revealed that flavonoid pathway induction is conserved in the related Rosaceae species apple while lignin pathway induction is not. The transcription factor expression of peach genes homologous to known endocarp determinant genes in Arabidopsis including SHATTERPROOF, SEEDSTCK and NAC SECONDARY WALL THICENING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 were found to be specifically expressed in the endocarp while the negative regulator FRUITFUL predominated in exocarp and mesocarp. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the data suggests, first, that the process of endocarp determination and differentiation in peach and Arabidopsis share common regulators and, secondly, reveals a previously unknown coordination of competing lignin and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways during early fruit development.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Prunus/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Lacase/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Oxigenases/genética , Peroxidase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prunus/enzimologia , Prunus/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcinamato 4-Mono-Oxigenase/genética
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