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2.
Environ Int ; 156: 106744, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventionally grown fruits and vegetables (FVs) are the main source of general population exposure to pesticide residues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of intake of high- and low-pesticide-residue FVs with cancer risk. METHODS: We followed 150,830 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1998-2016, and Nurses' Health Study II, 1999-2017) and 29,486 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1998-2016) without a history of cancer. We ascertained FV intake via validated food frequency questionnaires and categorized FVs as having high or low pesticide residue levels based on USDA surveillance data. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of total and site-specific cancer related to quintiles of high- and low-pesticide-residue FV intake. RESULTS: We documented 23,678 incident cancer cases during 2,862,118 person-years of follow-up. In the pooled multivariable analysis, neither high- nor low-pesticide-residue FV intake was associated with cancer. The HRs (95% CI) per 1 serving/day increase in intake were 0.99 (0.97-1.01) for high- and 1.01 (0.99-1.02) for low-pesticide-residue FVs. Additionally, we found no association between high-pesticide-residue FV intake and risk of specific sites, including malignancies previously linked to occupational pesticide exposure ([HR, 95% CI comparing extreme quintiles of intake] lung [1.17 (0.95-1.43)], non-Hodgkin lymphoma [0.89 (0.72-1.09)], prostate [1.31 (0.88-1.93)]) or inversely related to intake of organic foods (breasts [1.03 (0.94-1.31)]). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that overall exposure to pesticides through FV intake is not related to cancer risk, although they do not rule out associations with specific chemicals or sub-types of specific cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Dieta , Seguimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Verduras
3.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 62(7): 388-398, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288135

RESUMO

Maternal fat intake during pregnancy affects fetal growth, but mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. We performed an exploratory study of the associations of fat consumption during pregnancy with cord blood DNA methylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and H19 genes. We used data from 96 uncomplicated full-term pregnancies of mothers of whom majority had normal body mass index (BMI) (66%) in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort. We assessed maternal diet with validated food frequency questionnaires during the first and second trimesters and measured DNA methylation in segments of the IGF2- and H19-differentially methylated regions (DMRs) by pyrosequencing DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood samples. Mean (SD) age was 32.8 (4.1) years and prepregnancy BMI was 24.0 (4.4) kg/m2 . Mean DNA methylation was 56.3% (3.9%) for IGF2-DMR and 44.6% (1.9%) for H19-DMR. Greater first trimester intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fat (effect per 1% of calories at the expense of carbohydrates) was associated with lower DNA methylation of IGF2-DMR (-1.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.2%, -0.2%) and higher DNA methylation at H19-DMR (0.8%; 95% CI: 0.3%, 1.3%). On the other hand, greater first trimester intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fat was associated with lower DNA methylation of the H19-DMR (-4.3%; 95% CI: -7.9%, -0.8%). We did not find significant associations of IGF2 and H19 methylation with IGF2 cord blood levels. Our findings suggest that early prenatal fat intake (omega-3, omega-6, and saturated fatty acids) may influence DNA methylation at the IGF2 and H19 locus, which could impact fetal development and long-term health.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Impressão Genômica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 690-703, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because randomized trials of sustained dietary changes are sometimes impractical for long-term outcomes, the explicit emulation of a (hypothetical) target trial using observational data may be an important tool for nutritional epidemiology. OBJECTIVES: We describe a methodological approach that aims to emulate a target trial of dietary interventions sustained over many years using data from observational cohort studies. METHODS: We estimated the 20-y risk of all-cause mortality under the sustained implementation of the food-based goals of the American Heart Association (AHA) 2020 using data from 3 prospective observational studies of US men [Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS)] and women [Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II)]. We applied the parametric g-formula to estimate the 20-y mortality risk under a dietary intervention and under no dietary intervention. RESULTS: There were 165,411 participants who met the eligibility criteria. The mean age at baseline was 57.4 y (range, 43-82 y) in the HPFS, 52.4 y (range, 39-66 y) in the NHS, and 40.2 y (range, 30-50 y) in the NHS II. During 20 y of follow-up, 13,241 participants died. The estimated 20-y mortality risks under a dietary intervention versus no intervention were 21.9% compared with 25.8%, respectively, in the HPFS (risk difference, -3.9%; 95% CI: -4.9% to -3.2%); 10.0% compared with 12.6%, respectively, in the NHS (risk difference, -2.6%; 95% CI: -3.1% to -1.8%); and 2.1% compared with 2.5%, respectively, in the NHS II (risk difference, -0.35%; 95% CI: -0.56% to -0.09%). The corresponding risk ratios were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.88) in the HPFS, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.75-0.85) in the NHS, and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78-0.96) in the NHS II. CONCLUSIONS: We estimated that adherence to the food-based AHA 2020 Dietary Goals starting in midlife may reduce the 20-y risk of mortality.


Assuntos
American Heart Association , Dieta , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade/tendências , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(6): 1576-1583, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake persists in much of the world, posing ongoing threats to public health that warrant further elucidation. Published evidence suggests a positive association of self-reported TFA intake with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. OBJECTIVES: To confirm those reports, we conducted a prospective study of prediagnosis RBC membrane TFA levels and risk of NHL and common NHL histologic subtypes. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study participants with archived RBC specimens and no history of cancer at blood draw (1989-1090 and 1994-1995, respectively). We confirmed 583 incident NHL cases (332 women and 251 men) and individually matched 583 controls on cohort (sex), age, race, and blood draw date/time. We analyzed RBC membrane TFA using GLC (in 2013-2014) and expressed individual TFA levels as a percentage of total fatty acids. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching factors to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for overall NHL risk per 1 SD increase in TFA level and assessed histologic subtype-specific associations with multivariable polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: Total and individual TFA levels were not associated with risk of all NHL or most subtypes. We observed a positive association of total TFA levels with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) risk [n = 98 cases; OR (95% CI) per 1 SD increase: 1.30 (1.05, 1.61); P = 0.015], driven by trans 18:1n-9(ω-9)/elaidic acid [OR (95% CI): 1.34 (1.08, 1.66); P = 0.007], trans 18:1n-7/vaccenic acid [OR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.04, 1.58); P = 0.023], and trans 18:2n-6t,t [OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.01, 1.57); P = 0.037]. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings extended evidence for TFA intake and DLBCL risk but not for other NHL subtypes. Reduced TFA consumption through dietary choices or health policy measures may support prevention of DLBCL, an aggressive NHL subtype.


Assuntos
Membrana Eritrocítica/química , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Ácidos Graxos trans/química , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1578, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760370

RESUMO

Swine grown under commercial conditions are vulnerable to environmental exposure to several viruses, which may cause infectious diseases and spread easily and rapidly, resulting in significant economic losses in animal husbandry. Previous studies have suggested that probiotics seem to be a new and promising alternative to vaccinations to protect animals against potential viral infections. In this study, we used the Vero cell culture model of infection to study porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). We screened lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with anti-PEDV potential from kefir grains, which are starter cultures used to ferment milk into kefir. Twenty-nine LAB strains were isolated and identified as Enterococcus durans, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactococcus lactis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, according to 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and rpoA gene sequence analyses. The anti-PEDV activities of the LAB intracellular extracts were compared, and the intracellular extracts of Ln. mesenteroides showed higher anti-PEDV activities than that of the other species. Among the Ln. mesenteroides strains, a strain designated YPK30 showed a higher growth rate than that of the other strains and was further evaluated for its anti-PEDV activity. The results showed that the intracellular extracts of Ln. mesenteroides YPK30 possessed in vitro prophylactic, therapeutic, and direct-inhibitory effects against PEDV in the Vero cell model. The expression levels of Type 1 interferon (IFN)-dependent genes, including Myxovirus resistance 1 (MX1) and interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), were significantly increased after treatment with intracellular extracts of Ln. mesenteroides YPK30 for 24 h. Such expression suggests that the anti-PEDV activity of Ln. mesenteroides YPK30 could be attributed to its up-regulatory effect on the expression of MX1 and ISG15 genes. These results suggested that Ln. mesenteroides YPK30 has the potential to provide some levels of host protection against PEDV infections.

7.
Epidemiology ; 31(5): 636-643, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501812

RESUMO

When studying the effect of a prenatal treatment on events in the offspring, failure to produce a live birth is a competing event for events in the offspring. A common approach to handle this competing event is reporting both the treatment-specific probabilities of live births and of the event of interest among live births. However, when the treatment affects the competing event, the latter probability cannot be interpreted as the causal effect among live births. Here we provide guidance for researchers interested in the effects of prenatal treatments on events in the offspring in the presence of the competing event "no live birth." We review the total effect of treatment on a composite event and the total effect of treatment on the event of interest. These causal effects are helpful for decision making but are agnostic about the pathways through which treatment affects the event of interest. Therefore, based on recent work, we also review three causal effects that explicitly consider the pathways through which treatment may affect the event of interest in the presence of competing events: the direct effect of treatment on the event of interest under an intervention to eliminate the competing event, the separable direct and indirect effects of treatment on the event of interest, and the effect of treatment in the principal stratum of those who would have had a live birth irrespective of treatment choice. As an illustrative example, we use a randomized trial of fertility treatments and risk of neonatal complications.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Nascido Vivo , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 34(3): 366-375, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is great interest in understanding whether interventions on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption through pregnancy and early childhood affect adolescent body mass index (BMI). Without data from randomised trials, unbiased estimation of such effects might be achieved with observational data given sufficient and appropriate adjustment for both baseline and time-varying confounders. OBJECTIVES: To illustrate the use of inverse probability (IP) weighting of marginal structural models (MSM) for estimating the effects of SSB consumption through pregnancy and early childhood on the mean early adolescent BMI z-score. METHODS: Our baseline sample consisted of 1584 pregnant women from a pre-birth cohort. We defined 6 intervention intervals: early pregnancy, late pregnancy, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. We fitted a MSM via a weighted linear regression with IP exposure and censoring weights to estimate the mean difference in BMI z-score under interventions: "maintain SSB consumption below (vs above) 0.5 servings/day in all intervals." RESULTS: The estimated difference in mean BMI z-score under interventions maintaining SSB consumption at or below (vs above) 0.5 servings/day from pregnancy to 6 years was -0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.52, -0.08). The effect estimate in pregnancy, while fixing the exposure range in childhood, was -0.05 (95% CI -0.34, 0.23), and in early childhood, while fixing the range in pregnancy was -0.89 (95% CI -1.46, -0.11). The effect estimates were largely unchanged under sensitivity analyses to different implementation choices except for the choice of time interval length. CONCLUSIONS: Under assumptions that include no unmeasured confounding and selection bias, and no model misspecification, results of this IP weighting application are in line with a lower mean BMI z-score in early adolescence under interventions ensuring lower, vs greater, SSB consumption in early life. This application provides a resource for researchers working with longitudinal birth cohort studies and interested in similar causal questions.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Medição de Risco/métodos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causalidade , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Probabilidade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Viés de Seleção
9.
Environ Int ; 132: 105113, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is recommended for the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). FVs are also an important source of exposure to pesticide residues. Whether the relations of FV intake with CHD differ according to pesticide residue status is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of high- and low-pesticide-residue FVs with the risk of CHD. METHODS: We followed 145,789 women and 24,353 men free of cardiovascular disease and cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) at baseline and participating in three ongoing prospective cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS: 1998-2012), the NHS-II (1999-2013), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS: 1998-2012). FV intake was assessed via food frequency questionnaires. We categorized FVs as having high- or low-pesticide-residues using a validated method based on pesticide surveillance data from the US Department of Agriculture. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of CHD in relation to high- and low-pesticide-residue FV intake. RESULTS: A total of 3707 incident CHD events were identified during 2,241,977 person-years of follow-up. In multivariable-adjusted models, a greater intake of low-pesticide-residue FVs was associated with a lower risk of CHD whereas high-pesticide-residue FV intake was unrelated to CHD risk. Specifically, compared with individuals consuming <1 serving/day of low-pesticide-residue FVs, those consuming ≥4 servings/day had 20% (95CI: 4%, 33%) lower risk of CHD. The corresponding HR (comparing ≥4 servings/day to <1 serving/day) for high-pesticide-residue FV intake and CHD was 0.97 (95%CI: 0.72, 1.30). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested exposure to pesticide residues through FV intake may modify some cardiovascular benefits of FV consumption. Further confirmation of these findings, especially using biomarkers for assessment of pesticide exposure, is needed.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Verduras/química , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
10.
Environ Res ; 178: 108729, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521963

RESUMO

Animal models suggest a protective role of antioxidants against the adverse effect of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on insulin resistance. However, no epidemiologic study has examined the effects observed in the animal model. We conduct a study to examine associations of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites (individually and as a mixture) with insulin resistance, along with potential effect modification by serum antioxidant concentrations. This cross-sectional study included 1605 participants (51% males) aged 12-85 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2003-2006). Urinary concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites were measured from spot urine samples. Antioxidant (vitamin A, C, E, and carotenoids) concentrations were measured from a fasting serum sample. We used Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) to evaluate associations between phthalate metabolite mixtures and insulin resistance, and examined whether serum antioxidant levels modified these associations, while accounting for the correlations of multiple concurrent exposures. A change in urinary ΣDEHP concentrations from the 25th to the 75th percentile was associated with a higher log HOMA-IR of 0.07 (95% CI = 0.01, 0.14) (4.85% increase in HOMA-IR). In contrast, the same change in urinary monoethyl phthalate (MEP) was associated with a lower HOMA-IR of -0.07 (95% CI = -0.14, -0.02) (6.68% decrease in HOMA-IR). The positive association between ΣDEHP and HOMA-IR became weaker at higher concentrations of serum ß-carotene. The relationship between MEP and HOMA-IR, however, was not modified by the serum antioxidants examined. The remaining phthalate metabolites were unrelated to HOMA-IR. In this cross-sectional study, the positive association between DEHP exposure and insulin resistance weakened among participants with higher concentrations of serum ß-carotene. As this is the first human report on the protective role of serum ß-carotene on DEHP induced insulin resistance, future studies are needed.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , beta Caroteno/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Nutr ; 149(11): 1977-1984, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized clinical trials show that men's use of antioxidant supplements during infertility treatment may improve clinical outcomes. However, important limitations in the design of most trials make it difficult to draw firm conclusions on their findings. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether men's intake of antioxidants and biologically related compounds without direct antioxidant capacity is associated with outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of men in couples who underwent infertility treatment with ART using their own gametes between 2007 and 2017. We followed 171 couples who presented at Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center and underwent 294 autologous ART cycles for infertility treatment. Diet was assessed in both partners using an FFQ. The primary study outcome was the probability of achieving a live birth as a result of infertility treatment. Secondary outcomes were fertilization, implantation, and clinical pregnancy rates. Generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts were fitted to account for multiple ART cycles per woman while adjusting for confounding. RESULTS: Men's vitamin C intake was positively associated with fertilization rate. The adjusted fertilization rate (95% CI) for couples in the lowest and highest quartiles of men's vitamin C intake were 69% (61-76%) and 81% (74-86%) (P-trend = 0.02). Men's ß-carotene intake was positively associated with fertilization rate in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles but not in conventional in vitro fertilization cycles (P-interaction = 0.01). Men's α-carotene intake was inversely related to the probability of live birth. The adjusted probabilities of live birth for men in the lowest and highest quartiles of α-carotene intake were 43% (28-60%) and 22% (12-36%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Men's intake of vitamin C and ß-carotene is positively related to fertilization rate but this does not translate into higher pregnancy or live birth rates in couples undergoing infertility treatment.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Infertilidade/terapia , beta Caroteno/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Nascido Vivo , Masculino , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3601-3613, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190814

RESUMO

Introduction: Kolliphor® EL (K-EL) is among the most useful surfactants in the preparation of emulsions. However, it is associated with low hydrophobic drug loading in the resulting emulsified formulation. Methods: In this study, a formulation for intranasal administration of butylidenephthalide (Bdph), a candidate drug against glioblastoma (GBM), was prepared. Physical characteristics of the formulation such as particle size, zeta potential, conductivity, and viscosity were assessed, as well as its cytotoxicity and permeability, in order to optimize the formulation and improve its drug loading capacity. Results: The optimized formulation involved the integration of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) in K-EL to encapsulate Bdph dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and it exhibited higher drug loading capacity and drug solubility in water than the old formulation, which did not contain PEG 400. Incorporation of PEG 400 as a co-surfactant increased Bdph loading capacity to up to 50% (v/v), even in formulations using Kolliphor® HS 15 (K-HS15) as a surfactant, which is less compatible with Bdph than K-EL. The optimized Bdph formulation presented 5- and 2.5-fold higher permeability and cytotoxicity, respectively, in human GBM than stock Bdph. This could be attributed to the high drug loading capacity and the high polarity index due to DMSO, which increases the compatibility between the drug and the cell. Rats bearing a brain glioma treated with 160 mg/kg intranasal emulsified Bdph had a mean survival of 37 days, which is the same survival time achieved by treatment with 320 mg/kg stock Bdph. This implies that the optimized emulsified formulation required only half the Bdph dose to achieve an efficacy similar to that of stock Bdph in the treatment of animals with malignant brain tumor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Mucosa Nasal/fisiologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Permeabilidade , Anidridos Ftálicos/química , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Solubilidade , Tensoativos/química , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral , Viscosidade
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 390-398, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077917

RESUMO

Benzophenone-3 is used in a variety of cosmetic products as a sunscreen, and has shown weak estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity in animal and in vitro studies. Few studies have evaluated whether benzophenone-3 is associated with reproductive outcomes among women. We studied 304 women undergoing infertility treatment (2007-2017) in the prospective Environment and Reproductive Health cohort study and who underwent 449 treatment cycles (n = 788 urines). Generalized linear mixed models were used with random intercepts to account for multiple cycles, and adjusting for confounders including physical activity. Analyses were also stratified by self-reported moderate/heavy outdoor work. The cycle-specific median (IQR) urinary benzophenone-3 concentration was 147 (58, 462) µg/L, and 98% samples had detectable concentrations. Self-reported sunscreen use, physical activity, and time spent on moderate/heavy outdoor work were positively associated with urinary benzophenone-3. Adjusted probabilities of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth were higher in increasing quartiles of benzophenone-3, but these associations were restricted to women who reported spending time outdoors performing moderate/heavy work. Specifically, among these women, those in the highest quartile of benzophenone-3 concentrations had 51% higher implantation (p,trend = 0.02), 68% higher clinical pregnancy (p,trend = 0.01) and 75% higher live birth (p,trend = 0.02) adjusted probabilities than women in the lowest quartile. Benzophenone-3 was unrelated to these outcomes among women who did not report doing moderate/heavy work outdoors. These results confirm that sunscreen use is a source of benzophenone-3 exposure, and show positive associations between benzophenone-3 and pregnancy outcomes, especially among women who reported engaging in outdoor work. Since these associations may be subject to important residual confounding by lifestyle factors, further research is needed to confirm these novel results in other populations, and to investigate whether other factors may be affecting the relation of benzophenone-3 with fertility and other health outcomes.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/efeitos adversos , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado da Gravidez , Protetores Solares/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
14.
Environ Int ; 126: 355-362, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously investigated whether urinary concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), parabens, and phthalate metabolites were individually associated with reproductive outcomes among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. However, humans are typically exposed to many man-made chemicals simultaneously. Thus, investigating one chemical at a time may not represent the effect of mixtures. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether urinary concentrations of BPA, parabens, and phthalate metabolite mixtures are associated with reproductive outcomes among women undergoing IVF. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 420 women contributing 648 IVF cycles who provided up to two urine samples per cycle prior to oocyte retrieval (N = 1145) between 2006 and 2017 at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center, and had available urine biomarker data. Urinary concentrations of BPA, parabens, and phthalate metabolites were quantified using isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Intermediate and clinical end-points of IVF treatments were abstracted from electronic medical records. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) were used to identify main patterns of BPA, parabens, and phthalate metabolites concentrations. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the association between PCA-derived factor scores, in quartiles, and IVF outcomes, using random intercepts to account for multiple IVF cycles and adjusting for known confounders. Because of temporal trends in exposure, we conducted a sensitivity analysis restricted to women who underwent IVF cycles in the earlier years of study (2006-2012). RESULTS: Urinary concentrations of BPA, parabens, and most phthalate metabolites were significantly lower during the second half of the study period (2013-2017) than during the first half (2006-2012). None of the three factors derived from the PCA [di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), non-DEHP, and paraben] was associated with IVF outcomes in the main analyses. Similarly, BKRM analyses did not identify any associations of individual urinary concentrations of BPA, paraben and phthalate metabolites with IVF outcomes while accounting for correlation between exposures. However, in sensitivity analyses restricted to women who underwent IVF cycles from 2006 to 2012, where concentrations of most phthalates and phenols were higher, there were decreases in implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth across quartiles of the DEHP factor. Specifically, women in the highest quartile of the DEHP factor had, on average, lower probabilities of implantation (-22% p, trend = 0.08), clinical pregnancy (-24% p, trend = 0.14), and live birth (-38% p, trend = 0.06) compared to women in the lowest quartile. Among this group of women, BKMR results did not identify any single contributor driving the decreased probabilities of live birth within the DEHP factor. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that women undergoing IVF are concurrently exposed to multiple endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). While we found no overall significant associations, we observed diminished pregnancy success with specific clusters of chemicals among women who underwent IVF cycles in earlier years of study, when urinary concentrations of these EDCs were higher.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Fertilização In Vitro , Parabenos/análise , Fenóis/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 220(6): 578.e1-578.e13, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have documented a lower likelihood of live birth with increasing body mass index among women undergoing assisted reproductive technology, but few have examined the association with waist circumference, an anthropometric measure that allows assessment of central adiposity. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between baseline waist circumference and infertility treatment outcomes among women undergoing treatment with assisted reproductive technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We followed up 264 women who underwent 445 assisted reproductive technology cycles for infertility treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 2010 and 2017. Waist circumference was assessed at enrollment. We used cluster-weighted generalized estimating equation models to estimate the probability of live birth by tertiles of waist circumference (<77, 77-86, >86 cm), while accounting for multiple treatment cycles per woman and adjusting for age, race, smoking, infertility diagnosis, day 3 follicle-stimulating hormone, body mass index, and height. RESULTS: Mean (standard deviation) waist circumference and body mass index were 83.6 (12.6) cm and 24.1 (4.3) kg/m2, respectively. Waist circumference and body mass index were positively correlated (r = 0.69, P < .0001). Waist circumference was inversely related to the probability of live birth after adjusting for BMI and other confounders. The multivariable adjusted probability of live birth (95% confidence interval) for women in increasing tertiles of waist circumference were 53% (42-65%), 42% (32-53%), and 38% (28-50%) (P, trend = .04). When women were classified in joint categories of body mass index and waist circumference, women with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ≥77 cm had the lowest live birth rate (38% [27-50%]), whereas women with a body mass index between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference <77 cm had the highest (54% [42-66%]). The results were similar using different waist circumference cut-off values. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference was inversely related to the probability of live birth among women undergoing assisted reproductive technology independently of body mass index.


Assuntos
Infertilidade/terapia , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Materna/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas
16.
Epidemiology ; 30(3): 427-434, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized trials of supplementation with antioxidant mixtures during infertility treatment show no benefit on pregnancy or live birth rate. However, the roles of individual antioxidants are poorly understood. We examined the association of baseline intake of vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids with outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). METHODS: We followed 349 women undergoing a total of 588 ART cycles for infertility treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital. We assessed antioxidant intakes from food and supplements before treatment using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used generalized linear mixed models to account for multiple ART cycles per woman while adjusting for confounding. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age and body mass index were 35.1 years (4.0 years) and 24.1 kg/m (4.3 kg/m), respectively. Total intake of vitamins A, C, and E was not associated with the probability of live birth. Women in the highest intake category of ß-carotene from foods had a lower probability of live birth than women in the lowest intake quartile (50% vs. 22%; P trend = 0.03); for lutein and zeaxanthin, the probability for the highest intake group was 44% vs. 28% for the lowest. Intake of ß-carotene from supplements and intakes of retinol and all other carotenoids were unrelated to live birth rates. CONCLUSIONS: We found unexpected inverse associations of ß-carotene intake from foods and of lutein and zeaxanthin intake with live birth rates. Within the observed intake ranges, total consumption of vitamins A, C, and E before starting infertility treatment with ART was not associated with live birth rates.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 220(6): 567.e1-567.e18, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing acceptance that nutrition may be related to fertility and specifically to assisted reproductive technologies success in women; however, there is still no specific dietary guidance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between pretreatment adherence to various dietary patterns and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies. STUDY DESIGN: We followed up 357 women enrolled in the prospective Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) study, who underwent 608 assisted reproductive technologies cycles (2007-2017). Using a validated food frequency questionnaire completed prior to treatment, we assessed adherence to the Mediterranean diet, the alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010, the Fertility Diet (developed based on risk factors for anovulatory infertility), and a profertility diet we developed based on factors previously related to assisted reproductive technologies outcomes (higher intake of supplemental folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin D, low- rather than high-pesticide residue produce, whole grains, dairy, soy foods, and seafood rather than other meats). RESULTS: Higher adherence to the alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 and Fertility Diet was not related to live birth following assisted reproductive technologies. Women in the second through the fourth quartiles of Mediterranean diet adherence had significantly higher probability of live birth (0.44, 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.49) compared with women in the first quartile (0.31, 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.39); however, there was no additional benefit of adherence to the Mediterranean diet above the second quartile. Increased adherence to the profertility diet was linearly associated with assisted reproductive technologies outcomes. The adjusted odds (95% confidence interval) of implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth were higher by 47% (21%, 77%), 43% (19%, 72%), and 53% (26%, 85%), respectively, per SD increase. The adjusted difference in the proportion of cycles resulting in live birth for women in the fourth vs first quartile of adherence to the profertility diet was 0.28 (95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.38). While the profertility diet was not related to estradiol levels, oocyte counts, or endometrial thickness, it was inversely associated with clinical pregnancy loss (odds ratio, 0.69, 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.90 per SD increase). CONCLUSION: Higher pretreatment adherence to the profertility diet was associated with an increased probability of live birth among women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies. Commonly recommended dietary advice such as adhering to the Mediterranean diet may not provide the most appropriate guidance for women undergoing infertility treatment in the United States.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Taxa de Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Adulto , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Frutas , Humanos , Oócitos , Praguicidas , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Gravidez , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Verduras
18.
Environ Res ; 168: 389-396, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) have been associated with gestational diabetes (GDM) risk factors. However, no human study has investigated the association between pregnancy exposure to parabens, a class of EDCs, and pregnancy glucose levels, a risk factor for GDM. Furthermore, little is known about this association in subfertile women-a group at high risk of GDM. METHODS: A total of 241 women from the Environment and Reproductive Health Study had data available on 1st and/or 2nd trimester urinary methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben concentrations, and blood glucose levels after the glucose loading test (GLT), a non-fasting 50 g glucose loading test taken at late 2nd trimester. Trimester-specific associations between specific gravity adjusted methylparaben, butylparaben, and propylparaben with adjusted mean of pregnancy glucose levels were evaluated in linear regression models, using quartiles of each paraben's distribution, and as a paraben mixture, using mutual adjustment and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), a recently proposed method for investigating chemical mixtures that flexibly models the joint effect of chemicals. RESULTS: Investigating parabens one at the time did not provide any significant results. When investigating parabens as a chemical mixture with both multiple regression and BKMR, we observed positive associations of butylparaben (e.g comparing the 4th and 1st quartiles) with glucose levels, for both the 1st trimester (adjusted difference=12.5 mg/dL; 95% CI: 0.9, 24.2) and 2nd trimester (adjusted difference=11.2 mg/dL; 95% CI: 0.2, 22.3), and a negative association between 1st trimester propylparaben and glucose (adjusted difference=-22.3 mg/dL; 95% CI: -43.2, -1.4). CONCLUSIONS: We found 1st trimester butylparaben and propylparaben urinary concentrations to be associated with glucose levels in a pregnancy cohort of women at high risk of GDM, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Because exposure to parabens is widespread, these findings may suggest further investigating the effects of this chemical class on pregnancy health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Parabenos/metabolismo , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez
19.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 2): 1297-1303, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple meta-analyses have shown sperm count declines in Western countries spanning eight decades. Secular trends in other parameters remain unclear, as are potential predictors of these trends. OBJECTIVE: To analyze secular trends in semen quality and to evaluate whether factors previously found to be related to semen quality were responsible for these patterns. METHODS: This is a prospective study including 936 men of couples seeking infertility treatment who provided 1618 semen samples at a single center (2000-2017). Self-reported demographic, nutritional and reproductive characteristics were collected using standardized questionnaires. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A, parabens and phthalates were quantified by isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Semen samples were analyzed for volume, sperm concentration, count, motility and morphology following WHO guidelines. We estimated the differences in semen parameters over time by fitting generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts to account for repeated samples while adjusting for abstinence time. We also adjusted for demographic, nutritional and environmental factors to investigate these as potential predictors of time trends. RESULTS: Sperm concentration and count declined by 2.62% per year (95% CI -3.84, -1.38) and 3.12% per year (95% CI: -4.42, -1.80), corresponding to an overall decline of 37% and 42%, respectively, between 2000 and 2017. Decreasing trends were also observed for total motility (per year: -0.44 percentage units, 95% CI -0.71, -0.17) and morphologically normal sperm (per year: -0.069 percentage units, 95% CI -0.116, -0.023). These decreases reflected relative percentage declines of 15% and 16% over the 17 year study period, respectively. When reproductive factors were included in the model, the downward trends in sperm concentration and sperm count were attenuated by 29% and 26%, respectively, while the trends in motility and morphology were attenuated by 54% and 53%, respectively. Also, the downward trends in both sperm concentration and sperm morphology over time were attenuated by 19% when including the DEHP and non-DEHP metabolites, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Sperm concentration, total count, motility and morphology significantly declined between 2000 and 2017 among subfertile men. These negative trends were attenuated when considering simultaneous changes in reproductive characteristics and urinary phthalates during the course of the study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Reprodução , Sêmen/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Adulto , Boston , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise do Sêmen , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(5): 1104-1112, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475972

RESUMO

Background: Some dietary factors have been linked to outcomes of infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technology (ART), but the role of intake of meats and other protein-rich foods remains unclear. Objective: The aim of this manuscript was to study the relation between preconception intake of meat and other protein-rich foods and outcomes of infertility treatment with ART. Design: A total of 351 women enrolled in a prospective cohort at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center and underwent 598 ART cycles for infertility treatment. Meat intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and ART outcomes were abstracted from electronic medical records. We estimated the associations between intake of protein-rich foods (meats, eggs, beans, nuts, and soy) and the outcome of live birth per initiated cycle using generalized linear mixed models. Results: The average total meat intake was 1.2 servings/d, with most coming from poultry (35%), fish (25%), processed meat (22%), and red meat (17%). Fish intake was positively related to the proportion of cycles resulting in live birth. The multivariable-adjusted probabilities of live birth for women in increasing quartiles of fish intake were 34.2% (95% CI: 26.5%, 42.9%), 38.4% (95% CI: 30.3%, 47.3%), 44.7% (95% CI: 36.3%, 53.4%), and 47.7% (95% CI: 38.3%, 57.3%), respectively (P-trend = 0.04). In the estimated substitution analyses, the ORs of live birth associated with increasing fish intake by 2 servings/wk were 1.54 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.07) when fish replaced any other meat, 1.50 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.98) when fish replaced any other protein-rich food, and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.35) when fish replaced processed meat. Conclusions: Fish consumption is related to a higher probability of live birth following infertility treatment with ART. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00011713.


Assuntos
Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Peixes , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Alimentos Marinhos , Adulto , Animais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Nascido Vivo , Massachusetts , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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