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1.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 84(4): 781-789, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367791

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who received sunitinib retreatment. METHODS: Clinical data from patients treated with sunitinib rechallenge in nine Spanish centers were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received first-line sunitinib until progression or intolerance, followed by one or more successive drugs and rechallenge with sunitinib thereafter. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients were included. At first-line treatment, objective response rate (ORR) was 69.4% and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 19.4 months. At rechallenge, ORR was 27.2% and 39.4% of patients obtained stabilization of disease. Median PFS was 6.2 months. Clinical benefit was obtained by 21 patients (75%) with > 6-month interval between sunitinib treatments and by 1 patient (20%) among those with ≤ 6-month interval (P = 0.016). Hemoglobin levels ≥ lower level of normal were associated with clinical benefit (P = 0.019) and with PFS (P = 0.004). Median overall survival from start of first-line sunitinib was 52.7 months. No new adverse events were observed at rechallenge. CONCLUSIONS: Sunitinib rechallenge is a feasible treatment option for selected patients with mRCC.

2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 5673-5692, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216007

RESUMO

CONTEXT: SDHB mutations are found in an increasing number of neoplasms, most notably in paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas (PPGLs). SDHB-PPGLs are slow-growing tumors, but ∼50% of them may develop metastasis. The molecular basis of metastasis in these tumors is a long-standing and unresolved problem. Thus, a better understanding of the biology of metastasis is needed. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify gene methylation changes relevant for metastatic SDHB-PPGLs. DESIGN: We performed genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in diverse clinical and genetic PPGL subtypes, and validated protocadherin γ-C3 (PCDHGC3) gene promoter methylation in metastatic SDHB-PPGLs. RESULTS: We define an epigenetic landscape specific for metastatic SDHB-PPGLs. DNA methylation levels were found significantly higher in metastatic SDHB-PPGLs than in SDHB-PPGLs without metastases. One such change included long-range de novo methylation of the PCDHA, PCDHB, and PCDHG gene clusters. High levels of PCDHGC3 promoter methylation were validated in primary metastatic SDHB-PPGLs, it was found amplified in the corresponding metastases, and it was significantly correlated with PCDHGC3 reduced expression. Interestingly, this epigenetic alteration could be detected in primary tumors that developed metastasis several years later. We also show that PCDHGC3 down regulation engages metastasis-initiating capabilities by promoting cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide a map of the DNA methylome episignature specific to an SDHB-mutated cancer and establish PCDHGC3 as a putative suppressor gene and a potential biomarker to identify patients with SDHB-mutated cancer at high risk of metastasis who might benefit from future targeted therapies.

3.
Breast Cancer (Auckl) ; 13: 1178223419828766, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814839

RESUMO

Purpose: Breast cancer (BC) in very young women (BCVY) is more aggressive than in older women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of a range of clinico-pathological factors in the prognosis of BCVY patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 258 patients diagnosed with BCVY at our hospital from 1998 to 2014; the control group comprised 101 older patients with BC. We correlated clinicopathological factors, treatments, relapse and exitus with age and with previously published miRNA expression data. Results: We identified some significant differences in risk factors between BCVY and older patients. The age at menarche, number of pregnancies, and age at first pregnancy were lower in the BCVY group and had a greater probability of recurrence and death in all cases. Lymph node-positive patients in the BCVY group are associated with a worse prognosis (P = .02), an immunohistochemical HER2+ subtype, and disease relapse (P = .03). Moreover, there was a shorter time between diagnosis and first relapse in BCVY patients compared with controls, and they were more likely to die from the disease (P = .002). Finally, from our panel of miRNAs deregulated in BC, reduced miR-30c expression was associated with more aggressive BC in very young patients, lower overall survival, and with axillary lymph node metastases. Conclusions: Patient age and axillary lymph node status post-surgery are independent and significant predictors of distant disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, and overall survival. The HER2+ subtype and lower miR-30c expression are related to poor prognosis in lymph node-positive young BC patients.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675318

RESUMO

Background: Approximately 5 to 10% of all cancers are caused by inherited germline mutations, many of which are associated with different Hereditary Cancer Syndromes (HCS). In the context of the Program of Hereditary Cancer of the Valencia Community, individuals belonging to specific HCS and their families receive genetic counselling and genetic testing according to internationally established guidelines. The current diagnostic approach is based on sequencing a few high-risk genes related to each HCS; however, this method is time-consuming, expensive and does not achieve a confirmatory genetic diagnosis in many cases. This study aims to test the level of improvement offered by a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) gene-panel compared to the standard approach in a diagnostic reference laboratory setting. Methods: A multi-gene NGS panel was used to test a total of 91 probands, previously classified as non-informative by analysing the high-risk genes defined in our guidelines. Results: Nineteen deleterious mutations were detected in 16% of patients, some mutations were found in already-tested high-risk genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, MSH2) and others in non-prevalent genes (RAD51D, PALB2, ATM, TP53, MUTYH, BRIP1). Conclusions: Overall, our findings reclassify several index cases into different HCS, and change the mutational status of 14 cases from non-informative to gene mutation carriers. In conclusion, we highlight the necessity of incorporating validated multi-gene NGS panels into the HCSs diagnostic routine to increase the performance of genetic diagnosis.

5.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 19(1): 77, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pazopanib is indicated in the first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC). The aim of this study was to review the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of pazopanib and see how these aspects are linked to clinical practice. METHODS: A non-exhaustive systematic review was conducted according to the three topics. No publication restrictions were imposed and the selected languages were Spanish and English. After that, a summary of the main results and findings of the review was presented and discussed during three meetings (one for each topic) with 13 medical oncologists that usually treat mRCC. At these meetings, a questionnaire on the first-line use of pazopanib in clinical practice was also drawn up. After the meetings, the questionnaire was completed by 60 specialist medical oncologists in renal cancer. RESULTS: The efficacy and safety of pazopanib have been demonstrated in several clinical trials, and subsequently confirmed in studies in real-world clinical practice. In addition to its clinical benefit and good safety profile, quality of life results for pazopanib, which compare favorably to sunitinib, make it a good option in the first-line treatment of patients. Special populations have been included in studies conducted with pazopanib, and it is safe for use in elderly patients, poor functional status, kidney failure, and mild or moderate hepatic impairment, and in patients with concomitant cardiovascular disease. The results of the questionnaire have shown that pazopanib is perceived as an effective drug, in which quality of life (QoL) outcomes are valued above all. CONCLUSIONS: This paper offers a comprehensive and critical summary of efficacy, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of pazopanib in the treatment of mRCC. Pazopanib is an effective treatment with an acceptable safety profile. Its QoL and tolerability results offer certain advantages when compared with other therapeutic alternatives, and its use appears to be safe in different patient profiles.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacocinética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Qualidade de Vida , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BMC Cancer ; 16: 135, 2016 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26906039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of such recommendations after their implementation of guidelines has not usually been evaluated. Herein, we assessed the impact and compliance with the Spanish Oncology Genitourinary Group (SOGUG) Guidelines for toxicity management of targeted therapies in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in daily clinical practice. METHODS: Data on 407 mRCC patients who initiated first-line targeted therapy during the year before and the year after publication and implementation of the SOGUG guideline program were available from 34 Spanish Hospitals. Adherence to SOGUG Guidelines was assessed in every cycle. RESULTS: Adverse event (AE) management was consistent with the Guidelines as a whole for 28.7% out of 966 post-implementation cycles compared with 23.1% out of 892 pre-implementation cycles (p = 0.006). Analysis of adherence by AE in non-compliant cycles showed significant changes in appropriate management of hypertension (33% pre-implementation vs. 44.5% post-implementation cycles; p < 0.0001), diarrhea (74.0% vs. 80.5%; p = 0.011) and dyslipemia (25.0% vs. 44.6%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Slight but significant improvements in AE management were detected following the implementation of SOGUG recommendations. However, room for improvement in the management of AEs due to targeted agents still remains and could be the focus for further programs in this direction.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/efeitos adversos , Metástase Neoplásica , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Espanha
7.
Am J Cancer Res ; 5(7): 2330-43, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26328265

RESUMO

This study aims to identify the profile of immunohistochemical (IHC) parameters, copy number aberrations (CNAs) and epigenetic alterations [promoter methylation (PM) and miR expression] related to hereditary (H) and triple negative (TN) breast cancer (BC). This profile could be of relevance for guiding tumor response to treatment with targeting therapy. The study comprises 278 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded BCs divided into two groups: H group, including 88 hereditary BC (HBC) and 190 non hereditary (NHBC), and TN group, containing 79 TNBC and 187 non TNBC (NTNBC). We assessed IHC parameters (Ki67, ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, CK18 and Cadherin-E), CNA of 20 BC related genes, and PM of 24 tumor suppressor genes employing MLPA/MS-MLPA (MRC Holland, Amsterdam). MiR-4417, miR-423-3p, miR-590-5p and miR-187-3p expression was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR (Applied Biosystems). Binary logistic regression was applied to select the parameters that better differentiate the HBC or TN groups. For HBC we found that, ER expression, ERBB2 CNA and PM in RASSF1 and TIMP3 were associated with NHBC whereas; MYC and AURKA CNA were linked to HBC. For TNBC, we found that CDC6 CNA, GSTP1 and RASSF1 PM and miR-423-3p hyperexpression were characteristic of NTNBC, while MYC aberrations, BRCA1 hypermethylation and miR-590-5p and miR-4417 hyperexpression were more indicative of TNBC. The selected markers allow establishing BC subtypes, which are characterized by showing similar etiopathogenetic mechanisms, some of them being molecular targets for known drugs or possible molecular targets. These results could be the basis to implement a personalized therapy.

8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 17: 93, 2015 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163143

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest determinants of sporadic breast cancer (BC). In this study, we compared MD in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers from BRCA1/2 mutation-positive families and investigated the association between MD and BC among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers per type of mutation and tumor subtype. METHODS: The study was carried out in 1039 female members of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-positive families followed at 16 Spanish Genetic Counseling Units. Participants' density was scored retrospectively from available mammograms by a single blinded radiologist using a 5-category scale (<10 %, 10-25 %, 25-50 %, 50-75 %, >75 %). In BC cases, we selected mammograms taken prior to diagnosis or from the contralateral breast, whereas, in non-cases, the last screening mammogram was evaluated. MD distribution in carriers and non-carriers was compared using ordinal logistic models, and the association between MD and BC in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers was studied using logistic regression. Huber-White robust estimators of variance were used to take into account correlations between family members. A similar multinomial model was used to explore this association by BC subtype. RESULTS: We identified and scored mammograms from 341 BRCA1, 350 BRCA2 mutation carriers and 229 non-carriers. Compared to non-carriers, MD was significantly lower among BRCA2 mutation carriers (odds ratio (OR) =0.71; P-value=0.04), but not among BRCA1 carriers (OR=0.84; P-value=0.33). MD was associated with subsequent development BC (OR per category of MD=1.45; 95 % confidence interval=1.18-1.78, P-value<0.001), with no significant differences between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (P-value=0.48). Finally, no statistically significant differences were observed in the association of MD with specific BC subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study, the largest to date on this issue, confirms that MD is an independent risk factor for all BC subtypes in either BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, and should be considered a phenotype risk marker in this context.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Família , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/anormalidades , Adulto , Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
9.
Fam Cancer ; 14(4): 505-13, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26026974

RESUMO

Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease that represents <1% of all breast cancers (BCs). We analyze the results of a multicenter study performed in Spanish familial MBC including family history of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOCS) and clinicopathological features. We also study the relationship between BRCA1/BRCA2 mutational status in male relatives affected with cancer (MAC) and, family history and tumor types. The study included 312 men index cases with family history of HBOCS and 61 MAC BRCA1/2 mutation-carriers. Family history, histological grade (HG), clinicopathological and immunohistochemistry data were collected. BRCA1/2 mutation analyses were performed by direct sequencing or screening methods and the large rearrangements by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification. We found 49 mutation-carriers (15.7%), 95.9% with BRCA2 mutations. BRCA2 mutation-carriers were associated with families with at least one MBC and one BC in female (type II; p = 0.05). Strong association were found between the presence of pathogenic mutations in MBCs and the advanced HG (p = 0.003). c.658_659delTG, c.2808_2811delACAA, c.6275_6276delTT and c.9026_9030delATCAT were the most prevalent mutations. In 61 MAC we found 20 mutations in BRCA1 and 41 in BRCA2. For MAC we show that mutational status was differentially associated with family history (p = 0.018) and tumor type, being BRCA2 mutations linked with BC and prostatic cancer (p = 0.018). MBC caused by BRCA1/2 mutations define two types of MBCs. The most frequent caused by BRCA2 mutation linked to type II families and the rarest one attributed to BRCA1 mutation. Tumor associated with MAC suggest that only BRCA2 mutations have to do with a specific type of cancer (BC and prostatic cancer); but the linkage to tumors is questionable for BRCA1 mutations .


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Prognóstico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Cancer Res ; 5(1): 375-85, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25628946

RESUMO

This study investigates the relationship of promoter methylation in tumor suppressor genes with copy-number aberrations (CNA) and with tumor markers in breast cancer (BCs). The study includes 98 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded BCs in which promoter methylation of 24 tumour suppressor genes were assessed by Methylation-Specific Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MS-MLPA), CNA of 20 BC related genes by MLPA and ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, CK18, EGFR, Cadherin-E, P53, Ki-67 and PARP expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cluster analysis classed BCs in two groups according to promoter methylation percentage: the highly-methylated group (16 BCs), containing mostly hyper-methylated genes, and the sparsely-methylated group (82 BCs) with hypo-methylated genes. ATM, CDKN2A, VHL, CHFR and CDKN2B showed the greatest differences in the mean methylation percentage between these groups. We found no relationship of the IHC parameters or pathological features with methylation status, except for Catherin-E (p = 0.008). However the highly methylated BCs showed higher CNA proportion than the sparsely methylated BCs (p < 0.001, OR = 1.62; IC 95% [1.26, 2.07]). CDC6, MAPT, MED1, PRMD14 and AURKA showed the major differences in the CNA percentage between the two groups, exceeding the 22%. Methylation in RASSF1, CASP8, DAPK1 and GSTP1 conferred the highest probability of harboring CNA. Our results show a new link between promoter methylation and CNA giving support to the importance of methylation events to establish new BCs subtypes. Our findings may be also of relevance in personalized therapy assessment, which could benefit the hyper methylated BC patients group.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 14: 779, 2014 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25342282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract (TCCU) who fail initial platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced disease represent a challenge in daily clinical practice. Vinflunine is approved by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) but, up to now, limited experience has been reported outside clinical trials. METHODS: We assessed the efficacy and safety of vinflunine in an unselected group of 102 consecutive patients with metastatic TCCU. RESULTS: The median age was 67 years (range 45-83). Among the most common comorbidities that patients presented at baseline were hypertension (50.5%) and diabetes (20.7%).Distant metastases were present in retroperitoneal nodes (58%), lung (29.3%), and bone (20.2%). The ECOG 0, 1 and 2 performance status at the start of vinflunine were 31.3%, 60.6% and 8.1%, respectively. The most commonly reported adverse events of any grade were constipation 70.6% (5.9% grade 3-4), vomiting 49.1% (2% grade 3-4), neutropenia 48.1% (12.8% grade 3-4) and abdominal pain 34.3% (4.9% grade 3-4). A median of 4 cycles of vinflunine was administered per patient (range 1-18). Median progression free and overall survival for all patients (N = 102) were 3.9 months (2.3-5.5) and 10 months (7.3-12.8), respectively. Time to tumor progression was 4.3 months (2.6-5.9). Two patients (2%) achieved CR, 23 (22.5%) patients had PR, and 42 (41.2%) presented SD as best response. The clinical benefit rate with vinflunine was 65.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the behavior of vinflunine in routine clinical practice resembles that of the pivotal phase III randomized study.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Vimblastina/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Retratamento , Análise de Sobrevida , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Vimblastina/farmacologia , Vimblastina/uso terapêutico
12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 148(2): 415-21, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25342642

RESUMO

Early-onset diagnosis is an eligibility criterion for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) testing in sporadic breast cancer patients. Limited family structure has been proposed as a predictor of BRCA mutation status in this group of patients. An overwhelming amount of data supports a strong association between BRCA1 mutations and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we analyze the feasibility of using limited family structure and TNBC as predictors of BRCA mutation status in early-onset breast cancer patients attending genetic counseling units. We have conducted the study in a cohort of sporadic early-onset (≤35 years) breast cancer patients (N = 341) previously selected for BRCA genetic testing in Academic Hereditary Cancer Clinics from Spain. A retrospective review of medical records available at the time of risk assessment allowed us classifying patients according to family structure and TNBC. In addition, BRCAPRO score was calculated for all patients. Association between categorical variables was investigated using the Fisher's exact test. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Limited family structure (OR 3.61, p = 0.013) and TNBC (OR 3.14, p = 0.013) were independent predictors of BRCA mutation status. Mutation prevalence in the subgroup of patients with at least one positive predictor was 14%, whereas it dropped to 3% in non-TNBCs with adequate family history (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.38-23.89, p = 0.006). BRCAPRO correctly discerned between limited and adequate family structures. Limited family structure and TNBC are feasible predictors of BRCA mutation status in sporadic early-onset (≤35 years) breast cancer patients attending genetic counseling units. The low prevalence of mutations observed in non-TNBCs with adequate family structure suggests that this subgroup of patients might be excluded from genetic testing.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Características da Família , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Espanha/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
13.
Eur J Cancer ; 50(13): 2241-50, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24953332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Individuals with tumours showing mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency not linked to germline mutations or somatic methylation of MMR genes have been recently referred as having 'Lynch-like syndrome' (LLS). The genetic basis of these LLS cases is unknown. MUTYH-associated polyposis patients show some phenotypic similarities to Lynch syndrome patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of germline MUTYH mutations in a large series of LLS patients. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-five probands fulfilling LLS criteria were included in this study. Screening of MUTYH recurrent mutations, whole coding sequencing and a large rearrangement analysis were undertaken. Age, sex, clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics of tumours including KRAS mutations were assessed. RESULTS: We found a prevalence of 3.1% of MAP syndrome in the whole series of LLS (7/225) and 3.9% when only cases fulfilling clinical criteria were considered (7/178). Patients with MUTYH biallelic mutations had more adenomas than monoallelic (P=0.02) and wildtype patients (P<0.0001). Six out of nine analysed tumours from six biallelic MUTYH carriers harboured KRAS-p.G12C mutation. This mutation was found to be associated with biallelic MUTYH germline mutation when compared with reported series of unselected colorectal cancer cohorts (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: A proportion of unexplained LLS cases is caused by biallelic MUTYH mutations. The obtained results further justify the inclusion of MUTYH in the diagnostic strategy for Lynch syndrome-suspected patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras) , Proteínas ras/genética
14.
Fam Cancer ; 12(1): 119-23, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23117300

RESUMO

We recently described a novel g.8097_22733del14637 deletion encompassing exons 3-5 in BRCA1 gene. This rearrangement was detected in 3 of 15 (20 %) breast and/or ovarian cancer families of Eastern Spain. This finding made us suspect that the newly identified deletion could be a founder mutation. To confirm this hypothesis we studied 18 subjects belonging to the three families under study, 11 deletion carriers and 7 non-carriers. We performed a haplotype analysis using two BRCA1 intragenic microsatellite markers and two markers surrounding the BRCA1 locus. The segregation analysis showed one common particular haplotype established by D17S1325, D17S1323, D17S855 and D17S1320 markers detected in the deletion carriers but absent in the non-carriers. Our study sustain that the deletion of exons 3-5 of BRCA1, g.8097_22733del14637, identified in families of southeastern of the Valencian Community is the first founder rearrangement until now reported in Spanish population, confirming the hypothesis that this mutation could have Iberian ancestry.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Éxons/genética , Efeito Fundador , Genes BRCA1 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Segregação de Cromossomos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Deleção de Sequência , Espanha
15.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 31 Suppl 1: S3-9, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22689342

RESUMO

The approval and use of molecular targeted agents for the first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has substantially improved the clinical outcome of patients. Although eventually all patients progress, hopes have been renewed with the approval of everolimus for patients who progress on or after treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In order to improve the prognosis for these patients, it is imperative to understand the reasons why patients with mRCC fail on first-line treatment. Currently, progression is assessed on the basis of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, but it is known that targeted agents tend to cause disease stabilization rather than a significant decrease in tumor mass. Therefore, it may be time to evaluate the need to incorporate additional diagnostic methods in the assessment of disease response. Equally important is the study of the factors that determine the success or failure of second-line therapy in order to increase the chances of delivering the most effective and personalized therapy possible. In this article, we review the evidence related to the evaluation of patients with mRCC who fail on first-line treatment with targeted agents, including the systems to assess response and progression, the prognostic factors, the prognostic models that have been created based on these factors, and what is known about predictive biomarkers of disease outcome.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 132(1): 307-15, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22052327

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that monoallelic PALB2 (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) gene mutations predispose to familial breast cancer. Some of the families reported with germline PALB2 mutations presented male breast cancer as a characteristic clinical feature. Therefore, we wanted to investigate the contribution of germline PALB2 mutations in a set of 131 Spanish BRCA1/BRCA2-negative breast/ovarian cancer families with at least one male breast cancer case. The analysis included direct sequencing of all coding exons and intron/exon boundaries as well as a Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification-based analysis of genomic rearrangements. For the first time we have identified a genomic rearrangement of PALB2 gene involving a large deletion from exon 7 to 11 in a breast cancer family. We have also identified several PALB2 variants, but no other obvious deleterious PALB2 mutation has been found. Thus, our study does not support an enrichment of PALB2 germline mutations in the subset of breast cancer families with male breast cancer cases. The identification of intronic and exonic variants indicates the necessity of assessing the implications of variants that do not lead to PALB2 truncation in the pathoghenicity of the PALB2 gene.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Idoso , Éxons , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Deleção de Sequência , Espanha
17.
Breast ; 20(6): 548-54, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21816613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resection of intact primary tumor is controversial in metastatic breast cancer patients. The aim of this study is to review the impact of surgical resection of primary tumor on overall survival and to assess the role of timing of surgery on survival rates. METHODS: 208 patients with metastatic breast cancer diagnosed between 1982 and 2005 in the Hospital Clinico of Valencia (Spain) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were age >80, PS 3-4, Charlson score 3 or follow-up < 90 days. 123 of these underwent surgery and 85 did not. In order to assess the role of timing, the "surgery" cohort was divided into two sub-groups: "before" (n = 78) or "after" (n = 45) diagnosis of disseminated disease. RESULTS: In the surgery group, patients underwent mastectomy with axillary dissection (82.9%), without axillary dissection (8.9%) and conservative surgery (8.1%). After a median follow-up of 29.68 months, median OS in the "surgery" and the "non-surgery" groups were, 40.4 and 24.3 months. Removal of the primary tumor therefore had a significant positive impact on survival rates (p < 0.001). Benefits of surgery were observed mainly in patients with visceral disease (p = 0.005); no statistical differences were found in those with bone disease (p = 0.79). Univariate analysis for overall survival (OS) identified surgery, performance status, clinical T stage, hormone receptors and number and type of metastases as variables that impacted on survival. In the multivariate test, only resection of primary tumor and estrogen receptors maintained statistical significance, surgery having a protective effect with an HR 0.52 (95% CI 0.35-0.77). No differences in survival were found between the two sub-groups according to the timing of surgery: "before" vs "after"(p = 0.996). CONCLUSIONS: Resection of primary tumor should be considered not only as a palliative or preventive strategy but also as an approach that possibly contributes to the control of the disease in selected patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mastectomia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/cirurgia , Carcinoma Lobular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 16(19): 4876-83, 2010 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20805299

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This dose-escalation study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib (AZD0530) in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Tumor biopsy samples were taken to investigate the effect of saracatinib on Src activity in tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Part A of the study followed a multiple-ascending dose design to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of saracatinib. Part B was a randomized, parallel-group, cohort-expansion phase to further assess tolerated doses. Safety, tolerability, and Src activity (immunohistochemistry and lysate-based methodologies) were assessed after 21 days of once-daily oral dosing. PK was assessed after single and multiple dosing. RESULTS: In part A, 30 patients received once-daily saracatinib at doses of 60 to 250 mg; the MTD was established as 175 mg. In part B, 51 patients were randomized to receive 50 mg (n = 16), 125 mg (n = 16), or 175 mg (n = 19) of saracatinib. The most common grade ≥3 events considered to be treatment related were anemia, diarrhea, and asthenia. Tumor Src activity was reduced following saracatinib treatment. The area under the concentration-time curve and C(max) of saracatinib increased with increasing dose. Saracatinib accumulated 4- to 5-fold on once-daily dosing to reach steady-state exposure after 10 to 17 days of dosing. The half-life was ∼40 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Saracatinib was well tolerated in patients with advanced solid malignancies. A reduction in tumor Src activity was observed. PK data show that saracatinib is suitable for once-daily oral dosing. Based on this study, the recommended dose for the phase II studies was chosen to be 175 mg/d.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/farmacocinética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/farmacocinética , Quinases da Família src/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Benzodioxóis/administração & dosagem , Benzodioxóis/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Quinazolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinazolinas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 119(1): 221-32, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19370414

RESUMO

Environmental or lifestyle factors are likely to explain part of the heterogeneity in breast and ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We assessed parity as a risk modifier in 515 and 503 Spanish female carriers of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Hazard ratios (HR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using weighted Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for year of birth and study centre. The results for ever being parous and number of live-births were very similar for carriers of mutations in both genes. For all mutation carriers combined, the estimated HR associated with ever having had a live-birth was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55-1.01, P = 0.06), and that associated with each live-birth was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.77-0.98, P = 0.02). The latter association was observed only in women aged 40 and above (HR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70-0.94, P = 0.004 vs. HR = 0.99, 95%CI = 0.83-1.18, P = 0.9 for women under age 40), and this trend was highly consistently observed for carriers of mutations in each gene. There was no evidence of an association between breast cancer risk and age at first birth for parous BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (P-trend >or= 0.3). The power to detect associations with ovarian cancer risk was much lower, especially for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Nevertheless, having a live-birth was associated with protection for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.18-0.94, P = 0.03), and a strong and consistent protective effect of age at first birth was observed for parous carriers of mutations in both genes (HR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.52-0.83, P < 0.001). This is the third independent study to find that, as in the general population, parity appears to be associated with protection from breast cancer in women with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Parity appears to be protective for ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers, but its role in BRCA2 mutation carriers remains unclear. Whether later age at first birth is also protective for ovarian cancer in mutation carriers requires further confirmation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Idade Materna , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Gravidez , Risco
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 120(1): 245-51, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19575291

RESUMO

Adjuvant chemotherapy prolongs survival in patients with breast cancer, but it also causes side effects such as ovarian-function suppression. The incidence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) varies depending on the patients' age, dose and the type of chemotherapy that they receive. CIA produced by anthracycline-based regimens has been widely studied, but less is known about the incidence of CIA caused by the combined use of taxanes and anthracyclines. It has been suggested that tamoxifen might influence the maintenance of amenorrhea. However, most studies of CIA have explored series of patients with hormone-sensitive and hormone-resistant tumors, so data about CIA could be strongly influenced by endocrine adjuvant therapy. The aims of our study were to assess the incidence of CIA with the addition of taxanes to anthracyclines regimens in pre- or perimenopausal patients diagnosed with hormone-sensitive breast cancer and to determine predictive factors for CIA. A retrospective non-randomized study was conducted in the Hospital Clinico Universitario of Valencia, Spain. Three hundred and five premenopausal and perimenopausal patients were recruited between January 1998 and May 2005, 212 of whom had been treated with anthracycline-based regimens and 93 with a combination of anthracyclines and taxanes. Amenorrhea was permanent in 222 patients (93.7%) and menses returned in 6.3%. CIA was present in 75.5% of patients treated with anthracyclines and in 82.7% of patients treated with anthracyclines and taxanes. This difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.16). CIA appeared in 95% of patients older than 45 years, while the proportion of CIA decreased to 52% in patients younger than 40 years. This suggests age as an important predictive factor for CIA (p < 0.001). Although a slightly superior incidence of CIA in patients with hormone-sensitive tumors treated with combination regimens was observed, no statistically significant difference in incidence was found. Age was found to be the main predictive factor for CIA in both groups.


Assuntos
Amenorreia/induzido quimicamente , Amenorreia/epidemiologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antraciclinas/administração & dosagem , Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Taxoides/efeitos adversos
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