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1.
Microb Pathog ; 146: 104222, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387390

RESUMO

Inflammasome activation is an important host response to infectious diseases, but the difference in inflammasome activation between typhoid fever and non-typhoidal Salmonella infection has been rarely studied. To determine whether inflammasome activation in macrophages after S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium infection is different, we measured pyroptosis, caspase-1 activation, and IL-1ß secretion in monocyte-derived macrophages infected with S. Typhi or S. Typhimurium both in vitro and ex vivo. The role of Vi capsule and virulence genes in Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1), belonging to type III secretion system, was also examined. S. Typhi caused more pyroptosis, caspase-1 activation, and IL-1ß production than S. Typhimurium did, predominantly within 2 h of infection, in the context of high number of infecting bacteria. Mutagenesis and complementation experiments confirmed that SPI-1 effectors but not Vi were associated with greater inflammasome activation. The expression levels of invA and hilA were significantly higher in S. Typhi than in S. Typhimurium at early log phase in SPI-1 environment. Thus, S. Typhi, relative to its non-typhoidal counterpart, S. Typhimurium, induces greater SPI-1-dependent inflammasome activation in monocyte-derived macrophages. This finding may explain why S. Typhi causes a hyperinflammatory state at bacteremic stage in typhoid fever.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 382(20): 1960-1961, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402174
3.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(2): 210-217, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314790

RESUMO

Coronaviruses contribute to the burden of respiratory diseases in children, frequently manifesting in upper respiratory symptoms considered to be part of the "common cold." Recent epidemics of novel coronaviruses recognized in the 21st century have highlighted issues of zoonotic origins of transmissible respiratory viruses and potential transmission, disease, and mortality related to these viruses. In this review, we discuss what is known about the virology, epidemiology, and disease associated with pediatric infection with the common community-acquired human coronaviruses, including species 229E, OC43, NL63, and HKU1, and the coronaviruses responsible for past world-wide epidemics due to severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Criança , Comorbidade , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pediatria , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most serious complications in preterm infants. Probiotics have been used to prevent NEC. Safety is a major concern for this practice. METHODS: We reported a female preterm infant who received oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG but developed sepsis 12 days after the treatment. Cultures of blood and the catheter tip yielded L. rhamnosus. Next-generation sequencing was performed to analyze isolates from blood, stool, catheter, and product capsules. We also determined the capacities of these isolates to form biofilms. A literature review was performed. RESULTS: The patient was treated with ampicillin and piperacillin/tazobactam, and she subsequently recovered without complications. The analysis of genome sequences indicated that all the isolates belonged to the clone of L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103), suggesting that sepsis was a catheter-related infection caused by the oral probiotic. L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and the probiotic strain tested formed biofilms under all growth conditions. Isolates from the blood and catheter tip also formed biofilms, but the stool isolate did not. The capacity of intrinsic biofilm formation in L. rhamnosus GG depended on environmental factors and the type of culture medium. Literature review of L. rhamnosus GG sepsis in preterm and young infants found that nearly 60% of the patients had a suspected or confirmed infected catheter. CONCLUSION: The study showed that the capacity of L. rhamnosus GG to form biofilms, especially in the presence of glucose, is a critical factor leading to the probiotic-related sepsis in preterm infants.

5.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) resistant to ciprofloxacin or ceftriaxone and its impact on patients' clinical course are rarely reported. METHODS: Children with culture-proven salmonellosis treated in a medical center in northern Taiwan in 2017 were enrolled. To trace the source of Salmonella, Salmonella isolated from food samples were collected from markets. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes were determined. RESULTS: Among the 453 isolates, 122 (26.9%) were highly antimicrobial-resistant, as defined by resistance to ciprofloxacin or ceftriaxone or both. The most prevalent highly resistant serotype was S. Anatum (66, 54.1%). Salmonella was detected in 94.1%, 66.7%, and 8.6% of examined pork, chicken, and vegetables examined, respectively. S. Anatum (6, 21.4%) and S. Derby (6, 21.4%) were the major serotypes isolated. Majority of the S. Anatum (5, 83.3%) were highly antimicrobial-resistant. More patients infected by highly resistant Salmonella required carbapenem treatment (OR = 23.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8-192.7, P < 0.001). Patients with ceftriaxone-resistant NTS infections had a significantly longer hospital stay than others (P < 0.001). Totally, 34 (7.5%) presented with invasive diseases (31 bacteremia, 1 intestinal perforation, 1 toxic megacolon and 1 septic arthritis). Risk factors for invasive disease included prolonged fever for ≧5 days and infection occurring in warmer season from May to October. The rise of ambient temperature in northern Taiwan was associated with increasing Salmonella infections. CONCLUSIONS: Retail meats were the main source of highly antimicrobial-resistant NTS in northern Taiwan. Highly antimicrobial resistance significantly impacted the clinical course and treatment of children with NTS infection.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(9): e19253, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118732

RESUMO

Despite the development of vaccines in 2006, rotavirus is still a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. This study was performed to analyze the presence of circulating rotaviruses before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines to allow phylogenetic comparisons of vaccine strains in northern Taiwan.Rotavirus genotyping and sequencing of rotavirus VP7 and VP4 PCR products were performed by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA autosequencing. Phylogenies were constructed by the neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood methods using CLUSTAL W software included in the MEGA software package (version 6.0).Between April 2004 and December 2012, a total of 101 rotavirus specimens from pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis hospitalized in Chang Gung Children's Hospital were amplified, and their VP4 and VP7 sequences were determined. These 101 specimens consisted of 55 pre-vaccine strains (G1 [13, 23.6%], G2 [12, 21.8%], G3 [16, 29.1%], and G9 [14, 25.5%]) and 46 post-vaccine strains (G1 [25, 54.3%], G2 [12, 26.1%], G3 [5, 10.9%], and G9 [4, 8.7%]). The most common combination of the G and P types was G2P[4], accounting for 36% cases, followed by G9P[8] (25%), G1P[8] (20%), G3P[4] (15%), G3P[8] (10%), G1P[4] (5%), and G2P[8] (5%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that only the G1 and P[8] genotypes clustered in the same lineages with the rotavirus vaccine strains.Based on our results, the inclusion of G9, modified G2 and G3 with target lineages, and the combination G2P[4] and G9P[8] in the rotavirus vaccines in Taiwan is warranted as a vaccination strategy.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Rotavirus/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Vacinação
8.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most severe form of pneumococcal disease is invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), including empyema, sepsis and meningitis. Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TA; Galß1-3GalNAc) activation is known to be a predictor of Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (Sp-HUS). There have been limited data to correlate TA activation and overall disease severity of IPD in children. The study aimed to prove the positive correlation between TA activation and disease severity and to demonstrate the trend of TA level during the disease course. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records from 38 pediatric patients aged from 0 to 18 years with microbiologically-confirmed IPD between 2010 and 2015 at a medical center in Taiwan. All cases underwent TA activation testing by the fluorescence-labeled peanut lectin agglutination method. Medical information including demographic data, laboratory findings, co-morbidities, and outcome was collected and reviewed. We compared the clinical manifestations and associated co-morbidities between TA-positive and TA-negative patients. RESULTS: Among the 38 patients, 25 (66%) showed TA activation. Compared to TA-negative patients, patients with TA activation had a statistically higher rate of prolonged anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. TA-positive patients also had a longer intensive care unit stay and overall hospitalization days. The TA levels usually peaked 5-10 days after disease onset. Twenty-one pneumococcal isolates were recovered from the patients and serotyping was determined in 11 isolates: 10 serotype 19A and 1 serotype 3. CONCLUSIONS: TA determination not only helps to diagnose Sp-HUS but also is a predictor for IPD severity. Among hospitalized patients with severe pneumococcal disease, the peak of TA level usually appeared 5-10 days after disease onset.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a non-typhoidal food-borne pathogen, causes acute enterocolitis, bacteremia, extraintestinal focal infections in humans. Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) contribute to invading into host cellular cytosol, residing in Salmonella-containing vacuoles for intracellular survival, and inducing cellular apoptosis. This study aimed to better understand the mechanism underlying apoptosis in Salmonella-infected macrophages. METHODS: S. Typhimurium SL1344 was used to evaluate extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways in THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages in response to Salmonella infection. RESULTS: Activated caspase-3-induced apoptosis pathways, including extrinsic (caspase-8-mediated) and intrinsic (caspase-9-mediated) pathways, in Salmonella-infected macrophages were verified. THP-1 cells with dysfunction of TLR-4 and TLR-5 and Salmonella SPI-1 and SPI-2 mutants were constructed to identify the roles of the genes associated with programmed cell death in the macrophages. Caspase-3 activation in THP-1 macrophages was induced by Salmonella through TLR-4 and TLR-5 signaling pathways. We also identified that SPI-1 structure protein PrgH and effectors SipB and SipD, but not SPI-2 structure protein SsaV, could induce apoptosis via caspase-3 activation and reduce the secretion of inflammation marker TNF-α in the Salmonella-infected cells. The two effectors also reduced the translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB into the nucleus and the expression of TNF-α, and then inflammation was diminished. CONCLUSION: Non-typhoid Salmonella induced apoptosis of macrophages and thereby reduced inflammatory cytokine production through the expression of SPI-1. This mechanism in host-pathogen interaction may explain why Salmonella usually manifests as occult bacteremia with less systemic inflammatory response syndrome in the bloodstream infection of children.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nontyphoid Salmonella and Shigella can cause gastroenteritis in humans. Ceftriaxone (CRO) has been used to treat their infection, however, development of CRO resistance are often associated with plasmid-mediated blaCMY. Here, we investigated the presence of plasmid-mediated ISEcp-1 tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE and the role of these genes in regulation of CRO susceptibility in different hosts. METHODS: 194 strains of Salmonella serovars and Shigella were tested for CRO susceptibility. Non-susceptibility strains were examined for plasmid-mediated ISEcp-1 tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE by PCR amplification, Southern blot, and DNA sequencing. The plasmid profiles were determined by HindIII-digested restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Four recombinant plasmids with different genes from ISEcp-1 tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE were constructed and then were transferred into Escherichia coli and different Salmonella serovars to evaluate the CRO susceptibility. RESULTS: Among 20 CRO-nonsusceptible isolates of Salmonella Choleraesuis (5), S. Typhimurium (4), S. Mons (1), S. Stanley (2) and Shigella sonnei (8) with plasmid-mediated blaCMY-2, 19 isolates carried the ISEcp-1 tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE and only one isolate with tnpA-blaCMY-2. Transformation of these plasmids into E. coli pir116 produced multidrug resistance. Furthermore, PCR-RFLP analysis determined 5 different plasmid profiles and identical RFLP pattern between S. Typhimurium and S. sonnei. Transformation of the recombinant plasmids into E. coli and different Salmonella serovars resulted in phenotypes ranging from susceptible to resistant (especially inducible resistance) to CRO that were dependent on the genes, and host. CONCLUSION: The CRO susceptibility associated with the ISEcp-1 tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE element is regulated positively by ISEcp-1 tnpA and SugE and negatively regulated by Blc and unknown species-dependent host factor(s).

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 543, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992714

RESUMO

Health care-associated infections such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia pose a major clinical risk for hospitalized patients. However, these systemic infections are presumed to be a "dead-end" for P. aeruginosa and to have no impact on transmission. Here, we use a mouse infection model to show that P. aeruginosa can spread from the bloodstream to the gallbladder, where it replicates to extremely high numbers. Bacteria in the gallbladder can then seed the intestines and feces, leading to transmission to uninfected cage-mate mice. Our work shows that the gallbladder is crucial for spread of P. aeruginosa from the bloodstream to the feces during bacteremia, a process that promotes transmission in this experimental system. Further research is needed to test to what extent these findings are relevant to infections in patients.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/transmissão , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/transmissão , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Animais , Bacteriemia/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Vesícula Biliar/microbiologia , Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/patologia , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III
12.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(1): 49-59, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zoonotic Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis), causing paratyphoid in pigs and bacteremia in humans, commonly carry a virulence plasmid and sometimes a separate antimicrobial-resistant plasmid or merging together. This study aimed to analyze the likely mechanism of how to form a virulence-resistance chimera of plasmid in S. Choleraesuis. METHODS: Whole plasmid sequence of pOU7519 in S. Choleraesuis strain OU7519 was determined using shotgun cloning and sequencing. Sequence annotation and comparison were performed to determine the sequence responsible for the formation of a chimeric virulence-resistance pOU7519. Other chimeric plasmids among the collected strains of S. Choleraesuis were also confirmed. RESULTS: The sequence of pOU719, 127,212 bp long, was identified to be a chimera of the virulence plasmid pSCV50 and a multidrug-resistant plasmid pSC138 that have been found in S. Choleraesuis strain SC-B67. The pOU7519 is a conjugative plasmid carrying various mobile DNAs, including prophages, insertion sequences, integrons and transposons, especially a Tn6088-like transposon. By dissecting the junction site of the pSCV50-pSC138 chimera in pOU7519, defective sequences at integrase gene scv50 (int) and its attachment site (att) were found, and that likely resulted in a stable chimera plasmid due to the failure of excision from the pSCV50-pSC138 chimera. Similar structure of chimera was also found in other large plasmids. CONCLUSION: The deletion of both the int and att sties could likely block chimera excision, and result in an irreversible, stable pSCV50-pSC138 chimera. The emergence of conjugative virulence and antimicrobial-resistant plasmids in S. Choleraesuis could pose a threat to health public.

13.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(1): 94-98, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common pathogens to cause mucosal and invasive infection in humans. Most of the infection could be prevented through immunization by vaccines containing capsular polysaccharides but some infection may be caused by unencapsulated strains. METHODS: Clinical isolates of S.pneumoniae from January 2012 to December 2015 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan. Serotyping by PCR method was performed. Clinical and laboratory information of patients infected by non-typeable pneumococci (NTP) were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, 39 NTP isolates were identified. Most (21 of 39, 53.9%) were collected from purulent upper respiratory tract secretion. Others were from corneal abscess, sputum, and one from blood of a newborn. We recorded a 3.6-fold increase in the rate of isolation from 1.4% in 2012 to 5.0% in 2015 (p = 0.063). Co-infection was found in 24 cases; the major co-infecting pathogens included non-typeable Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Most (39 of 40, 97.5%) of the isolates were susceptible to both penicillin and ceftriaxone. The dominant sequence type ST1106 and an emerging sequence type ST7502 were recognized. CONCLUSIONS: A gradual increase of NTP infection was found in northern Taiwan in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era. Non-typeable pneumococci can cause respiratory and ophthalmological mucosal infection. Invasive infection can occur in newborns or young infants. Most of the isolates remained susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone.

14.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 61(1): 3-8, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870559

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne viral infection which is prevalent in Taiwan. The virus circulates in an enzootic cycle in pigs which serve as amplifying hosts. Outbreaks typically occur during summer. A universal vaccination program using 4-shot mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has successfully controlled JE epidemics in Taiwan since 1968. More than 90% of JE cases in recent years were older than 20 years in Taiwan. Because of several drawbacks, mouse brain-derived vaccine has been replaced by newer generation JE vaccines, including inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccine and live chimeric vaccine. The present article describes the recommendations in Taiwan for the use of new JE vaccines and the schedules for shifting between different JE vaccines.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19839, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882693

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumonia, one of the major colonizers in nasopharyngeal adenoids, has been the predominant pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. Recent evidence suggests an association between IL-17A-mediated immune response and the clearance of pneumococcal colonization in nasopharyngeal adenoids. Here, we evaluated the expressions of IL-17A and associated genes in hypertrophic adenoid tissues of children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and otitis media with effusion (OME) and their association with pneumococcal carriage. Sixty-six pediatric patients with adenoid hypertrophy were enrolled. During adenoidectomy, nasopharyngeal swab and adenoid tissues were used to determine pneumococcal carriage and IL-17A expression. Our results revealed significantly higher levels of IL-17A and IL-17A:IL-10 mRNA in the SDB patients positive for nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage than those negative. However, these differences were not significant in the OME group. These results suggested, in OME patients, prolonged or chronic pneumococcal carriage may occur because of insufficient IL-17A-mediated mucosal clearance, and could further lead to AOM and OME development.

16.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 439-447, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880888

RESUMO

Salmonella infection is most common in patients with infected aortic aneurysm, especially in Asia. When the aortic wall is heavily atherosclerotic, the intima is vulnerable to invasion by Salmonella, leading to the development of infected aortic aneurysm. By using THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells to mimic atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of three Salmonella enterica serotypes - Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Choleraesuis - in foam cell autophagy and inflammasome formation. Herein, we provide possible pathogenesis of Salmonella-associated infected aortic aneurysms. Three S. enterica serotypes with or without virulence plasmid were studied. Through Western blotting, we investigated cell autophagy induction and inflammasome formation in Salmonella-infected THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells, detected CD36 expression after Salmonella infection through flow cytometry, and measured interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-12, and interferon (IFN)-α levels through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At 0.5 h after infection, plasmid-bearing S. Enteritidis OU7130 induced the highest foam cell autophagy - significantly higher than that induced by plasmid-less OU7067. However, plasmid-bearing S. Choleraesuis induced less foam cell autophagy than did its plasmid-less strain. In foam cells, plasmid-less Salmonella infection (particularly S. Choleraesuis OU7266 infection) led to higher CD36 expression than did plasmid-bearing strains infection. OU7130 and OU7266 infection induced the highest IL-1ß secretion. OU7067-infected foam cells secreted the highest IL-12p35 level. Plasmid-bearing S. Typhimurium OU5045 induced a higher IFN-α level than did other Salmonella serotypes. Salmonella serotypes are correlated with foam cell autophagy and IL-1ß secretion. Salmonella may affect the course of foam cells formation, or even aortic aneurysm, through autophagy.Salmonella infection is most common in patients with infected aortic aneurysm, especially in Asia. When the aortic wall is heavily atherosclerotic, the intima is vulnerable to invasion by Salmonella, leading to the development of infected aortic aneurysm. By using THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells to mimic atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of three Salmonella enterica serotypes ­ Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Choleraesuis ­ in foam cell autophagy and inflammasome formation. Herein, we provide possible pathogenesis of Salmonella-associated infected aortic aneurysms. Three S. enterica serotypes with or without virulence plasmid were studied. Through Western blotting, we investigated cell autophagy induction and inflammasome formation in Salmonella-infected THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells, detected CD36 expression after Salmonella infection through flow cytometry, and measured interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-12, and interferon (IFN)-α levels through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At 0.5 h after infection, plasmid-bearing S. Enteritidis OU7130 induced the highest foam cell autophagy ­ significantly higher than that induced by plasmid-less OU7067. However, plasmid-bearing S. Choleraesuis induced less foam cell autophagy than did its plasmid-less strain. In foam cells, plasmid-less Salmonella infection (particularly S. Choleraesuis OU7266 infection) led to higher CD36 expression than did plasmid-bearing strains infection. OU7130 and OU7266 infection induced the highest IL-1ß secretion. OU7067-infected foam cells secreted the highest IL-12p35 level. Plasmid-bearing S. Typhimurium OU5045 induced a higher IFN-α level than did other Salmonella serotypes. Salmonella serotypes are correlated with foam cell autophagy and IL-1ß secretion. Salmonella may affect the course of foam cells formation, or even aortic aneurysm, through autophagy.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Animais , Aneurisma Aórtico/genética , Aneurisma Aórtico/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-1/genética , Antígeno Ki-1/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/microbiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Infecções por Salmonella/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Sorogrupo , Virulência
17.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echovirus 11 emerged as a predominant enterovirus strain and was associated with neonatal mortalities in Taiwan in 2018. We investigated an echovirus 11 outbreak in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in a tertiary hospital in northern Taiwan and analyzed infection control efforts. METHODS: Between May and June 2018, an outbreak of 10 infants with echovirus 11 infections occurred in the NICUs. Comprehensive surveillance, including virus isolation, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and consequential degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primer (CODEHOP) methods, were arranged for specimens (rectal or throat swabs), which were obtained from all contacts, newly admitted cases, and suspected cases during the outbreak since June 2. RESULTS: Ten cases were identified with echovirus 11 infection in this outbreak. Eight of these 10 confirmed cases were identified by viral isolation, and the remaining two cases were identified by RT-PCR surveillance. In addition to confirmed cases, the surveillance of 19 contacts, 47 newly admitted cases, and nine suspected cases showed negative results. All confirmed cases eventually recovered. CONCLUSION: RT-PCR and CODEHOP methods significantly shorten the time of laboratory diagnosis of enterovirus infection compared with conventional methods. The outbreak of echovirus 11 in the NICUs was caused by three imported cases and was successfully controlled by the implementation of isolation, rapid surveillance, reinforced disinfection, and infection control measures.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17269, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577718

RESUMO

This study examined the characteristics of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis associated with convulsions in children and its molecular epidemiology. From July 2006 through December 2015, NoV infection was confirmed by the genome detection using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Viral genotyping with strain validation was achieved using sequence analyses with Basic Local Alignment Search Tool genome identification. The patients' clinical features were assessed retrospectively, focusing on convulsive disorders. The diagnosis of encephalitis followed the International Encephalitis Consortium. Seizures occurred in 52 (20.9%) of 249 NoV infections. GII.4 Den_Haag_2006b (n = 22, 42.3%) and GII.4 Sydney 2012 (n = 10, 19.2%) were major variants correlated with convulsions. Patient with convulsions tend to have GII.4 genotype infection (P < .001), short vomiting (≤2 days) (P < .001), and no fever (P = .002). Compared to GII.4 Den_Haag_2006b, the GII.4 Sydney 2012-associated convulsions had similar manifestations except without significant winter preponderance (P = .049). The NoV infection with convulsions had less febrile course, specific genotype (GII.4) infections, and with shorter symptom of vomiting. Continuous surveillance is important for uncommon disease associated with emerging NoV strain infections. The prevention of NoV diseases requires the development of vaccines targeting highly virulent variants.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Encefalite/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical lymphadenopathy is among the cardinal manifestations of Kikuchi disease (KD). The incidences and locations of extra-cervical lymph nodes (LNs) involvement in KD have not been comprehensively reported. METHODS: From 2003 to 2016, 60 patients with pathologically confirmed KD and with computed tomography and/or whole-body inflammation scans at diagnosis were retrospectively identified. The locations, sizes and characteristics of all affected LNs were analyzed by extensive review of the image studies. The clinical and laboratory parameters were abstracted from medical records and the associations with extra-cervical LNs involvement were identified. RESULTS: Female accounted for 35 (58.3%) patients and the median age of all patients was 21.3 years (ranges, 3-64 years). Of 59 patients with evaluable neck images, 42 (71.2%) and 16 (27.1%) patients presented with unilateral and bilateral nodal involvement, respectively, with the most common locations at level II, III and IV by Som's classification. The largest LNs appeared most commonly in level II. The incidences of extra-cervical lymphadenopathy in abdomen, pelvis, inguina, axilla and mediastinum with available images were respectively 52.9% (9/17), 47.1% (8/17), 41.2% (7/17), 30.6% (11/36) and 14.3% (8/56). When compared to cases with solitary cervical lymphadenopathy, the cases with extra-cervical lymphadenopathy had significantly greater incidences of bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy (P = .0379) and leukopenia (P = .0173). CONCLUSION: Unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy was the most frequent form of LNs involvement of KD. Extra-cervical lymphadenopathy was not uncommon and was associated with the appearance of bilateral distribution of cervical LNs and leukopenia.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13525, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537886

RESUMO

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most important pathogens for neonates. This study included 69 invasive GBS diseases in neonates, including 7 early-onset disease (EOD), 55 late-onset disease, and 7 very-late-onset disease from 2013 to 2017. A significant reduction of EOD after the deployment of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) in 2012 was observed. A previously-recognized hypervirulent clone GBS III ST17, accounting for 68% of the overall infections and 71% of the meningitis, was identified among the 69 cases. A novel GBS Ia ST890 emerged, becoming the fourth most common clone. Overall 96% of the invasive GBS infections were caused by serotypes Ia, Ib, and III. We collected 300 GBS isolates from vagina of the healthy pregnant women in 2014 and 2017. The serotype distribution of the maternal colonization isolates was VI (35%), III (21%), V (15%), Ib (13%) and Ia (11%) in 2014, and VI (32%), III (22%), V (16%), Ia (16%), and Ib (8%) in 2017. The most common sequence types were ST1 (32%), ST12 (22%), and ST23 (15%). Serotype diversity of maternal colonization strains did not change between 2014 and 2017. The study provides useful information in surveillance of GBS disease in the era of IAP.

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