Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 119
Filtrar
1.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 64, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-hospital discharge mortality risk is high among young children in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The available literature suggests that child, caregiver and health care provider gender all play important roles in post-discharge adherence to medical advice, treatment-seeking and recovery for ill children in LMICs, including those with undernutrition. METHODS: A qualitative study was embedded within a larger multi-country multi-disciplinary observational cohort study involving children aged less than 2 years conducted by the Childhood Acute Illness and Nutrition (CHAIN) Network. Primary data were collected from family members of 22 purposively selected cohort children. Family members were interviewed several times in their homes over the 6 months following hospital discharge (total n = 78 visits to homes). These in-depth interviews were complemented by semi-structured individual interviews with 6 community representatives, 11 community health workers and 12 facility-based health workers, and three group discussions with a total of 24 community representatives. Data were analysed using NVivo11 software, using both narrative and thematic approaches. RESULTS: We identified gender-related influences at health service/system and household/community levels. These influences interplayed to family members' adherence to medical advice and treatment-seeking after hospital discharge, with potentially important implications for children's recovery. Health service/system level influences included: fewer female medical practitioners in healthcare facilities, which influenced mothers' interest and ability to consult them promptly for their child's illnesses; gender-related challenges for community health workers in supporting mothers with counselling and advice; and male caregivers' being largely absent from the paediatric wards where information sessions to support post-discharge care are offered. Gendered household/community level influences included: women's role as primary caretakers for children and available levels of support; male family members having a dominant role in decision-making related to food and treatment-seeking behaviour; and greater reluctance among parents to invest money and time in the treatment of female children, as compared to male children. CONCLUSIONS: A complex web of gender related influences at health systems/services and household/community levels have important implications for young children's recovery post-discharge. Immediate interventions with potential for positive impact include awareness-raising among all stakeholders - including male family members - on how gender influences child health and recovery, and how to reduce adverse consequences of gender-based discrimination. Specific interventions could include communication interventions in facilities and homes, and changes in routine practices such as who is present in facility interactions. To maximise and sustain the impact of immediate actions and interventions, the structural drivers of women's position in society and gender inequity must also be tackled. This requires interventions to ensure equal equitable opportunities for men and women in all aspects of life, including access to education and income generation activities. Given patriarchal norms locally and globally, men will likely need special targeting and support in achieving these objectives.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525327

RESUMO

Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is one of the less focused on infections and is often associated with faulty child nutrition in the developing world. This study aimed to evaluate the association of NTS infection with growth faltering among children under the age of five. We analyzed data from 378 fecal NTS positive children with both moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and asymptomatic infection from the seven countries of South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa during enrolment and on day 60 follow up in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) for the period of December 2007 to March 2011. Children not associated with fecal NTS (n = 1134) were randomly selected from the same dataset (1:3 ratio) as a comparison group. The association between an explanatory variable and the outcome variable was longitudinally tested using generalized estimating equations (GEE), where the dependent variables were height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ) z-score, and the independent variable was the presence of fecal NTS. The GEE multivariable model identified a negative association between fecal NTS and WAZ (coefficient: -0.19; 95% CI (confidence interval): -0.33, -0.04, and p value = 0.010), WHZ (coef: -0.19; 95% CI: -0.34, -0.05, and p value = 0.007), and HAZ (coef: -0.13; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.01, and p value = 0.073) after adjusting for age, gender, diarrhea, breastfeeding status, mothers' education, number of children under the age of five, household size by the number of people regularly sleep at the home, handwashing practice, source of drinking water, wealth index, presence of co-pathogens, comorbidity, and study sites. In the GEMS, where children were followed during 50-90 days of enrolment, the presence of fecal NTS harmed the child's anthropometric outcomes. Minimizing potential exposure to NTS is needed to curb worsening child undernutrition.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246460, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606713

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D is important for its immunomodulatory role and there is an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and pneumonia. We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the outcome in children hospitalized for severe pneumonia. METHODS: This was a randomised, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in children aged >2-59 months with severe pneumonia attending Dhaka Hospital, icddr,b. Children received age-specific megadose of vitamin D3 (20,000IU: <6 months, 50,000 IU: 6-12 months, 100,000 IU:13-59 months) or placebo on first day and 10,000 IU as maintenance dose for next 4 days or until discharge (if discharged earlier) along with standard therapy. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02185196. FINDINGS: We enrolled 100 children in placebo group and 97 in vitamin D group. On admission, 50 (52%) and 49 (49%) of children in vitamin D and placebo groups, respectively were vitamin D deficient. Among children with a sufficient serum vitamin D level on admission, a lower trend for duration of resolution of severe pneumonia in hours [72(IQR:44-96)vs. 88(IQR:48-132);p = 0.07] and duration of hospital stay in days [4(IQR:3-5)vs.5(IQR:4-7);P = 0.09] was observed in vitamin D group compared to placebo. No beneficial effect was observed in vitamin D deficient group or irrespective of vitamin D status. CONCLUSION: Age-specific mega dose of vitamin D followed by a maintenance dose shown to have no statistical difference between the two intervention groups, however there was a trend of reduction of time to recovery from pneumonia and overall duration of hospital stay in under-five children with a sufficient serum vitamin D level on hospital admission.

4.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e19137, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN) is a major modifiable risk factor and the leading cause of premature deaths globally. The lack of awareness and knowledge have been identified as risk factors in low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Recently, the use of mobile phone SMS text messaging is found to have an important positive impact on HTN management. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to develop awareness and knowledge in order to enhance lifestyle behavior changes among individuals with HTN in a rural community of Bangladesh by using health education and mobile health (mHealth) technology (SMS text messaging). METHODS: A prospective randomized 5-month intervention, open-label (1:1), parallel-group trial was implemented among the individuals with HTN aged 35 years or older. Both men and women were included. Between August 2018 and July 2019, we enrolled 420 participants, selected from a tertiary level health facility and through door-to-door visits by community health workers. After block randomization, they were assigned to either the intervention group (received SMS text messaging and health education; n=209) or the control group (received only health education; n=211). The primary outcome was the evaluation of self-reported behavior changes (salt intake, fruits and vegetables intake, physical activity, and blood pressure [BP], and body weight monitoring behaviors). The secondary outcomes were measurements of actual salt intake and dietary salt excretion, blood glucose level, BP values, and quality of life (QOL). RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 8 participants were dropped, and the completion rate was 98.0% (412/420). The adherence rates were significantly higher (9%) among the control group regarding salt intake (P=.04) and physical activity behaviors (P<.03), and little differences were observed in other behaviors. In primary outcome, the focused behavior, salt intake less than 6 g/day, showed significant chronological improvement in both groups (P<.001). The fruits intake behavior steadily improved in both groups (P<.001). Participants in both groups had a custom of vegetables intake everyday/week. Physical activity suddenly increased and continued until the study end (P<.001 in both groups). Both BP and body weight monitoring status increased from baseline to 1 month but decreased afterward (P<.001). In case of secondary outcomes, significant chronological changes were observed in food salt concentration and urinary salinity between the groups (P=.01). The mean systolic BP and diastolic BP significantly chronologically decreased in both groups (systolic BP, P=.04; diastolic BP, P=.02.P<.05). All of these supported self-reported behavior changes. For the QOL, both groups showed significant improvement over the study periods (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, we suggest that face-to-face health education requires integration of home health care provision and more relevant and timely interactive SMS text messages to increase the effectiveness of the intervention. Besides, community awareness can be created to encourage "low-salt culture" and educate family members. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Bangladesh Medical Research Council (BMRC) 06025072017; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03614104; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03614104 and UMIN-CTR R000033736; https://tinyurl.com/y48yfcoo. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/15523.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243128, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of mortality in children under five globally. When it is associated with bacteremia, mortality is even higher. However, bacteraemia in diarrheal children has gained little attention in spite of its deleterious impact in under-five mortality. So, we aimed to evaluate associated clinical and laboratory factors for death in under-five children hospitalized with both diarrhea and bacteremia. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we used patients' electronic database of Dhaka Hospital of 'icddr,b', and enrolled all under-five children with diarrhea and bacterial growth in their blood samples on admission between June-2014 and May-2017. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between those who died and who survived with a special attention to bacterial pathogens related to deaths and their sensitivity pattern. RESULTS: In a total of 401 diarrheal children with bacteraemia, 45 (11%) died. Although Salmonella Typhi (34%) was the most predominant isolate followed by Staphylococcus species (16%) and Pseudomonas species (9%), children who died more often had E. coli (OR = 5.69, 95% CI = 2.42-13.39, p = <0.001) and Klebsiella bacteraemia (OR = 4.59, 95% CI = 1.84-11.46, p = 0.001) compared to those who survived. However, none of them was significantly associated with deaths in regression analysis when adjusted with other potential confounders. E. coli was 100% resistant to ampicillin, 41% to gentamicin, and 73% to ceftriaxone and Klebsiella species was 96% resistant to ampicillin, 42% to gentamicin, and 62% to ceftriaxone. Study children who died had significantly higher overall resistance pattern shown in World Health Organization (WHO) recommended one of the first line antibiotics in treating childhood sepsis such as ampicillin (80% vs. 50%, p = 0.001) and in second line antibiotic such as ceftriaxone (49% vs. 22%, p = 0.001) compared to the survivors. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, we found that clinical sepsis (aOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.60-8.96, p = 0.002), hypoxemia (aOR 4.20, 95% CI 1.74-10.12, p = 0.001), and hyperkalaemia (aOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.05-6.91, p = 0.039) were found to be independent predictors of deaths and receipt of sensitive antibiotic (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-0.99, p = 0.048) was revealed as the independent protective factor for deaths in this population. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results of our data suggest that diarrheal children with bacteremia who died more often had gram negative bacteremia compared to those who survived and these pathogens are highly resistant to WHO recommended first line and second line antibiotics. The results further emphasize the critical importance of early identification of important clinical problems such as clinical sepsis, hypoxemia and hyperkalaemia in diarrheal children and treat them with potential sensitive antibiotic(s) in order to reduce bacteremia related mortality in children with diarrhea, especially in resource limited settings.

7.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 7: 2333794X20967585, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195743

RESUMO

Due to lack of robust data on childhood cystic fibrosis (CF) in Bangladesh we sought to evaluate their clinico-epidemiology. A cross-sectional observation was conducted adopting CF-foundation consensus-panel-diagnostic criteria in 3 tertiary-care-hospitals in Bangladesh from 2000 to 2017. Clinically suspected 95 CF-cases were subjected to sweat-chloride testing using locally-developed a fast, cheap and effective indigenously body-wrapped sweating technique measured by US-Easy Lyte-automated microprocessor-controlled analyzer marking ≥60 mmol/L as positive. Mean-age of CF-cases at disease-onset was 16.9 ± 26.6 months that significantly differed with age-at-diagnosis (P < .02). Pulmonary syndromes included chronic wet cough in 100%, respiratory distress in 90.5%, digital-clubbing in 78%, mucopurulent-sputum in 74%-cases, and crepitation in 82%. Radio-imaging revealed bronchiectasis in 60%, hyperinflation/peribronchial-thickening in 22% and, pan-sinusitis in 89%-cases. While 37% had history-of malabsorption, high-fecal-fat revealed in 53%-cases. Malnutrition prevailed as severe-underweight in 87%-cases and all CF-cases (100%) had high sweat-chloride (mean = 118 ± 53.34 mmol/L). Thus, children with pulmonary features coupled with severe malnutrition and associated radio-imaging bronchiectasis should be screened for CF with a fast, cheap and effective sweat test in resource poor settings.

8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(10): 1098-1105, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175702

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus has become a global risk because of its massive transmission and high rates of mutation. Efficient clinical management remains a challenge in combatting the severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by this virulent strain. This contagious disease is new to the people of Bangladesh. The country is at high risk of spreading the coronavirus infection particularly because of its high population density. Significant morbidity and mortality have been observed for the quick transmission of this virus since March 8, 2020. The basic objective of this article is to analyze the preparedness of Bangladesh, given its constraints and limitations, to cope with the rapid spread of COVID-19 infection. In doing so, it summarizes the origin of coronavirus, epidemiology, mode of transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of the disease. Although many steps have been taken by the Government and the private sector of Bangladesh to create awareness about measures needed to prevent the deadly infections, many people are unaware of and reluctant to accept the prescribed rules. Inadequacy of diagnostic facilities and limitations of clinical care and health care services were major constraints faced in treating COVID-19 infected people in Bangladesh. Greater compliance by the people in following the suggested measures may help reduce the rapid spread of the disease and overcome the challenges faced by this pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242047, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lack of awareness about Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is the most commonly cited reason why many persons with type 2 diabetes are non-compliant with referral instruction to undergo retinal screening. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a culturally, geographically and socially appropriate, locally adapted five-month-long health education on referral compliance of participants. METHOD: A prospective randomized, open-label parallel group study was conducted on persons with type 2 diabetes who underwent basic eye screening at a diabetes hospital between September 2017 and August 2018. Participants who were noncompliant with referral instruction to visit a hospital for advanced DR management were randomly divided into health education intervention group (n = 143) and control group (n = 156). Both groups received information regarding DR and referral instruction at the diabetes hospital. The intervention group was provided personalized education followed by telephonic reminders. The primary endpoint was 'increase in referral compliance' and the secondary endpoint was 'increase in knowledge of DR'. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify significant predictors of compliance to referral. RESULTS: A total of nine participants dropped and 290 completed the post intervention survey. The compliance rate in intervention group was found to be significantly higher than the control group (64.3% vs 28.2%; OR 4.73; 95% CI 2.87-7.79; p<0.001). Participants in the intervention group acquired better knowledge on DR (p<0.05). Apart from intervention, referral compliance rate was also found to be significantly associated with participants' self-perception of vision problem (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.02-4.01; p = 0.045) and participants' income (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.06-1.44; p = 0.008). DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that intensive health education on DR should be integrated with diabetes education as it may result in significantly improved referral compliance. Outcomes may be sustainable if interventions are institutionalized at referral point. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov (Registration # NCT03658980); https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03658980.

10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e17735, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia causes about 0.9 million deaths worldwide each year. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the standard management of severe pneumonia requires parenteral ampicillin every 6 hours and once-daily parenteral gentamicin for 5 to 7 days. Although this treatment has contributed to the reduction of mortality, it requires nursing interventions every 6 hours for 7 days. Further intervention trials should be conducted to search for alternate antibiotics with better adherence, reduced cost, and reduced hospital stay. Parenteral amoxicillin is an effective alternative to ampicillin, as it has a longer half-life and broader coverage. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical trial is to compare the efficacy of a dose of injectable amoxicillin every 12 hours plus a once-daily dose of injectable gentamicin with a dose of injectable ampicillin every 6 hours plus a once-daily dose of injectable gentamicin in children hospitalized for severe pneumonia. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, open-label, noninferiority trial is being conducted in Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh. A sample size of 308 children with severe pneumonia will give adequate power to this study. Children aged 2 to 59 months are randomized to either intravenous ampicillin or intravenous amoxicillin, plus intravenous gentamicin in both study arms. The monitoring of the patients is carried out according to the WHO protocol for the treatment of severe pneumonia. The primary objective is the rate of treatment failure, defined by the persistence of danger signs of severe pneumonia beyond 48 hours or deterioration within 24 hours of initiation of the therapy. The secondary objectives are (1) improvement in or the resolution of danger signs since enrollment, (2) length of hospital stay, (3) death during hospitalization, and (4) rate of nosocomial infections. RESULTS: Enrollment in the study started on January 1, 2018, and ended on October 31, 2019. Data entry and analysis are in progress. Findings from the study are expected to be disseminated in October 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Our study's findings will improve compliance with the use of antibiotics that require less frequent doses for the treatment of severe pneumonia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03369093; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03369093. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/17735.

11.
Acta Paediatr ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089512

RESUMO

AIM: This study evaluated the factors associated with hypokalaemia and their outcomes, in severely malnourished children under 5 years of age. METHODS: We focused on 407 severely malnourished children under five who were admitted to the Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, from April 2011 to June 2012. The cases were 139 with hypokalaemia, and the comparisons were 268 without hypokalaemia. RESULTS: Cases were older than the comparisons, with a poor socio-economic status and a higher death rate of 12% vs 7%. They were more likely to present with a history of measles, diarrhoea, lethargy, lower pulse rates, hyponatraemia, metabolic acidosis, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, higher height or length, severe underweight, severe wasting and leucocytosis on admission. At discharge, cases had lower potassium levels and a higher proportion had persistent hypokalaemia. Cases received longer treatment with ampicillin and micronutrients. After adjusting for confounders, hypokalaemia was independently associated with poor socio-economic status, diarrhoea, lower pulse rates, hypocalcaemia, metabolic acidosis and leucocytosis. CONCLUSION: Identifying simple clinical signs, like diarrhoea and lower pulse rates, and laboratory parameters, such as hypocalcaemia and metabolic acidosis, may enable the early management of hypokalaemia in severely malnourished children under 5 years. This could reduce morbidity and mortality.

12.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 203, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuing medical education (CME) is essential to developing and maintaining high quality primary care. Traditionally, CME is delivered face-to-face, but due to geographical distances, and pressure of work in Bangladesh, general practitioners (GPs) are unable to relocate for several days to attend training. Using chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as an exemplar, we aimed to assess the feasibility of blended learning (combination of face-to-face and online) for GPs, and explore trainees' and trainers' perspectives towards the blended learning approach. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods design. We trained 49 GPs in two groups via blended (n = 25) and traditional face-to-face approach (n = 24) and assessed their post-course knowledge and skills. The COPD Physician Practice Assessment Questionnaire (COPD-PPAQ) was administered before and one-month post-course. Verbatim transcriptions of focus group discussions with 18 course attendees and interviews with three course trainers were translated into English and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Forty GPs completed the course (Blended: 19; Traditional: 21). The knowledge and skills post course, and the improvement in self-reported adherence to COPD guidelines was similar in both groups. Most participants preferred blended learning as it was more convenient than taking time out of their busy work life, and for many the online learning optimised the benefits of the subsequent face-to-face sessions. Suggested improvements included online interactivity with tutors, improved user friendliness of the e-learning platform, and timing face-to-face classes over weekends to avoid time-out of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Quality improvement requires a multifaceted approach, but adequate knowledge and skills are core components. Blended learning is feasible and, with a few caveats, is an acceptable option to GPs in Bangladesh. This is timely, given that online learning with limited face-to-face contact is likely to become the norm in the on-going COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Educação a Distância/métodos , Educação Médica Continuada , Clínicos Gerais/educação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Ensino , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Instrução por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação Médica Continuada/organização & administração , Educação Médica Continuada/tendências , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Modelos Educacionais , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Ensino/normas , Ensino/tendências
13.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(8): e15523, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension remains one of the foremost noncommunicable diseases that most often lead to cardiovascular diseases and its different complications. The prevalence of hypertension in Bangladesh has been increasing. However, there are very limited studies that have evaluated the impact of health education and awareness development in mitigating the burden of hypertension and its complications in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to increase awareness, enhance knowledge, and change lifestyle behaviors through health education and the use of mobile health (mHealth) technology among individuals with hypertension living in a rural community of Bangladesh. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial is underway in a Mirzapur subdistrict of Bangladesh. This trial compares two groups of individuals with hypertension: The comparison arm receives health education and the intervention arm receives health education and a periodic mobile phone-based text message intervention. The trial duration is 5 months. The primary end point is participants' actual behavior changes brought about by increased awareness and knowledge. RESULTS: Enrollment of participants started in August 2018, and collection of follow-up data was completed at the end of July 2019. A total of 420 participants volunteered to participate, and among them, 209 and 211 were randomly allocated to the intervention group and the control group, respectively. Among them, the ratio of males/females was 12.0/88.0 in the intervention group and 16.1/83.9 in the control group. Data cleaning and analyses have been completed and the results have been submitted for publication. CONCLUSIONS: Periodic short education using mHealth technology in addition to face-to-face health education may be an effective method for increasing awareness and knowledge about behavioral changes and maintaining healthy lifestyle behaviors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Bangladesh Medical Research Council (BMRC) 06025072017; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03614104, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03614104; University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) R000033736, https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_his_list.cgi?recptno=R000033736. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/15523.

14.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(6): e0123, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695992

RESUMO

Objectives: Sepsis is responsible for a substantial proportion of global childhood morbidity and mortality. However, evidence demonstrates major inaccuracies in the use of the term "sepsis" in clinical practice, coding, and research. Current and previous definitions of sepsis have been developed using expert consensus but the specific criteria used to identify children with sepsis have not been rigorously evaluated. Therefore, as part of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Pediatric Sepsis Definition Taskforce, we will conduct a systematic review to synthesize evidence on individual factors, clinical criteria, or illness severity scores that may be used to identify children with infection who have or are at high risk of developing sepsis-associated organ dysfunction and separately those factors, criteria, and scores that may be used to identify children with sepsis who are at high risk of progressing to multiple organ dysfunction or death. Data Sources: We will identify eligible studies by searching the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Study Selection: We will include all randomized trials and cohort studies published between January 1, 2004, and March 16, 2020. Data Extraction: Data extraction will include information related to study characteristics, population characteristics, clinical criteria, and outcomes. Data Synthesis: We will calculate sensitivity and specificity of each criterion for predicting sepsis and conduct a meta-analysis if the data allow. We will also provide pooled estimates of overall hospital mortality. Conclusions: The potential risk factors, clinical criteria, and illness severity scores from this review which identify patients with infection who are at high risk of developing sepsis-associated organ dysfunction and/or progressing to multiple organ dysfunction or death will be used to inform the next steps of the Pediatric Sepsis Definition Taskforce.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of childhood pneumonia aetiology is required to inform prevention and treatment strategies. Lung aspiration is the gold standard specimen for pneumonia diagnostics. We report findings from analyses of lung and pleural aspirates collected in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study. METHODS: The PERCH study enrolled children aged 1-59 months hospitalized with World Health Organization defined severe or very severe pneumonia in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. Percutaneous trans-thoracic lung (LA) and pleural fluid (PF) aspiration was performed on a sample of pneumonia cases with radiological consolidation and/or pleural fluid in 4 countries. Venous blood and nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected from all cases. Multiplex quantitative PCR and routine microbiologic culture were applied to clinical specimens. RESULTS: Of 44 LAs performed within 3 days of admission on 622 eligible cases, 13 (30%) had a pathogen identified by either culture (5/44) or by PCR (11/29). A pathogen was identified in 12/14 (86%) PF specimens tested by either culture (9/14) or PCR (9/11). Bacterial pathogens were identified more frequently than viruses. All but one of the cases with a virus identified were co-infected with bacterial pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae (9/44 [20%]) and Staphylococcus aureus (7/14 [50%]) were the predominant pathogen identified in LA and PF, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial pathogens predominated in this selected subgroup of PERCH participants drawn from those with radiological consolidation or pleural fluid, with S. pneumoniae and S. aureus the leading pathogens identified.

16.
Pediatr Res ; 88(5): 705-716, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fewer children than adults have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the clinical manifestations are distinct from those of adults. Some children particularly those with acute or chronic co-morbidities are likely to develop critical illness. Recently, a multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) has been described in children with some of these patients requiring care in the pediatric ICU. METHODS: An international collaboration was formed to review the available evidence and develop evidence-based guidelines for the care of critically ill children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Where the evidence was lacking, those gaps were replaced with consensus-based guidelines. RESULTS: This process has generated 44 recommendations related to pediatric COVID-19 patients presenting with respiratory distress or failure, sepsis or septic shock, cardiopulmonary arrest, MIS-C, those requiring adjuvant therapies, or ECMO. Evidence to explain the milder disease patterns in children and the potential to use repurposed anti-viral drugs, anti-inflammatory or anti-thrombotic therapies are also described. CONCLUSION: Brief summaries of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection in different regions of the world are included since few registries are capturing this data globally. These guidelines seek to harmonize the standards and strategies for intensive care that critically ill children with COVID-19 receive across the world. IMPACT: At the time of publication, this is the latest evidence for managing critically ill children infected with SARS-CoV-2. Referring to these guidelines can decrease the morbidity and potentially the mortality of children effected by COVID-19 and its sequalae. These guidelines can be adapted to both high- and limited-resource settings.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , África/epidemiologia , América/epidemiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ásia/epidemiologia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial/normas , /terapia , Choque/etiologia , Choque/terapia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/terapia
17.
Pediatr Res ; 88(5): 689, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711398
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: World Health Organization recommends Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children. Though stool is a potential alternative to respiratory specimens among children, the diagnostic performance of Xpert Ultra on stool is unknown. Thus, we assessed the diagnostic performance of Xpert Ultra on stool to diagnose PTB in children. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among consecutively recruited children (<15 years) with presumptive PTB admitted in four tertiary care hospitals of Dhaka, Bangladesh between January-2018 and April-2019. Single induced sputum and stool specimens were subjected to culture, Xpert and Xpert Ultra. We considered children as 'bacteriologically confirmed on induced sputum' if any tests performed on induced sputum was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 'bacteriologically confirmed' if Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected on either induced sputum or stool. RESULTS: Of 447 children, 29 (6.5%) were 'bacteriologically confirmed on induced sputum' and 72 (16.1%) were 'bacteriologically confirmed'. With 'bacteriologically confirmed on induced sputum' as a reference, the sensitivity and specificity of Xpert Ultra on stool was 58.6% and 88.1%, respectively. Whereas, Xpert on stool had sensitivity and specificity of 37.9% and 100.0%, respectively. Among 'bacteriologically confirmed', Xpert Ultra on stool was positive in 60 (83.3%) children, of which 48 (80.0%) had 'trace call'. CONCLUSIONS: In children, Xpert Ultra on stool has better sensitivity but lesser specificity than Xpert. A high proportion of Xpert Ultra positive on stool had 'trace call'. Future longitudinal studies on clinical evolution are required to suggest on the management of children with 'trace call'.

20.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(8): 1032-1042, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathogen-specific risk of seizure in under-five children hospitalised with moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) in rural settings. METHOD: This was a prospective case-control study with follow-up, conducted in a sentinel facility of Global Enteric Multicenter Study in Mirzapur, a rural community of Bangladesh between 2007 and 2010. Children aged 0-59 months who presented with MSD and seizure constituted the cases whereas those who did not have seizure comprised the controls. MSD was defined if the episodes were associated with dehydration or dysentery or required hospitalisation with diarrhoea or dysentery. All enrolled children were followed up at home within 50-90 days of enrolment. A total of 64 cases and 128 randomly selected controls formed the analysable dataset. RESULTS: The result of logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders revealed that shigellosis (Shigella species, OR = 5.34, 95% CI = 2.37-12.04) particularly S. flexneri (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.48-7.57), S. flexneri 6 (OR = 23.24, 95% CI = 2.79-193.85), S. sonnei (OR = 6.90, 95% CI = 2.34-19.85); norovirus (OR = 6.77, 95% CI = 1.69-27.11), fever (OR = 16.75, 95% CI = 1.81-154.70) and loss of consciousness (OR = 35.25, 95% CI = 1.71-726.20) were the independent risk factors for seizure in MSD children. At enrolment, cases had lower WHZ (P = 0.006) compared to their peers, follow-up anthropometrics showed significant improvement in WHZ (P < 0.001) and WAZ (P < 0.05), whereas deterioration in HAZ (P < 0.001) in both cases and controls. CONCLUSION: Childhood MSD episodes particularly due to Shigella and norovirus are often associated with seizure. Prompt identification and appropriate management of children with shigellosis may reduce occurrence and adverse consequences of seizure linked with MSD.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/microbiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Shigella
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...