Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 215
Filtrar
1.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 5, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several dietary factors have been reported to be associated with risk of breast cancer, but to date, unequivocal evidence only exists for alcohol consumption. We sought to systematically assess the association between intake of 92 foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study. METHODS: Using data from 272,098 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we assessed dietary intake of 92 foods and nutrients estimated by dietary questionnaires. Cox regression was used to quantify the association between each food/nutrient and risk of breast cancer. A false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05 was used to select the set of foods and nutrients to be replicated in the independent Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). RESULTS: Six foods and nutrients were identified as associated with risk of breast cancer in the EPIC study (10,979 cases). Higher intake of alcohol overall was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) for a 1 SD increment in intake = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07), as was beer/cider intake and wine intake (HRs per 1 SD increment = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.06 and 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06, respectively), whereas higher intakes of fibre, apple/pear, and carbohydrates were associated with a lower risk of breast cancer (HRs per 1 SD increment = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98; 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99; and 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, respectively). When evaluated in the NLCS (2368 cases), estimates for each of these foods and nutrients were similar in magnitude and direction, with the exception of beer/cider intake, which was not associated with risk in the NLCS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association of alcohol consumption and suggest an inverse association of dietary fibre and possibly fruit intake with breast cancer risk.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 759-768, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968961

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of breast cancer (BC); however, the biological mechanisms underlying this association are not fully elucidated, particularly the extent to which this relationship is mediated by sex hormone levels. Circulating concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, their free fractions and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), were examined in 430 incident BC cases and 645 matched controls among alcohol-consuming postmenopausal women nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Mediation analysis was applied to assess whether individual hormone levels mediated the relationship between alcohol intake and BC risk. An alcohol-related hormonal signature, obtained by partial least square (PLS) regression, was evaluated as a potential mediator. Total (TE), natural direct and natural indirect effects (NIE) were estimated. Alcohol intake was positively associated with overall BC risk and specifically with estrogen receptor-positive tumors with respectively TE = 1.17(95%CI: 1.01,1.35) and 1.36(1.08,1.70) for a 1-standard deviation (1-SD) increase of intake. There was no evidence of mediation by sex steroids or SHBG separately except for a weak indirect effect through free estradiol where NIE = 1.03(1.00,1.06). However, an alcohol-related hormonal signature negatively associated with SHBG and positively with estradiol and testosterone was associated with BC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25 [1.07,1.47]) for a 1-SD higher PLS score, and had a statistically significant NIE accounting for a mediated proportion of 24%. There was limited evidence of mediation of the alcohol-BC association by individual sex hormones. However, a hormonal signature, reflecting lower levels of SHBG and higher levels of sex steroids, mediated a substantial proportion of the association.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 44-57, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807653

RESUMO

The associations of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk have not been examined comprehensively. We examined the prospective association of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk overall, by tumor subtypes, and prostate cancer death. 142,239 men from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition who were free from cancer at recruitment were included. Dietary intakes of individual fatty acids were estimated using center-specific validated dietary questionnaires at baseline and calibrated with 24-h recalls. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 7,036 prostate cancer cases and 936 prostate cancer deaths were ascertained. Intakes of individual fatty acids were not related to overall prostate cancer risk. There was evidence of heterogeneity in the association of some short chain saturated fatty acids with prostate cancer risk by tumor stage (pheterogeneity < 0.015), with a positive association with risk of advanced stage disease for butyric acid (4:0; HR1SD = 1.08; 95%CI = 1.01-1.15; p-trend = 0.026). There were no associations with fatal prostate cancer, with the exception of a slightly higher risk for those who consumed more eicosenoic acid (22:1n-9c; HR1SD = 1.05; 1.00-1.11; p-trend = 0.048) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3c; HR1SD = 1.07; 1.00-1.14; p-trend = 0.045). There was no evidence that dietary intakes of individual fatty acids were associated with overall prostate cancer risk. However, a higher intake of butyric acid might be associated with a higher risk of advanced, whereas intakes of eicosenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids might be positively associated with fatal prostate cancer risk.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 720-730, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951192

RESUMO

Metabolomics may reveal novel insights into the etiology of prostate cancer, for which few risk factors are established. We investigated the association between patterns in baseline plasma metabolite profile and subsequent prostate cancer risk, using data from 3,057 matched case-control sets from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We measured 119 metabolite concentrations in plasma samples, collected on average 9.4 years before diagnosis, by mass spectrometry (AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit, Biocrates Life Sciences AG). Metabolite patterns were identified using treelet transform, a statistical method for identification of groups of correlated metabolites. Associations of metabolite patterns with prostate cancer risk (OR1SD ) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Supplementary analyses were conducted for metabolite patterns derived using principal component analysis and for individual metabolites. Men with metabolite profiles characterized by higher concentrations of either phosphatidylcholines or hydroxysphingomyelins (OR1SD = 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.89), acylcarnitines C18:1 and C18:2, glutamate, ornithine and taurine (OR1SD = 0.72, 0.57-0.90), or lysophosphatidylcholines (OR1SD = 0.81, 0.69-0.95) had lower risk of advanced stage prostate cancer at diagnosis, with no evidence of heterogeneity by follow-up time. Similar associations were observed for the two former patterns with aggressive disease risk (the more aggressive subset of advanced stage), while the latter pattern was inversely related to risk of prostate cancer death (OR1SD = 0.77, 0.61-0.96). No associations were observed for prostate cancer overall or less aggressive tumor subtypes. In conclusion, metabolite patterns may be related to lower risk of more aggressive prostate tumors and prostate cancer death, and might be relevant to etiology of advanced stage prostate cancer.

5.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 298, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present protocol was designed for a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at determining the association of telomere length with substance use disorders with the exclusion of nicotine addiction, and to identify potential moderators of the effect of telomere length. Such methodological information may provide guidance to improve the quality of future research on this important topic. METHODS: Potential studies will be identified through electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) up from inception onwards. The inclusion criteria will include published or unpublished observational studies (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies) reporting telomere length in adult patients with substance use disorder compared with a control group. Non-human studies or other study designs such as reviews, case-only, family-based, and/or population studies with only healthy participants will be excluded, as well as those focused solely on nicotine addiction. The main outcome will be telomere length in adults with substance use disorder (primary) and, specifically, in those with alcohol use disorder (secondary). Two investigators will independently evaluate the preselected studies for possible inclusion and will extract data following a standardized protocol. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus. The risk of bias of all included studies will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for non-randomized studies. Data will be converted into standardized mean differences as effect size index, and random-effects models will be used for the meta-analysis. Cochran's Q statistic, I2 index, and visual inspection of the forest plot will be used to verify study heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions will be conducted to ascertain heterogeneity. Several sensitivity analyses will be conducted to address the influence of potential confounding factors. Publication bias will be examined using the "funnel plot" method with Duval and Tweedie's trim-and-fill method and Egger test. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will assess the association of telomere length with substance use disorders aside from nicotine addiction. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42019119785.

6.
Environ Res ; 182: 109012, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837551

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is considered an endocrine disruptor and it is present in numerous products of daily use. The aim of this study was to analyze serum BPA concentrations in a subcohort of the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), as well as to identify potential predictors of the exposure. The population consisted on 3553 subjects from 4 EPIC-Spain centres and BPA levels were measured in serum samples by UHPLC-MS/MS. Almost 70% of the participants showed detectable BPA values (>0.2 ng/ml), with a geometric mean of 1.19 ng/ml (95% CI: 1.12-1.25). By sex, detectable percentages were similar (p = 0.56) but with higher serum levels in men (1.27 vs 1.11 ng/ml, p = 0.01). Based on the adjusted regression models, a 50 g/day increase in the consumption of added fats and oils were associated with 43% lower BPA serum levels, while sugar and confectionary was associated with 25% higher levels of serum BPA. We evidenced differential exposure levels by province, sex and age, but not by anthropometric or lifestyle characteristics. Further investigation is needed to understand the influence of diet in BPA exposure.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AIMS: Human studies examining associations between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and colorectal cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We conducted complementary serologic and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether alterations in circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 are associated with colorectal cancer development. METHODS: Serum levels of IGF1 and other proteins were measured in blood samples collected from 397,380 participants from the UK Biobank, from 2006 through 2010. Incident cancer cases and cancer cases recorded first in death certificates were identified through linkage to national cancer and death registries. Complete follow up was available through March 31, 2016. For the MR analyses, we identified genetic variants associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3. The association of these genetic variants with colorectal cancer was examined with 2-sample MR methods using genome-wide association study consortia data (52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 individuals without [controls]) RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 7.1 years, 2665 cases of colorectal cancer were recorded. In a multivariable-adjusted model, circulating level of IGF1 level associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation increment of IGF1, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17). Similar associations were found by sex, follow-up time, and tumor subsite. In the MR analyses, a 1 standard deviation increment in IGF1 level, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12; P=3.3 x 10-4). Level of IGFBP3, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation increment, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18; P =4.2 x 10-5). Colorectal cancer risk was associated with only 1 variant in IGFBP3 (rs11977526), which also associated with anthropometric traits and circulating level of IGF2. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of blood samples from almost 400,000 participants in the UK Biobank, we found an association between circulating level of IGF1 and colorectal cancer. Using genetic data from 52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 controls, a higher level of IGF1, determined by genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to determine how this signaling pathway might contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis.

8.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713011

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes differ with respect to pathophysiological factors such as beta cell function, insulin resistance and phenotypic appearance, but there may be overlap between the two forms of diabetes. However, there are relatively few prospective studies that have characterised the relationship between autoimmunity and incident diabetes. We investigated associations of antibodies against the 65 kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores and incident diabetes in adults in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a case-cohort study nested in the EPIC cohort. METHODS: GAD65 antibodies were analysed in EPIC participants (over 40 years of age and free of known diabetes at baseline) by radioligand binding assay in a random subcohort (n = 15,802) and in incident diabetes cases (n = 11,981). Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores were calculated. Associations between GAD65 antibodies and incident diabetes were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. RESULTS: GAD65 antibody positivity at baseline was associated with development of diabetes during a median follow-up time of 10.9 years (HR for GAD65 antibody positive vs negative 1.78; 95% CI 1.43, 2.20) after adjustment for sex, centre, physical activity, smoking status and education. The genetic risk score for type 1 diabetes but not type 2 diabetes was associated with GAD65 antibody positivity in both the subcohort (OR per SD genetic risk 1.24; 95% CI 1.03, 1.50) and incident cases (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.72, 2.26) after adjusting for age and sex. The risk of incident diabetes in those in the top tertile of the type 1 diabetes genetic risk score who were also GAD65 antibody positive was 3.23 (95% CI 2.10, 4.97) compared with all other individuals, suggesting that 1.8% of incident diabetes in adults was attributable to this combination of risk factors. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our study indicates that incident diabetes in adults has an element of autoimmune aetiology. Thus, there might be a reason to re-evaluate the present subclassification of diabetes in adulthood.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e031904, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Since 2016, the multicase-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain) has focused towards the identification of factors associated with cancer prognosis. Inception cohorts of patients with colorectal, breast and prostate cancers were assembled using the incident cases originally recruited. PARTICIPANTS: 2140 new cases of colorectal cancer, 1732 of breast cancer and 1112 of prostate cancer were initially recruited in 12 Spanish provinces; all cancers were incident and pathologically confirmed. Follow-up was obtained for 2097 (98%), 1685 (97%) and 1055 (94.9%) patients, respectively. FINDINGS TO DATE: Information gathered at recruitment included sociodemographic factors, medical history, lifestyle and environmental exposures. Biological samples were obtained, and 80% of patients were genotyped using a commercial exome array. The follow-up was performed by (1) reviewing medical records; (2) interviewing the patients by phone on quality of life; and (3) verifying vital status and cause of death in the Spanish National Death Index. Ninety-seven per cent of recruited patients were successfully followed up in 2017 or 2018; patient-years of follow-up were 30 914. Most colorectal cancers (52%) were at clinical stage II or lower at recruitment; 819 patients died in the follow-up and the 5-year survival was better for women (74.4%) than men (70.0%). 71% of breast cancers were diagnosed at stages I or II; 206 women with breast cancer died in the follow-up and the 5-year survival was 90.7%. 49% of prostate cancers were diagnosed at stage II and 32% at stage III; 119 patients with prostate cancer died in the follow-up and the 5-year survival was 93.7%. FUTURE PLANS: MCC-Spain has built three prospective cohorts on highly frequent cancers across Spain, allowing to investigate socioeconomic, clinical, lifestyle, environmental and genetic variables as putative prognosis factors determining survival of patients of the three cancers and the inter-relationship of these factors.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652358

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that a metabolic profile associated with obesity may be a more relevant risk factor for some cancers than adiposity per se. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an indicator of overall body metabolism and may be a proxy for the impact of a specific metabolic profile on cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of predicted BMR with incidence of 13 obesity-related cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). BMR at baseline was calculated using the WHO/FAO/UNU equations and the relationships between BMR and cancer risk were investigated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. A total of 141,295 men and 317,613 women, with a mean follow-up of 14 years were included in the analysis. Overall, higher BMR was associated with a greater risk for most cancers that have been linked with obesity. However, among normal weight participants, higher BMR was associated with elevated risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio per 1-standard deviation change in BMR [HR1-SD ]: 2.46; 95% CI 1.20; 5.03) and distal colon cancer (HR1-SD : 1.33; 95% CI 1.001; 1.77) among men and with proximal colon (HR1-SD : 1.16; 95% CI 1.01; 1.35), pancreatic (HR1-SD : 1.37; 95% CI 1.13; 1.66), thyroid (HR1-SD : 1.65; 95% CI 1.33; 2.05), postmenopausal breast (HR1-SD : 1.17; 95% CI 1.11; 1.22) and endometrial (HR1-SD : 1.20; 95% CI 1.03; 1.40) cancers in women. These results indicate that higher BMR may be an indicator of a metabolic phenotype associated with risk of certain cancer types, and may be a useful predictor of cancer risk independent of body fatness.

11.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030328, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the separate and joint associations of childhood adversities and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism as risk factors for substance use disorders among adults. : Design : Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Cases from the substance unit and controls from a representative sample of the adult general population in the metropolitan area of Murcia (Spain). PARTICIPANTS: Cases were defined as outpatients 18 years old or older currently in the treatment for alcohol, opioids or cocaine use disorders in the clinical unit. Controls were randomly selected among individuals without substance use disorders who participated in the Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia (PEGASUS-Murcia) project, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the adult general population. In all, 142 cases and 531 controls were interviewed and a subsample of 114 cases (80.3%) and 329 controls (62%) provided a biological sample. EXPOSURE: A history of 12 childhood adversities, lifetime mental disorders and sociodemographic variables was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)version 3.0). Buccal swabs were obtained to genotype the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with the biallelic and the triallelic classification. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to estimate adjusted ORs and 95% CI. RESULTS: Childhood adversities were associated with an elevated risk of substance use disorders (OR=5.77, 95% CI 3.46 to 9.61). Homozygotes for the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism also showed the elevated risk of substance use disorders for the biallelic and triallelic classification: (1.97 (1.10 to 3.55) and 2.01 (1.11 to 3.64), respectively). No evidence for gene × environment interactions was found. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adversities and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism are involved in the aetiology of substance use disorders though findings exploring the existence of a gene-environment interaction were inconclusive.

12.
J Nutr ; 149(11): 1985-1993, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Beverage consumption is a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is insufficient evidence to inform the suitability of substituting 1 type of beverage for another. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of T2D when consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was replaced with consumption of fruit juice, milk, coffee, or tea. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study of 8 European countries (n = 27,662, with 12,333 cases of incident T2D, 1992-2007), beverage consumption was estimated at baseline by dietary questionnaires. Using Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusting for other beverages and potential confounders, we estimated associations of substituting 1 type of beverage for another on incident T2D. RESULTS: Mean ± SD of estimated consumption of SSB was 55 ± 105 g/d. Means ± SDs for the other beverages were as follows: fruit juice, 59 ± 101 g/d; milk, 209 ± 203 g/d; coffee, 381 ± 372 g/d; and tea, 152 ± 282 g/d. Substituting coffee for SSBs by 250 g/d was associated with a 21% lower incidence of T2D (95% CI: 12%, 29%). The rate difference was -12.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -5.0) per 10,000 person-years among adults consuming SSBs ≥250 g/d (absolute rate = 48.3/10,000). Substituting tea for SSBs was estimated to lower T2D incidence by 22% (95% CI: 15%, 28%) or -11.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -2.6) per 10,000 person-years, whereas substituting fruit juice or milk was estimated not to alter T2D risk significantly. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a potential benefit of substituting coffee or tea for SSBs for the primary prevention of T2D and may help formulate public health recommendations on beverage consumption in different populations.

13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 749-760, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Literature on the separate effects of physical activities (PA) on risk of breast cancer (BC) sub-types is heterogeneous. We investigated domain-specific associations between PA and BC risk by menopausal status and molecular subtype. METHODS: 1389 histologically confirmed invasive BC cases and 1712 controls from the MCC-Spain study were included (age: 20-85 years). Questionnaire information on PA at work, at home, and during leisure time, including recreational PA and sedentary time, and data on reproductive history, anthropometry, family history of BC, diet, and lifestyles were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Information on the expression of oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and HER2 receptors was available for > 95% of the cases. Mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of BC sub-types. RESULTS: Occupational PA (OPA) intensity was associated with higher BC risk. Associations were stronger for pre-menopausal (ORactive/very active vs. sedentary job 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22, 2.91) and ER+/PR+, HER2- tumours (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.28, 2.53). Sedentary time was associated with higher risk of post-menopausal BC (OR6-9 vs. <3 h/day 1.69; 95% CI 1.22, 2.32). Moderate-to-high-intensity household (HPA) and recreational PA (RPA) were inversely associated with BC occurrence in pre- and post-menopausal women, with estimated 14-33% lower risks (P for trend < 0.001) above 1000 MET·min/week. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of HPA and RPA were associated with lower risk of BC, with heterogeneity by molecular type, whereas sitting time was a consistent independent risk factor of BC risk. The positive association found for OPA with ER+/PR+ BC deserves further investigation.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(6): 1089-1092, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the potential effect of social inequality on pancreatic cancer risk in Western Europe, by reassessing the association within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study, including a larger number of cases and an extended follow-up. METHODS: Data on highest education attained were gathered for 459,170 participants (70% women) from 10 European countries. A relative index of inequality (RII) based on adult education was calculated for comparability across countries and generations. Cox regression models were applied to estimate relative inequality in pancreatic cancer risk, stratifying by age, gender, and center, and adjusting for known pancreatic cancer risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1,223 incident pancreatic cancer cases were included after a mean follow-up of 13.9 (±4.0) years. An inverse social trend was found in models adjusted for age, sex, and center for both sexes [HR of RII, 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.59], which was also significant among women (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.05-1.92). Further adjusting by smoking intensity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, prevalent diabetes, and physical activity led to an attenuation of the RII risk and loss of statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The present reanalysis does not sustain the existence of an independent social inequality influence on pancreatic cancer risk in Western European women and men, using an index based on adult education, the most relevant social indicator linked to individual lifestyles, in a context of very low pancreatic cancer survival from (quasi) universal public health systems. IMPACT: The results do not support an association between education and risk of pancreatic cancer.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 61: 79-88, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to the recognized role of Helicobacter pylori in the etiology of non-cardia gastric cancer (GC), there is still insufficient epidemiological evidence for the involvement of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in gastric carcinogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the relation of antibody profile and antibody reactivity intensity against four individual EBV proteins to GC risk. METHODS: We used information from 281 GC cases and 2071 age and sex frequency matched controls recruited in the frame of the MCC-Spain multicase-control study, between 2008 and 2013. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and environmental factors were assessed in face-to-face interviews. Antibody responses to four EBV proteins (EBNA-1, ZEBRA, EA-D, and VCA-p18) were analyzed by multiplex serology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using logistic regression mixed models to evaluate the association of seropositivity and antibody reactivity against EBV proteins with GC, adjusting for GC risk factors. Stratified analyses by tumor location (cardia vs. non-cardia) and morphology (intestinal vs. diffuse) were done. RESULTS: Among controls, seropositivity for EA-D, ZEBRA, EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was 85%, 91%, 97% and 99%, respectively. Even though seropositivity for none of the studied proteins was associated with a higher GC risk, increasing antibody reactivity against EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was associated with higher OR of GC. This association was present for cardia and non-cardia cancer cases, and for intestinal and diffuse types. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that EBV may play a role in GC etiology, and highlight the importance of evaluating specific antibodies and the dose-response relations when studying widespread infections.

16.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035601

RESUMO

Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between the dietary flavonoid intake and gastric cancer (GC) risk; however, the results remain inconclusive. Investigating the relationship between the different classes of flavonoids and the histological types and origin of GC can be of interest to the research community. We used data from a population-based multi-case control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from 12 different regions of Spain. 2700 controls and 329 GC cases were included in this study. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of flavonoid intakes and log2. Flavonoid intake was associated with a lower GC risk (ORlog2 = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.65-0.89; ORq4vsq1 = 0.60; 95%CI = 0.40-0.89; ptrend = 0.007). Inverse and statistically significant associations were observed with anthocyanidins, chalcones, dihydroflavonols and flavan-3-ols. The isoflavanoid intake was positively associated with higher cancer risk, but without reaching a statistical significance. In general, no differences were observed in the GC risk according to the location and histological type. The flavonoid intake seems to be a protective factor against GC within the MCC-study. This effect may vary depending on the flavonoid class but not by the histological type and location of the tumor. Broader studies with larger sample size and greater geographical variability are necessary.


Assuntos
Dieta , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Análise de Alimentos , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in lymphomagenesis and several dietary factors seem to be involved its regulation. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: The analysis included 476,160 subjects with an average follow-up of 13.9 years, during which 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 2606 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 395 NOS) were identified. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated using 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory weights. The association between the ISD and lymphoma risk was estimated by hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated by multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: The ISD was not associated with overall lymphoma risk. Among lymphoma subtypes, a positive association between the ISD and mature B-cell NHL (HR for a 1-SD increase: 1.07 (95% CI 1.01; 1.14), p trend = 0.03) was observed. No statistically significant association was found among other subtypes. However, albeit with smaller number of cases, a suggestive association was observed for HL (HR for a 1-SD increase = 1.22 (95% CI 0.94; 1.57), p trend 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that a high ISD score, reflecting a pro-inflammatory diet, was modestly positively associated with the risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes. Further large prospective studies on low-grade inflammation induced by diet are warranted to confirm these findings.

18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(4): 1275-1285, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier age at menopause has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the shape of association and role of established cardiovascular risk factors remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the associations between menopausal characteristics and CHD risk; the shape of the association between age at menopause and CHD risk; and the extent to which these associations are explained by established cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We used data from EPIC-CVD, a case-cohort study, which includes data from 23 centres from 10 European countries. We included only women, of whom 10 880 comprise the randomly selected sub-cohort, supplemented with 4522 cases outside the sub-cohort. We conducted Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the underlying time scale, stratified by country and adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: After confounder and intermediate adjustment, post-menopausal women were not at higher CHD risk compared with pre-menopausal women. Among post-menopausal women, earlier menopause was linearly associated with higher CHD risk [HRconfounder and intermediate adjusted per-year decrease = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.03, p = 0.001]. Women with a surgical menopause were at higher risk of CHD compared with those with natural menopause (HRconfounder-adjusted = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.10-1.42, p < 0.001), but this attenuated after additional adjustment for age at menopause and intermediates (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.96-1.29, p = 0.15). A proportion of the association was explained by cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier and surgical menopause were associated with higher CHD risk. These associations could partially be explained by differences in conventional cardiovascular risk factors. These women might benefit from close monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors and disease.

19.
Diabetes Care ; 42(4): 568-575, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the causal association between intake of dairy products and incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis included 21,820 European individuals (9,686 diabetes cases) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study. Participants were genotyped, and rs4988235 (LCT-12910C>T), a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for lactase persistence (LP) that enables digestion of dairy sugar, i.e., lactose, was imputed. Baseline dietary intakes were assessed with diet questionnaires. We investigated the associations between imputed SNP dosage for rs4988235 and intake of dairy products and other foods through linear regression. Mendelian randomization (MR) estimates for the milk-diabetes relationship were obtained through a two-stage least squares regression. RESULTS: Each additional LP allele was associated with a higher intake of milk (ß 17.1 g/day, 95% CI 10.6-23.6) and milk beverages (ß 2.8 g/day, 95% CI 1.0-4.5) but not with intake of other dairy products. Other dietary intakes associated with rs4988235 included fruits (ß -7.0 g/day, 95% CI -12.4 to -1.7 per additional LP allele), nonalcoholic beverages (ß -18.0 g/day, 95% CI -34.4 to -1.6), and wine (ß -4.8 g/day, 95% CI -9.1 to -0.6). In instrumental variable analysis, LP-associated milk intake was not associated with diabetes (hazard ratioper 15 g/day 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: rs4988235 was associated with milk intake but not with intake of other dairy products. This MR study does not suggest that milk intake is associated with diabetes, which is consistent with previous observational and genetic associations. LP may be associated with intake of other foods as well, but owing to the modest associations, we consider it unlikely that this caused the observed null result.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 145(9): 2349-2359, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694528

RESUMO

Published associations between dietary folate and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. This nested case-control analysis within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) investigated associations between pre-diagnostic serum folate, homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas of the bladder (UCC). A total of 824 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 824 cohort members. Serum folate, homocysteine, and vitamins B6 and B12 were measured. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total, aggressive, and non-aggressive UCC were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, and other potential confounders. Additionally, statistical interaction with smoking status was assessed. A halving in serum folate concentrations was moderately associated with risk of UCC (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.98-1.43), in particular aggressive UCC (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02-1.75; p-heterogeneity = 0.19). Compared to never smokers in the highest quartile of folate concentrations, this association seemed only apparent among current smokers in the lowest quartile of folate concentrations (OR: 6.26; 95% CI: 3.62-10.81, p-interaction = 0.07). Dietary folate was not associated with aggressive UCC (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.81-1.95; p-heterogeneity = 0.14). No association was observed between serum homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and risk of UCC. This study suggests that lower serum folate concentrations are associated with increased UCC risk, in particular aggressive UCC. Residual confounding by smoking cannot be ruled out and these findings require confirmation in future studies with multiple measurements.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA