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1.
Leukemia ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001798

RESUMO

In POLLUX, daratumumab (D) plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (Rd) reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 63% and increased the overall response rate (ORR) versus Rd in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Updated efficacy and safety after >3 years of follow-up are presented. Patients (N = 569) with ≥1 prior line received Rd (lenalidomide, 25 mg, on Days 1-21 of each 28-day cycle; dexamethasone, 40 mg, weekly) ± daratumumab at the approved dosing schedule. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed by next-generation sequencing. After 44.3 months median follow-up, D-Rd prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat population (median 44.5 vs 17.5 months; HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.35-0.55; P < 0.0001) and in patient subgroups. D-Rd demonstrated higher ORR (92.9 vs 76.4%; P < 0.0001) and deeper responses, including complete response or better (56.6 vs 23.2%; P < 0.0001) and MRD negativity (10-5; 30.4 vs 5.3%; P < 0.0001). Median time to next therapy was prolonged with D-Rd (50.6 vs 23.1 months; HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.31-0.50; P < 0.0001). Median PFS on subsequent line of therapy (PFS2) was not reached with D-Rd versus 31.7 months with Rd (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.42-0.68; P < 0.0001). No new safety concerns were reported. These data support using D-Rd in patients with RRMM after first relapse.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 130(1): 523-538, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815739

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of acute pulmonary disease and one of the last remaining major infections of childhood for which there is no vaccine. CD4+ T cells play a key role in antiviral immunity, but they have been little studied in the human lung.METHODSHealthy adult volunteers were inoculated i.n. with RSV A Memphis 37. CD4+ T cells in blood and the lower airway were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Bronchial soluble mediators were measured using quantitative PCR and MesoScale Discovery. Epitope mapping was performed by IFN-γ ELISpot screening, confirmed by in vitro MHC binding.RESULTSActivated CD4+ T cell frequencies in bronchoalveolar lavage correlated strongly with local C-X-C motif chemokine 10 levels. Thirty-nine epitopes were identified, predominantly toward the 3' end of the viral genome. Five novel MHC II tetramers were made using an immunodominant EFYQSTCSAVSKGYL (F-EFY) epitope restricted to HLA-DR4, -DR9, and -DR11 (combined allelic frequency: 15% in Europeans) and G-DDF restricted to HLA-DPA1*01:03/DPB1*02:01 and -DPA1*01:03/DPB1*04:01 (allelic frequency: 55%). Tetramer labeling revealed enrichment of resident memory CD4+ T (Trm) cells in the lower airway; these Trm cells displayed progressive differentiation, downregulation of costimulatory molecules, and elevated CXCR3 expression as infection evolved.CONCLUSIONSHuman infection challenge provides a unique opportunity to study the breadth of specificity and dynamics of RSV-specific T-cell responses in the target organ, allowing the precise investigation of Trm recognizing novel viral antigens over time. The new tools that we describe enable precise tracking of RSV-specific CD4+ cells, potentially accelerating the development of effective vaccines.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT02755948.FUNDINGMedical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, National Institute for Health Research.

3.
Haematologica ; 105(2): 468-477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221782

RESUMO

The phase 3 POLLUX and CASTOR studies demonstrated superior benefit of daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone or bortezomib/dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Efficacy and safety of daratumumab was analyzed according to age groups of 65 to 74 years and ≥75 years. Patients received ≥1 prior line of therapy. In POLLUX, patients received lenalidomide/dexamethasone ± daratumumab (16 mg/kg weekly, cycles 1-2; every two weeks, cycles 3-6; monthly until progression). In CASTOR, patients received eight cycles of bortezomib/dexamethasone ± daratumumab (16 mg/kg weekly, cycles 1-3; every three weeks, cycles 4-8; monthly until progression). Patients aged >75 years received dexamethasone 20 mg weekly. For patients aged ≥75 years in POLLUX (median follow-up: 25.4 months), daratumumab/lenalido-mide/dexamethasone prolonged progression-free survival versus lenalido-mide/dexamethasone (median: 28.9 versus 11.4 months; hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.69; P=0.0042) and increased overall response rate (93.1% versus 76.5%; P=0.0740). Neutropenia was the most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse event (daratumumab: 44.8%; control: 31.4%). Infusion-related reactions occurred in 12 (41.4%) patients. For patients aged ≥75 years in CASTOR (median follow-up: 19.4 months), daratumumab/bortezomib/dexamethasone prolonged progression-free survival versus bortezomib/dexamethasone (median: 17.9 versus 8.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.65; P=0.0022) and increased overall response rate (95.0% versus 78.8%; P=0.1134). Thrombocytopenia was the most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse event (daratumumab: 45.0%; control: 37.1%). Infusion-related reactions occurred in 13 (65.0%) patients. Similar findings were reported for patients aged 65 to 74 years in both studies. Taken together, this subgroup analysis of efficacy and safety of daratumumab was largely consistent with the overall populations.

4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2625, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787986

RESUMO

Influenza A virus infection is a global health threat to livestock and humans, causing substantial mortality and morbidity. As both pigs and humans are readily infected with influenza viruses of similar subtype, the pig is a robust and appropriate model for investigating swine and human disease. We evaluated the efficacy of the human cold-adapted 2017-2018 quadrivalent seasonal LAIV in pigs against H1N1pdm09 challenge. LAIV immunized animals showed significantly reduced viral load in nasal swabs. There was limited replication of the H1N1 component of the vaccine in the nose, a limited response to H1N1 in the lung lymph nodes and a low H1N1 serum neutralizing titer. In contrast there was better replication of the H3N2 component of the LAIV, accompanied by a stronger response to H3N2 in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN). Our data demonstrates that a single administration of human quadrivalent LAIV shows limited replication in the nose and induces detectable responses to the H1N1 and H3N2 components. These data suggest that pigs may be a useful model for assessing LAIV against influenza A viruses.

5.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296574

RESUMO

CD38 is expressed in several types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and constitutes a promising target for antibody-based therapy. Daratumumab (Darzalex) is a first-in-class anti-CD38 antibody approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. It has also demonstrated clinical activity in Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia and amyloidosis. Here, we have evaluated the activity and mechanism of action of daratumumab in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models of mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma, as monotherapy or in combination with standard chemo-immunotherapy. In vitro, daratumumab engages Fc-mediated cytotoxicity by antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis in all lymphoma subtypes. In the presence of human serum, complement-dependent cell cytotoxicity was marginally engaged. We demonstrated by Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy that daratumumab fully penetrated a 3D lymphoma organoid and decreased organoid volume. In vivo, daratumumab completely prevents tumor outgrowth in models of mantle cell and follicular lymphoma, and shows comparable activity to rituximab in a disseminated in vivo model of blastic mantle cell lymphoma. Moreover, daratumumab improves overall survival in a mouse model of transformed CD20dim follicular lymphoma, where rituximab showed limited activity. Daratumumab potentiates the antitumor activity of CHOP and R-CHOP in mantle cell and follicular lymphoma xenografts. Furthermore, in a patient-derived diffuse large B cell lymphoma xenograft model, daratumumab anti-tumor activity was comparable to R-CHOP and the addition of daratumumab to either CHOP or R-CHOP led to full tumor regression. In summary, daratumumab constitutes a novel therapeutic opportunity in certain scenarios and these results warrant further clinical development.

6.
Lancet ; 394(10192): 29-38, 2019 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (VTd) plus autologous stem-cell transplantation is standard treatment in Europe for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. We evaluated whether the addition of daratumumab to VTd before and after autologous stem-cell transplantation would improve stringent complete response rate in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this two-part, randomised, open-label, phase 3 CASSIOPEIA trial, we recruited transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma at 111 European sites. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive four pre-transplant induction and two post-transplant consolidation cycles of VTd alone (VTd group) or in combination with daratumumab (D-VTd group). The primary endpoint of part 1 was stringent complete response assessed 100 days after transplantation. Part 2 (maintenance) is ongoing. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02541383. FINDINGS: Between Sept 22, 2015, and Aug 1, 2017, 1085 patients were enrolled at 111 European sites and were randomly assigned to the D-VTd group (n=543) or the VTd group (n=542). At day 100 after transplantation, 157 (29%) of 543 patients in the D-VTd group and 110 (20%) of 542 patients in the VTd group in the intention-to-treat population had achieved a stringent complete response (odds ratio 1·60, 95% CI 1·21-2·12, p=0·0010). 211 (39%) patients in the D-VTd group versus 141 (26%) in the VTd group achieved a complete response or better, and 346 (64%) of 543 versus 236 (44%) of 542 achieved minimal residual disease-negativity (10-5 sensitivity threshold, assessed by multiparametric flow cytometry; both p<0·0001). Median progression-free survival from first randomisation was not reached in either group (hazard ratio 0·47, 95% CI 0·33-0·67, p<0·0001). 46 deaths on study were observed (14 vs 32, 0·43, 95% CI 0·23-0·80). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (28% vs 15%), lymphopenia (17% vs 10%), and stomatitis (13% vs 16%). INTERPRETATION: D-VTd before and after autologous stem-cell transplantation improved depth of response and progression-free survival with acceptable safety. CASSIOPEIA is the first study showing the clinical benefit of daratumumab plus standard of care in transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. FUNDING: The Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome and Dutch-Belgian Cooperative Trial Group for Hematology Oncology.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia Combinada , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
N Engl J Med ; 380(22): 2104-2115, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone is a standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who are ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. We sought to determine whether the addition of daratumumab would significantly reduce the risk of disease progression or death in this population. METHODS: We randomly assigned 737 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation to receive daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (daratumumab group) or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (control group). Treatment was to continue until the occurrence of disease progression or unacceptable side effects. The primary end point was progression-free survival. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 28.0 months, disease progression or death had occurred in 240 patients (97 of 368 patients [26.4%] in the daratumumab group and 143 of 369 patients [38.8%] in the control group). The estimated percentage of patients who were alive without disease progression at 30 months was 70.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.0 to 75.4) in the daratumumab group and 55.6% (95% CI, 49.5 to 61.3) in the control group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.73; P<0.001). The percentage of patients with a complete response or better was 47.6% in the daratumumab group and 24.9% in the control group (P<0.001). A total of 24.2% of the patients in the daratumumab group, as compared with 7.3% of the patients in the control group, had results below the threshold for minimal residual disease (1 tumor cell per 105 white cells) (P<0.001). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were neutropenia (50.0% in the daratumumab group vs. 35.3% in the control group), anemia (11.8% vs. 19.7%), lymphopenia (15.1% vs. 10.7%), and pneumonia (13.7% vs. 7.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation, the risk of disease progression or death was significantly lower among those who received daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone than among those who received lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone. A higher incidence of neutropenia and pneumonia was observed in the daratumumab group. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; MAIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02252172.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
9.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(4): 481-492, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753101

RESUMO

Rationale: Needle-free intranasal vaccines offer major potential advantages, especially against pathogens entering via mucosal surfaces. As yet, there is no effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a ubiquitous pathogen of global importance that preferentially infects respiratory epithelial cells; new strategies are urgently required.Objectives: Here, we report the safety and immunogenicity of a novel mucosal RSV F protein vaccine linked to an immunostimulatory bacterium-like particle (BLP).Methods: In this phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 48 healthy volunteers, aged 18-49 years, were randomly assigned to receive placebo or SynGEM (low or high dose) intranasally by prime-boost administration. The primary outcome was safety and tolerability, with secondary objectives assessing virus-specific immunogenicity.Measurements and Main Results: There were no significant differences in adverse events between placebo and vaccinated groups. SynGEM induced systemic plasmablast responses and significant, durable increases in RSV-specific serum antibody in healthy, seropositive adults. Volunteers given low-dose SynGEM (140 µg F, 2 mg BLP) required a boost at Day 28 to achieve plateau responses with a maximum fold change of 2.4, whereas high-dose recipients (350 µg F, 5 mg BLP) achieved plateau responses with a fold change of 1.5 after first vaccination that remained elevated up to 180 days after vaccination, irrespective of further boosting. Palivizumab-like antibodies were consistently induced, but F protein site ∅-specific antibodies were not detected, and virus-specific nasal IgA responses were heterogeneous, with the strongest responses in individuals with lower pre-existing antibody levels.Conclusions: SynGEM is thus the first nonreplicating intranasal RSV subunit vaccine to induce persistent antibody responses in human volunteers.Clinical trials registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02958540).

11.
Cytometry A ; 95(3): 279-289, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536810

RESUMO

Daratumumab is a CD38-targeted human monoclonal antibody with direct anti-myeloma cell mechanisms of action. Flow cytometry in relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients treated with daratumumab revealed cytotoxic T-cell expansion and reduction of immune-suppressive populations, suggesting immune modulation as an additional mechanism of action. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis of the effects of daratumumab on immune-cell subpopulations using high-dimensional mass cytometry. Whole-blood and bone-marrow baseline and on-treatment samples from RRMM patients who participated in daratumumab monotherapy studies (SIRIUS and GEN501) were evaluated with high-throughput immunophenotyping. In daratumumab-treated patients, the intensity of CD38 marker expression decreased on many immune cells in SIRIUS whole-blood samples. Natural killer (NK) cells were depleted with daratumumab, with remaining NK cells showing increased CD69 and CD127, decreased CD45RA, and trends for increased CD25, CD27, and CD137 and decreased granzyme B. Immune-suppressive population depletion paralleled previous findings, and a newly observed reduction in CD38+ basophils was seen in patients who received monotherapy. After 2 months of daratumumab, the T-cell population in whole-blood samples from responders shifted to a CD8 prevalence with higher granzyme B positivity (P = 0.017), suggesting increased killing capacity and supporting monotherapy-induced CD8+ T-cell activation. High-throughput cytometry immune profiling confirms and builds upon previous flow cytometry data, including comparable CD38 marker intensity on plasma cells, NK cells, monocytes, and B/T cells. Interestingly, a shift toward cytolytic granzyme B+ T cells was also observed and supports adaptive responses in patients that may contribute to depth of response. © 2018 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(11)2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380614

RESUMO

The quality of sleep affects the patient's health, along with the observation of vital life signs such as body temperature and sweat in sleep, is essential in the monitoring of sleep as well as clinical diagnosis. However, traditional methods in recording physiological change amidst sleep is difficult without being intrusive. The smart pillow is developed to provide a relatively easy way to observe one's sleep condition, employing temperature and humidity sensors by implanting them inside the pillow in strategic positions. With the patient's head on the pillow, the roles of sensors are identified as main, auxiliary or environmental temperature, based on the differences of value from three temperature sensors, thus the pattern of sleep can be extracted by statistical analysis, and the body temperature is inferred by a specially designed Fuzzy Logic System if the head-on position is stable for more than 15 min. Night sweat is reported on data from the humidity sensor. Therefore, a cloud-based health-sensing system is built in the smart pillow to collect and analyze data. Experiments from various individuals prove that statistical and inferred results reflect normal and abnormal conditions of sleep accurately. The daily sleeping information of patients from the pillow is helpful in the decision-making of diagnoses and treatment, and users can change their habits of sleep gradually by observing the data with their health professional.


Assuntos
Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Saúde , Umidade , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Telefone Celular , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Sono/fisiologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4418, 2018 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356117

RESUMO

The response to respiratory viruses varies substantially between individuals, and there are currently no known molecular predictors from the early stages of infection. Here we conduct a community-based analysis to determine whether pre- or early post-exposure molecular factors could predict physiologic responses to viral exposure. Using peripheral blood gene expression profiles collected from healthy subjects prior to exposure to one of four respiratory viruses (H1N1, H3N2, Rhinovirus, and RSV), as well as up to 24 h following exposure, we find that it is possible to construct models predictive of symptomatic response using profiles even prior to viral exposure. Analysis of predictive gene features reveal little overlap among models; however, in aggregate, these genes are enriched for common pathways. Heme metabolism, the most significantly enriched pathway, is associated with a higher risk of developing symptoms following viral exposure. This study demonstrates that pre-exposure molecular predictors can be identified and improves our understanding of the mechanisms of response to respiratory viruses.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/genética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Heme/metabolismo , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N2/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/patogenicidade , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/imunologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/patogenicidade , Rhinovirus/imunologia , Rhinovirus/patogenicidade
14.
Haematologica ; 103(12): 2088-2096, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237262

RESUMO

In the POLLUX study, daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone significantly reduced risk of progression/death versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone alone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. We provide one additional year of follow up and include the effect on minimal residual disease and in clinically relevant subgroups. After 25.4 months of follow up, daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone prolonged progression-free survival versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone alone (median not reached vs 17.5 months; hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.53; P<0.0001). The overall response rate was 92.9% versus 76.4%, and 51.2% versus 21.0% achieved a complete response or better, respectively (both P<0.0001). At the 10-5 sensitivity threshold, 26.2% versus 6.4% were minimal residual disease-negative, respectively (P<0.0001). Post hoc analyses of clinically relevant patient subgroups demonstrated that progression-free survival was significantly prolonged for daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone regardless of number of prior lines of therapy. Patients previously treated with lenalidomide or thalidomide and those refractory to bortezomib received similar benefits (all P<0.01). Treatment benefit with daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone was maintained in high-risk patients (median progression-free survival 22.6 vs 10.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-1.13; P=0.0921) and patients with treatment-free intervals of >12 and ≤12 months and >6 and ≤6 months. No new safety signals were observed. In relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients, daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone continued to improve progression-free survival and deepen responses versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 02076009.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , /estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , /métodos
15.
Haematologica ; 103(12): 2079-2087, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237264

RESUMO

Daratumumab, a CD38 human monoclonal antibody, demonstrated significant clinical activity in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone versus bortezomib and dexamethasone alone in the primary analysis of CASTOR, a phase 3 study in relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. A post hoc analysis based on treatment history and longer follow up is presented. After 19.4 (range: 0-27.7) months of median follow up, daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone prolonged progression-free survival (median: 16.7 versus 7.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.39; P<0.0001) and improved the overall response rate (83.8% versus 63.2%; P<0.0001) compared with bortezomib and dexamethasone alone. The progression-free survival benefit of daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone was most apparent in patients with 1 prior line of therapy (median: not reached versus 7.9 months; hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% con fidence interval, 0.12-0.29; P<0.0001). Daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone was also superior to bortezomib and dexamethasone alone in subgroups based on prior treatment exposure (bortezomib, thalidomide, or lenalidomide), lenalidomide-refractory status, time since last therapy (≤12, >12, ≤6, or >6 months), or cytogenetic risk. Minimal residual disease-negative rates were >2.5-fold higher with daratumumab across subgroups. The safety profile of daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone remained consistent with longer follow up. Daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone demonstrated significant clinical activity across clinically relevant subgroups and provided the greatest benefit to patients treated at first relapse. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 02136134.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , /estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , /métodos
16.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 32(17): 1481-1490, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876976

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Certain lung cancer patients express elevated Fucosyl Monosialoganglioside (Fuc-GM1) in circulation compared to control groups. Several sensitive methods involving characterization of Fuc-GM1 have been reported. However, a highly specific and sensitive method for quantifying multiple potential Fuc-GM1 biomarkers present in various biological matrices has not been reported to date. METHODS: Individual Fuc-GM1 analogs in a commercially obtained standard mixture were characterized using HPLC/UV/MS and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Proprietary antibodies, mAb1 and mAb2, were used to selectively capture and pre-concentrate the soluble and drug-bound forms of Fuc-GM1 molecules present in human serum and whole blood, eliminating the background matrix components. Immunocapture extraction (ICE) followed by HPLC/MS/MS was used to quantify specific Fuc-GM1 analogs in biological matrices. RESULTS: The concentration of individual Fuc-GM1 analogs in the standard mixture was estimated to be 7-34%, using HPLC/UV/MS. Using the standard mixture spiked into the biological matrices (100 µL), the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of each analog was 0.2-0.4 ng/mL with a dynamic range of up to 200 ng/mL. The applicability of the ICE-HPLC/MS/MS method was demonstrated by detecting endogenous Fuc-GM1 analogs present in rat blood and in several lung cancer cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: This highly specific and sensitive HPLC/MS/MS method for quantifying individual potential Fuc-GM1 biomarkers in serum and whole blood can play a critical role in patient stratification strategies and during drug treatment. This method can be employed for monitoring both free (soluble) form and antibody drug-bound Fuc-GM1.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Gangliosídeo G(M1)/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/química , Gangliosídeo G(M1)/sangue , Gangliosídeo G(M1)/química , Gangliosídeo G(M1)/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ratos
17.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 85, 2018 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmablasts and plasma cells play a key role in many autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of targeting CD38 as a plasma cell/plasmablast depletion mechanism by daratumumab in the treatment of patients with RA and SLE. METHODS: RNA-sequencing analysis of synovial biopsies from various stages of RA disease progression, flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with RA or SLE and healthy donors, immunohistochemistry assessment (IHC) of synovial biopsies from patients with early RA, and ex vivo immune cell depletion assays using daratumumab (an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody) were used to assess CD38 as a therapeutic target. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the plasma cell/plasmablast-related genes CD38, XBP1, IRF4, PRDM1, IGJ and TNFSF13B are significantly up-regulated in synovial biopsies from patients with arthralgia, undifferentiated arthritis (UA), early RA and established RA as compared to healthy controls and control patients with osteoarthritis. In addition, the highest CD38 expression was observed on plasma cells and plasmablasts compared to natural killer (NK) cells, classical dendritic cells (DCs), plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and T cells, in blood from healthy controls and patients with SLE and RA. Furthermore, IHC showed CD38 staining in the same region as CD3 and CD138 staining in synovial tissue biopsies from patients with early RA. Most importantly, our data show for the first time that daratumumab effectively depletes plasma cells/plasmablasts in PBMC from patients with SLE and RA in a dose-dependent manner ex vivo. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that CD38 may be a potential target for RA disease interception and daratumumab should be evaluated clinically for the treatment of both RA and SLE.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/genética , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/patologia
18.
JCI Insight ; 3(6)2018 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a population of immature immune cells with several protumorigenic functions. CD38 is a transmembrane receptor-ectoenzyme expressed by MDSCs in murine models of esophageal cancer. We hypothesized that CD38 could be expressed on MDSCs in human colorectal cancer (CRC), which might allow for a new perspective on therapeutic targeting of human MDSCs with anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies in this cancer. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 41 CRC patients and 8 healthy donors, followed by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) separation. Polymorphonuclear (PMN-) and monocytic (M-) MDSCs and CD38 expression levels were quantified by flow cytometry. The immunosuppressive capacity of M-MDSCs from 10 CRC patients was validated in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay. RESULTS: A significant expansion of CD38+ M-MDSCs and a trend of expansion of CD38+ PMN-MDSCs (accompanied by a trend of increased CD38 expression on both M- and PMN-MDSCs) were observed in PBMCs of CRC patients when compared with healthy donors. The CD38+ M-MDSCs from CRC patients were found to be immunosuppressive when compared with mature monocytes. CD38+ M- and PMN-MDSC frequencies were significantly higher in CRC patients who previously received treatment when compared with treatment-naive patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a rationale for an attempt to target M-MDSCs with an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody in metastatic CRC patients. FUNDING: NCI P01-CA14305603, the American Cancer Society, Scott and Suzi Lustgarten Family Colon Cancer Research Fund, Hansen Foundation, and Janssen Research and Development.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Linfócitos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos , Pennsylvania
19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 323, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29552008

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies) that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell generation and functionality. Here, we discuss the differences in clinical outcome and immune response following influenza and RSV. Specifically, we focus on differences in their recognition by innate immunity; the strategies used by each virus to evade these early immune responses; and effects across the innate-adaptive interface that may prevent long-lived memory generation. Thus, by comparing these globally important pathogens, we highlight mechanisms by which optimal antiviral immunity may be better induced and discuss the potential for these insights to inform novel vaccines.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/imunologia , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório/imunologia , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório/uso terapêutico
20.
Exp Hematol Oncol ; 7: 3, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445583

RESUMO

Background: Daratumumab, a human CD38 monoclonal antibody that has direct on-tumor and immunomodulatory mechanisms of action, demonstrated clinical benefit as monotherapy or in combination with established regimens in patients with multiple myeloma with one or more prior lines of therapy. Case presentation: A male patient, who was 70 years of age at the time of diagnosis of multiple myeloma in 2011, relapsed after five lines of therapy, including autologous stem cell transplantation. The patient's disease, which was considered high risk with a deletion of chromosome 17p, advanced quickly and was triple refractory 2 years after diagnosis leaving few treatment options. He was treated with daratumumab monotherapy in the SIRIUS clinical trial resulting in a stringent complete response and clearance of minimal residual disease. The duration of the patient's clinical response is now over 3.5 years without relapse, compared with a median of 7.6 months for similarly treated patients. The patient's immunophenotype revealed CD8+ T-cell expansion, clonal expansion of the T-cell receptor repertoire, and decreases in regulatory T cells during daratumumab therapy, suggesting a robust adaptive immune response. This immune response was still present 32 months into daratumumab therapy. Conclusions: The results from this case report showed that a patient with advanced multiple myeloma, who had exhausted all treatment options with existing regimens, mounted an ongoing, deep, and durable response to daratumumab monotherapy. Further investigation of the immunologic profile provided additional patient-level evidence of an immunomodulatory mechanism of action of daratumumab.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier number NCT01985126. Submitted 22 July 2013.

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