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3.
Circulation ; 141(18): 1463-1476, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apo (apolipoprotein) M mediates the physical interaction between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Apo M exerts anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects in animal models. METHODS: In a subset of PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study) participants (n=297), we measured apo M by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). We also measured total S1P by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and isolated HDL particles to test the association between apo M and HDL-associated S1P. We confirmed the relationship between apo M and outcomes using modified aptamer-based apo M measurements among 2170 adults in the PHFS and 2 independent cohorts: the Washington University Heart Failure Registry (n=173) and a subset of TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial; n=218). Last, we examined the relationship between apo M and ≈5000 other proteins (SomaScan assay) to identify biological pathways associated with apo M in heart failure. RESULTS: In the PHFS, apo M was inversely associated with the risk of death (standardized hazard ratio, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.51-0.61]; P<0.0001) and the composite of death/ventricular assist device implantation/heart transplantation (standardized hazard ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.58-0.67]; P<0.0001). This relationship was independent of HDL cholesterol or apo AI levels. Apo M remained associated with death (hazard ratio, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.69-0.88]; P<0.0001) and the composite of death/ventricular assist device/heart transplantation (hazard ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.76-0.94]; P=0.001) in models that adjusted for multiple confounders. This association was present in both heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction and was replicated in the Washington University cohort and a cohort with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction only (TOPCAT). The S1P and apo M content of isolated HDL particles strongly correlated (R=0.81, P<0.0001). The top canonical pathways associated with apo M were inflammation (negative association), the coagulation system (negative association), and liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor activation (positive association). The relationship with inflammation was validated with multiple inflammatory markers measured with independent assays. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced circulating apo M is independently associated with adverse outcomes across the spectrum of human heart failure. Further research is needed to assess whether the apo M/S1P axis is a suitable therapeutic target in heart failure.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(11): 1281-1295, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Better risk stratification strategies are needed to enhance clinical care and trial design in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the value of a targeted plasma multi-marker approach to enhance our phenotypic characterization and risk prediction in HFpEF. METHODS: In this study, the authors measured 49 plasma biomarkers from TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist) trial participants (n = 379) using a Multiplex assay. The relationship between biomarkers and the risk of all-cause death or heart failure-related hospital admission (DHFA) was assessed. A tree-based pipeline optimizer platform was used to generate a multimarker predictive model for DHFA. We validated the model in an independent cohort of HFpEF patients enrolled in the PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study) (n = 156). RESULTS: Two large, tightly related dominant biomarker clusters were found, which included biomarkers of fibrosis/tissue remodeling, inflammation, renal injury/dysfunction, and liver fibrosis. Other clusters were composed of neurohormonal regulators of mineral metabolism, intermediary metabolism, and biomarkers of myocardial injury. Multiple biomarkers predicted incident DHFA, including 2 biomarkers related to mineral metabolism/calcification (fibroblast growth factor-23 and OPG [osteoprotegerin]), 3 inflammatory biomarkers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, sTNFRI [soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor I], and interleukin-6), YKL-40 (related to liver injury and inflammation), 2 biomarkers related to intermediary metabolism and adipocyte biology (fatty acid binding protein-4 and growth differentiation factor-15), angiopoietin-2 (related to angiogenesis), matrix metalloproteinase-7 (related to extracellular matrix turnover), ST-2, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. A machine-learning-derived model using a combination of biomarkers was strongly predictive of the risk of DHFA (standardized hazard ratio: 2.85; 95% confidence interval: 2.03 to 4.02; p < 0.0001) and markedly improved the risk prediction when added to the MAGGIC (Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure Risk Score) risk score. In an independent cohort (PHFS), the model strongly predicted the risk of DHFA (standardized hazard ratio: 2.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.93 to 3.90; p < 0.0001), which was also independent of the MAGGIC risk score. CONCLUSIONS: Various novel circulating biomarkers in key pathophysiological domains are predictive of outcomes in HFpEF, and a multimarker approach coupled with machine-learning represents a promising strategy for enhancing risk stratification in HFpEF.

5.
Circulation ; 141(12): 1001-1026, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202936

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a major public health problem that is rising in prevalence, is associated with high morbidity and mortality and is considered to be the greatest unmet need in cardiovascular medicine today because of a general lack of effective treatments. To address this challenging syndrome, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group made up of experts in HFpEF and novel research methodologies to discuss research gaps and to prioritize research directions over the next decade. Here, we summarize the discussion of the working group, followed by key recommendations for future research priorities. There was uniform recognition that HFpEF is a highly integrated, multiorgan, systemic disorder requiring a multipronged investigative approach in both humans and animal models to improve understanding of mechanisms and treatment of HFpEF. It was recognized that advances in the understanding of basic mechanisms and the roles of inflammation, macrovascular and microvascular dysfunction, fibrosis, and tissue remodeling are needed and ideally would be obtained from (1) improved animal models, including large animal models, which incorporate the effects of aging and associated comorbid conditions; (2) repositories of deeply phenotyped physiological data and human tissue, made accessible to researchers to enhance collaboration and research advances; and (3) novel research methods that take advantage of computational advances and multiscale modeling for the analysis of complex, high-density data across multiple domains. The working group emphasized the need for interactions among basic, translational, clinical, and epidemiological scientists and across organ systems and cell types, leveraging different areas or research focus, and between research centers. A network of collaborative centers to accelerate basic, translational, and clinical research of pathobiological mechanisms and treatment strategies in HFpEF was discussed as an example of a strategy to advance research progress. This resource would facilitate comprehensive, deep phenotyping of a multicenter HFpEF patient cohort with standardized protocols and a robust biorepository. The research priorities outlined in this document are meant to stimulate scientific advances in HFpEF by providing a road map for future collaborative investigations among a diverse group of scientists across multiple domains.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e014716, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009529

RESUMO

Background Data regarding the phenotypic correlates and prognostic value of albumin in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are scarce. The goal of the current study is to determine phenotypic correlates (myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, detailed pulsatile hemodynamics, and skeletal muscle mass) and prognostic implications of serum albumin in HFpEF. Methods and Results We studied 118 adults with HFpEF. All-cause death or heart-failure-related hospitalization was ascertained over a median follow-up of 57.6 months. We measured left ventricular mass, myocardial extracellular volume, and axial muscle areas using magnetic resonance imaging. Pulsatile arterial hemodynamics were assessed with a combination of arterial tonometry and phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects with lower serum albumin exhibited a higher body mass index, and a greater proportion of black ethnicity and diabetes mellitus. A low serum albumin was associated with higher myocardial extracellular volume (52.3 versus 57.4 versus 39.3 mL in lowest to highest albumin tertile, respectively; P=0.0023) and greater N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels, but not with a higher myocardial cellular volume (123 versus 114 versus 102 mL; P=0.13). Lower serum albumin was also associated with an increased forward wave amplitude and markedly increased pulsatile power in the aorta. Serum albumin was a strong predictor of death or heart failure hospitalization even after adjustment for N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels and the Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure (MAGGIC) risk score (adjusted standardized hazard ratio=0.56; 95% CI=0.37-0.83; P<0.0001). Conclusions Serum albumin is associated with myocardial fibrosis, adverse pulsatile aortic hemodynamics, and prognosis in HFpEF. This readily available clinical biomarker can enhance risk stratification in HFpEF and identifies a subgroup with specific pathophysiological abnormalities.

7.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(3): 172-184, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess if clinical phenogroups differ in comprehensive biomarker profiles, cardiac and arterial structure/function, and responses to spironolactone therapy. BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified distinct subgroups (phenogroups) of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS: Among TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial) participants, we performed latent-class analysis to identify HFpEF phenogroups based on standard clinical features and assessed differences in multiple biomarkers measured from frozen plasma; cardiac and arterial structure/function measured with echocardiography and arterial tonometry; prognosis; and response to spironolactone. RESULTS: Three HFpEF phenogroups were identified. Phenogroup 1 (n = 1,214) exhibited younger age, higher prevalence of smoking, preserved functional class, and the least evidence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and arterial stiffness. Phenogroup 2 (n = 1,329) was older, with normotrophic concentric LV remodeling, atrial fibrillation, left atrial enlargement, large-artery stiffening, and biomarkers of innate immunity and vascular calcification. Phenogroup 3 (n = 899) demonstrated more functional impairment, obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, concentric LV hypertrophy, high renin, and biomarkers of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated inflammation, liver fibrosis, and tissue remodeling. Compared with phenogroup 1, phenogroup 3 exhibited the highest risk of the primary endpoint of cardiovascular death, heart failure hospitalization, or aborted cardiac arrest (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.79 to 4.24); phenogroups 2 and 3 demonstrated similar all-cause mortality (phenotype 2 HR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.89 to 2.95; phenotype 3 HR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.77 to 2.87). Spironolactone randomized therapy was associated with a more pronounced reduction in the risk of the primary endpoint in phenogroup 3 (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.95; p for interaction = 0.016). Results were similar after excluding participants from Eastern Europe. CONCLUSIONS: We identified important differences in circulating biomarkers, cardiac/arterial characteristics, prognosis, and response to spironolactone across clinical HFpEF phenogroups. These findings suggest distinct underlying mechanisms across clinically identifiable phenogroups of HFpEF that may benefit from different targeted interventions.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(1): 72-75, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918836
9.
Sleep Med ; 67: 91-98, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The availability of poly(somno)graphy [P(S)G] for sleep apnea (SA) diagnosis is limited, making pre-test case evaluation an important challenge. The Neck, Obesity, Snoring, Age, Sex (NoSAS) and STOP-Bang (SBQ) scores are accepted screening tests, but their sex-specific performance in the general population is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the sex-specific diagnostic characteristics of the NoSAS and SBQ scores, and to optimize the performance of these tools for men and women. METHODS: Participants from a population-based cohort (n = 2205) underwent clinical evaluation, including NoSAS, SBQ, and home polygraphy. RESULTS: We obtained successful polygraphy in 1809 participants. Moderate-to-severe SA was present in 11.7%. Diagnostic performance indices of NoSAS and the SBQ calculated on the overall group (men + women) overestimated the performance in both sexes separately. The sensitivity of NoSAS for an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15 h-1 was acceptable in men (87.1%), but low in women (55.3%). The reverse was true for the specificity (39.9% in men, 87.4% in women). A similar sex-specific difference in diagnostic performance was seen with the SBQ. Using women-specific cut-offs for the scores (NoSAS ≥6 or SBQ ≥2) and neck circumference (>35 cm) increased the sensitivity in women to levels similar to men (88.5 and 87.2%). Although specificity decreased, it still remained higher than in men. CONCLUSION: In women, the sensitivity of NoSAS and the SBQ is too low for SA screening in the general population. Sex-specific cut-offs reverse this imbalance and achieve test sensitivities in women similar to those in men, whilst still retaining higher specificities than in men. Sleep questionnaires performance reporting should be sex-stratified.

10.
J Hypertens ; 38(2): 224-234, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584511

RESUMO

AIM: Maximal handgrip strength is a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality in economically and socioculturally diverse countries, yet the main determinants of cardiovascular response to change in afterload during handgrip are not well known. We examined the blood pressure (BP) responses during submaximal handgrip (at 25% of grip strength) and the determinants of grip strength. METHODS: We studied 2215 participants from a population-based random sample without overt clinical disease (Asklepios Study; mean age 56.2 years). Handgrip testing was performed using a modified Jamar dynamometer with direct visual feedback. Simultaneously, a validated finger plethysmographic device measured continuous BP and heart rate. RESULTS: During handgrip, SBP and DBP rose by, respectively, 20 ±â€Š13 and 10 ±â€Š6 mmHg. These changes were normally distributed and consistently higher in men. The main independent determinants of mean arterial pressure response during handgrip were: grip strength (F = 191.4; P < 0.001), baseline pulse pressure (F = 32.0; P < 0.001), height (F = 16.4; P < 0.001) and age (F = 12.8; P < 0.001). Grip strength was associated with muscle mass, better metabolic health, but also with higher baseline DBP. There was a significant graded increase in maximum pressure achieved and in the magnitude of pressure change during handgrip with increasing BP categories (P for trend <0.001). CONCLUSION: The population BP response to handgrip is variable and its predominant determinant turned out to be grip strength itself, which should be accounted for in future analyses. Higher baseline BP, even within the normotensive range, acted as an independent and graded predictor of BP increase during handgrip.

11.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 63(1): 22-32, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810526

RESUMO

Hypertension (HTN) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the association between HTN and CVD cannot be explained by average blood pressure (BP) alone. BP variability (BPV) is another important factor, along with the effects of HTN on the vasculature. The concept of systemic hemodynamic atherothrombotic syndrome (SHATS) has been proposed, describing an age-related and synergistic vicious cycle of hemodynamic stress and vascular disease. The importance of SHATS is based on the assumption that the assessment of BPV and arterial disease is likely to provide an effective opportunity to intervene early to reduce progression to HTN in younger patients or to CVD events and organ damage in older patients. In addition to providing an overview of current evidence for the mechanisms and clinical data related to SHATS, this article proposes a new SHATS score for use to diagnose and assess the severity of SHATS. The score includes two components - a BP score and a vascular score - which are multiplied to generate the SHATS score. This reflects the synergistic, rather than additive, effects of BP and vascular disease on target organ damage and CVD events. Although it requires refinement and validation in future studies, early detection of SHATS using tools such as the proposed score, combined with population-based stratification and technology-based anticipation medicine incorporating real-time individual data, has the potential to contribute to meaningful reductions in rates of CVD events and target organ damage.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/terapia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/terapia
12.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(5): 1034-1043, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875700

RESUMO

Despite the wide recognition of larger artery stiffness as a highly clinically relevant and independent prognostic biomarker, it has yet be incorporated into routine clinical practice and to take a more prominent position in clinical guidelines. An important reason may be the plethora of methods and devices claiming to measure arterial stiffness in humans. This brief review provides a concise overview of methods in use, indicating strengths and weaknesses. We classified and graded methods, highly weighing their scrutiny and purity in quantifying arterial stiffness, rather than focusing on their ease of application or the level at which methods have demonstrated their prognostic and diagnostic potential.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(4): 575-582, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843232

RESUMO

Little data are available regarding the determinants and prognostic significance of serum albumin in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF). We sought to examine the phenotypic correlates of albumin and its independent prognostic implications in HFpEF. We analyzed data from 3,254 subjects enrolled the TOPCAT trial. We stratified subjects according to tertiles of albumin and examined differences in various phenotypic traits between these strata, including 8 protein biomarkers selected ad hoc and measured from frozen samples available in a subset of participants (n = 372). We also assessed the relationship between albumin and the trial primary endpoint. Lower albumin was associated with older age, black race, and greater prevalence of NYHA class III-IV, peripheral arterial disease, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus. Lower albumin was also associated with increased levels of several inflammatory biomarkers, markers of liver fibrosis, albuminuria, and greater arterial stiffness, diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Albumin was a strong predictor of the primary trial endpoint, even after adjustment for the MAGGIC risk score (hazard ratio [HR] 0.72, confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 0.78; p <0.0001) and prespecified traditional risk factors (HR 0.78, CI 0.71 to 0.85; p <0.0001). Lower albumin was strongly associated with a worse prognosis even well within normal ranges (>3.5 g/dL), with a sharp increase in risk between 4.6 and 3.6 g/dL. In conclusion, albumin is an integrated marker of various adverse processes in HFpEF, including inflammation, subclinical liver disease, arterial stiffness, and renal disease. Albumin is a powerful risk predictor independent of traditional risk prediction models, even within normal ranges.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico
14.
JAMA ; 322(22): 2191-2202, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821430

RESUMO

Importance: Hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloid cardiomyopathy (hATTR-CM) due to the TTR V122I variant is an autosomal-dominant disorder that causes heart failure in elderly individuals of African ancestry. The clinical associations of carrying the variant, its effect in other African ancestry populations including Hispanic/Latino individuals, and the rates of achieving a clinical diagnosis in carriers are unknown. Objective: To assess the association between the TTR V122I variant and heart failure and identify rates of hATTR-CM diagnosis among carriers with heart failure. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis of carriers and noncarriers of TTR V122I of African ancestry aged 50 years or older enrolled in the Penn Medicine Biobank between 2008 and 2017 using electronic health record data from 1996 to 2017. Case-control study in participants of African and Hispanic/Latino ancestry with and without heart failure in the Mount Sinai BioMe Biobank enrolled between 2007 and 2015 using electronic health record data from 2007 to 2018. Exposures: TTR V122I carrier status. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was prevalent heart failure. The rate of diagnosis with hATTR-CM among TTR V122I carriers with heart failure was measured. Results: The cross-sectional cohort included 3724 individuals of African ancestry with a median age of 64 years (interquartile range, 57-71); 1755 (47%) were male, 2896 (78%) had a diagnosis of hypertension, and 753 (20%) had a history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization. There were 116 TTR V122I carriers (3.1%); 1121 participants (30%) had heart failure. The case-control study consisted of 2307 individuals of African ancestry and 3663 Hispanic/Latino individuals; the median age was 73 years (interquartile range, 68-80), 2271 (38%) were male, 4709 (79%) had a diagnosis of hypertension, and 1008 (17%) had a history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization. There were 1376 cases of heart failure. TTR V122I was associated with higher rates of heart failure (cross-sectional cohort: n = 51/116 TTR V122I carriers [44%], n = 1070/3608 noncarriers [30%], adjusted odds ratio, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.2-2.4], P = .006; case-control study: n = 36/1376 heart failure cases [2.6%], n = 82/4594 controls [1.8%], adjusted odds ratio, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.2-2.7], P = .008). Ten of 92 TTR V122I carriers with heart failure (11%) were diagnosed as having hATTR-CM; the median time from onset of symptoms to clinical diagnosis was 3 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Among individuals of African or Hispanic/Latino ancestry enrolled in 2 academic medical center-based biobanks, the TTR V122I genetic variant was significantly associated with heart failure.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Pré-Albumina/genética , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Idoso , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/complicações , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/etnologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Variação Genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Physiol Meas ; 40(11): 115002, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interplay between cardiac function and the arterial system is currently defined as ventricular-arterial coupling (VAC) and it is an expression of global cardiovascular efficiency. VAC involves a variety of complex interactions between the heart and the vasculature. A basic index of VAC is the ratio of effective arterial elastance (Ea)/ end-systolic elastance (Ees). While this is often done with echocardiography, obtaining Ea/Ees using impedance cardiography is feasible, although this possibility has not been explored so far. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the Ea/Ees values obtained using echocardiography and impedance cardiography. APPROACH: Two independent operators estimated Ea/Ees in 91 (41 ± 14 years old, women 51%) untreated apparently healthy individuals using (1) Doppler echocardiography with the single-beat method developed by Chen et al (2001 J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 38 2028-34); and (2) data provided by impedance cardiography. The differences between Ea/Ees values were compared and correlation between both methods was estimated. MAIN RESULTS: Although Ea and Ees values calculated by impedance cardiography were lower than those estimated by echocardiography (-0.201 ± 0.457 mmHg ml-1 and -0.193 ± 0.413 mmHg ml-1), Ea/Ees ratio values were similar. Thus, there was no significant difference between the mean values of Ea/Ees estimated by impedance cardiography or echocardiography (Ea/Ees impedance cardiography - Ea/Ees echocardiography = -0.015 ± 0.096, p  = 0.150). Ea/Ees values calculated by both methods were highly correlated (r = 0.85, p  < 0.001), as well as the pre-ejection and left ventricular ejection time (r = 0.83 and r = 0.91, respectively). SIGNIFICANCE: In healthy individuals, estimation of Ea/Ees by impedance cardiography yielded similar values to those obtained using echocardiography.

16.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 21(10): 1580-1590, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532580

RESUMO

Many patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but not all, have a reduction in blood pressure (BP) with positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Our objective was to determine whether the BP response following PAP treatment is related to obesity. A total of 188 adults with OSA underwent 24-hour BP monitoring and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine collection at baseline. Obesity was assessed by waist circumference, body mass index, and abdominal visceral fat volume. Participants adherent to PAP treatment were reassessed after 4 months. Primary outcomes were 24-hour mean arterial pressure (MAP) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine level. Obstructive sleep apnea participants had a significant reduction in 24-hour MAP following PAP treatment (-1.22 [95% CI: -2.38, -0.06] mm Hg; P = .039). No significant correlations were present with any of the 3 obesity measures for BP or urinary norepinephrine measures at baseline in all OSA participants or for changes in BP measures in participants adherent to PAP treatment. Changes in BP measures following treatment were not correlated with baseline or change in urinary norepinephrine. Similar results were obtained when BP or urinary norepinephrine measures were compared between participants dichotomized using the sex-specific median of each obesity measure. Greater reductions in urinary norepinephrine were correlated with higher waist circumference (rho = -0.21, P = .037), with a greater decrease from baseline in obese compared to non-obese participants (-6.26 [-8.82, -3.69] vs -2.14 [-4.63, 0.35] ng/mg creatinine; P = .027). The results indicate that the BP response to PAP treatment in adults with OSA is not related to obesity or urinary norepinephrine levels.

17.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 1052-1062, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446797

RESUMO

Sleep apnea (SA) prevalence had increased. The socioeconomic burden is significant because of healthcare-related costs and adverse outcome, especially in moderate-to-severe SA. However, the population impact is unclear, particularly for mild SA. We aimed to assess the current prevalence and the cardiovascular risk associates of SA in the general population. We performed home polygraphy and extensive clinical, sociodemographic, and cardiovascular assessment in 2205 eligible subjects from a population-based cohort. Successful polygraphy was obtained in 1809 subjects (mean age, 56.0; SD, 5.9 years; 52.3% women). The prevalence was 41.0%, 11.8%, and 6.5% for mild, moderate, and severe SA in men and 26.6%, 4.4%, and 1.2% in women. Male sex, age, increasing BMI, and snoring were independently associated with SA, whereas sleepiness or tiredness were not. Compared with those without SA, mild SA was associated with (age- and sex-adjusted OR; 95% CI): diabetes mellitus (2.40; 1.52-3.80), hypertension (1.76; 1.42-2.19), left ventricular hypertrophy (1.36; 1.03-1.79), arterial plaques (1.19; 0.94-1.52), and increased IL-6 (interleukin-6) levels (1.37; 1.10-1.72). These associations were more pronounced in moderate-to-severe SA. To conclude, SA is highly prevalent in the middle-aged general population. It is largely undetected and undetectable using a symptom-based strategy. Yet, even the large group with mild SA shows a manifestly higher metabolic, inflammatory, and cardiovascular risk factor burden, with potential public health implications.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1237-1263, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466622

RESUMO

A healthy aorta exerts a powerful cushioning function, which limits arterial pulsatility and protects the microvasculature from potentially harmful fluctuations in pressure and blood flow. Large-artery (aortic) stiffening, which occurs with aging and various pathologic states, impairs this cushioning function, and has important consequences on cardiovascular health, including isolated systolic hypertension, excessive penetration of pulsatile energy into the microvasculature of target organs that operate at low vascular resistance, and abnormal ventricular-arterial interactions that promote left ventricular remodeling, dysfunction, and failure. Large-artery stiffness independently predicts cardiovascular risk and represents a high-priority therapeutic target to ameliorate the global burden of cardiovascular disease. This paper provides an overview of key physiologic and biophysical principles related to arterial stiffness, the impact of aortic stiffening on target organs, noninvasive methods for the measurement of arterial stiffness, mechanisms leading to aortic stiffening, therapeutic approaches to reduce it, and clinical applications of arterial stiffness measurements.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-9, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, two echocardiographic techniques are used to measure deformation: tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Recently, a technique combining STE and TDI (on TDI overlay images) has become available, allowing derivation of STE/TDI results from a single acquisition/reading (combined-STE/combined-TDI). We tested the feasibility and agreement of this novel technique to measure left ventricular deformation in the general population compared to STE and TDI. METHODS: We examined a subsample of 106 consecutive subjects of the Asklepios Study, a population-based random sample of male/female volunteers without overt clinical disease (mean age: 55.9 years). Left ventricular deformation measurements were assessed with transthoracic echocardiography using the combined method, STE and TDI. RESULTS: Almost all deformation parameters significantly differed between all methods. Global systolic longitudinal strain (GS) and strain rate (GSRs) values measured by combined-TDI were significantly higher (GS -17.2% ± 3.0, GSRs -0.9 s-1 ± 0.2) compared to TDI (GS -21.1% ± 2.2, GSRs -1.3 s-1 ± 0.2). Measurements by combined-STE were significantly lower (GS -19.1% ± 2.9, GSRs -1.0 s-1 ± 0.2) compared to STE (GS -18.2% ± 3.0, GSRs -0.9 s-1 ± 0.1). Overall, the smallest differences and highest agreement were observed between STE and combined-STE (GS r = 0.84, p < .001; GSRs r = 0.70, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The comparison of methods showed different values and poor agreement between the echocardiographic modalities. Regrettably, the combined method does not make it possible to obtain in a single image/measurement results that are comparable to STE and TDI data in the general population.

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