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1.
Cancer ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a high recurrence risk and poor clinical outcomes. Associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk components and mortality in postmenopausal women with TNBC were examined in the Women's Health Initiative. METHODS: Five hundred forty-four postmenopausal women were diagnosed with nonmetastatic TNBC. Baseline risk components included a high waist circumference (≥88 cm), high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Groups were categorized by the number of MetS risk components: none, 1 or 2, or 3 or 4. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across groups were computed with multivariable adjusted Cox models. Outcomes included breast cancer-specific mortality and breast cancer overall mortality (breast cancer followed by death from any cause). Variables in the multivariable model included age at TNBC diagnosis; race/ethnicity; income; education; clinical/observational trial status; history of oral contraceptive, hormone, and/or statin use; cancer stage; and chemotherapy and/or radiation treatment status. RESULTS: Of the 544 participants with TNBC, 33% had no MetS risk components (n = 178), 59% had 1 or 2 risk components (n = 323), and 8% had 3 or 4 risk components (n = 43). After a median follow-up from diagnosis of 8.3 years, multivariable results showed that women with 3 or 4 risk components had a nonsignificantly higher risk of breast cancer mortality (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 0.94-4.47 trend P = .114) and a significantly higher risk of overall mortality (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.22-3.71; trend P = .006) versus women with 0 risk components. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal women with TNBC and 3 or 4 MetS risk components have a nonsignificantly higher breast cancer mortality risk and a significantly higher overall mortality risk, likely because of negative influences of metabolic risk factors on several causes of death.

3.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic abnormalities are a leading cause of death among women, including women with cancer. METHODS: This study examined the association between prediagnosis cardiovascular health and total and cause-specific mortality among 12,076 postmenopausal women who developed local- or regional-stage invasive cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Cardiovascular risk factors included waist circumference, hypertension, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes. Obesity-related cancers included breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for important predictors of survival. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 10.0 years from the date of the cancer diagnosis, there were 3607 total deaths, with 1546 (43%) due to cancer. Most participants (62.9%) had 1 or 2 cardiometabolic risk factors, and 8.1% had 3 or 4. In adjusted models, women with 3 to 4 risk factors (vs none) had a higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.73-2.30), death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) (HR, 4.01; 95% CI, 2.88-5.57), cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.1-1.72), and other-cause mortality (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.70-2.69). A higher waist circumference was associated with greater all-cause mortality (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.30) and cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Among postmenopausal women diagnosed with cancer in the WHI, cardiometabolic risk factors before the cancer diagnosis were associated with greater all-cause, CVD, cancer-specific, and other-cause mortality. These results raise hypotheses regarding potential clinical intervention strategies targeting cardiometabolic abnormalities that require future prospective studies for confirmation. LAY SUMMARY: This study uses information from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) to find out whether cardiac risk factors are related to a greater risk of dying among older women with cancer. The WHI is the largest study of medical problems faced by older women in this country. The results show that women who have 3 or 4 risk factors are more likely to die of any cause, heart disease, or cancer in comparison with women with no risk factors. It is concluded that interventions to help to lower the burden of cardiac risk factors can have an important impact on survivorship among women with cancer.

4.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025002

RESUMO

The health benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy among women aged 50-59 years are examined in the Women's Health Initiative randomized, placebo-controlled trials using long-term follow-up data and a parsimonious statistical model that leverages data from older participants to increase precision. These trials enrolled 27,347 healthy post-menopausal women aged 50-79 at 40 U.S. clinical centers during 1993-1998, including 10,739 post-hysterectomy participants in a trial of conjugated equine estrogens, and 16,608 participants with uterus in the trial of these estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. Over an 18-year (median) follow-up period (1993-2016) risk for a global index, defined as the earliest of coronary heart disease, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, hip fracture, and all-cause mortality, is reduced with conjugated equine estrogens with hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.82 (0.71, 0.95), and with nominally significant reductions for coronary heart disease, breast cancer, hip fracture and all-cause mortality. Corresponding global index hazard ratio estimates of 1.06 (0.95, 1.19) were non-significant for combined estrogens plus progestin, but increased breast cancer risk and reduced endometrial cancer risk were observed. These results, among women 50-59, substantially agree with the worldwide observational literature, with the exception of breast cancer for estrogens alone.

5.
Breast J ; 26(11): 2199-2202, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if clinicopathologic (CP) factors could identify patients at "very low" and/or "very high" pretest probability of a high Oncotype DX (ODX) score. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients that had ODX testing 2008-2018 at a single institution. RESULTS: Of 215 patients, all 16 (7.4%) with "all high" risk CP factors had high ODX scores, and all 45 (20.9%) over age 50 with "all low" risk CP factors had ODX recommendations for no chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Oncotype DX results did not change chemotherapy recommendations in those with "very low" or "very high" pretest probability of high ODX scores.

7.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(12): 4687-4694, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status is pivotal to determining the prognosis and treatment of human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptor-negative invasive breast cancer. Frequently ER-positive (ER+) and/or PR-positive (PR+) cancers are labeled nonspecifically as "hormone receptor-positive" although only one is positive. This study aimed to evaluate and characterize the ER+PR- and ER-PR+ breast cancer phenotypes in reference to ER+PR+ cancers. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of female patients with HER2-negative (HER2-) invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2010-2015 was performed using the National Cancer Database. Cases were grouped into ER+PR+, ER-PR+, ER+PR-, and ER-PR- phenotypes to determine differences in patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and overall survival. RESULTS: Of 823,969 cases, 619,050 (75.1%) were ER+PR+, 79,777 (9.7%) were ER+PR-, 7006 (0.9%) were ER-PR+, and 118,136 (14.3%) were ER-PR-. Compared with the ER+PR+ group, the ER+PR- and ER-PR+ groups were more likely to be high-grade cancer (16.0% vs. 34.2% and 80.0%, respectively; p < 0.001), to have lymphovascular invasion (17.9% vs. 19.6% and 23.0%; p < 0.001), to be node-positive (13.5% vs. 19.7% and 26.3%; p < 0.001), to be stage 4 cancer (3.6% vs. 5.9% and 6.7%; p < 0.001), to have a higher multigene assay score (mean, 16.0 vs. 27.8 and 38.1; p < 0.001), and to have a worse survival (90.6% vs. 83.8% and 78.1%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Single hormone receptor-positive breast cancer subtypes (ER+PR- and ER-PR+) are more likely to have unfavorable characteristics and worse survival than the ER+PR+ subtype, with the ER-PR+ subtype having outcomes similar to those for ER-PR- cancers. The single hormone receptor-positive subtypes, representing 10% of HER2- cancers, should be considered clinically distinct from ER+PR+ disease.

8.
JAMA ; 324(4): 369-380, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721007

RESUMO

Importance: The influence of menopausal hormone therapy on breast cancer remains unsettled with discordant findings from observational studies and randomized clinical trials. Objective: To assess the association of prior randomized use of estrogen plus progestin or prior randomized use of estrogen alone with breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: Long-term follow-up of 2 placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials that involved 27 347 postmenopausal women aged 50 through 79 years with no prior breast cancer and negative baseline screening mammogram. Women were enrolled at 40 US centers from 1993 to 1998 with follow-up through December 31, 2017. Interventions: In the trial involving 16 608 women with a uterus, 8506 were randomized to receive 0.625 mg/d of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) plus 2.5 mg/d of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 8102, placebo. In the trial involving 10 739 women with prior hysterectomy, 5310 were randomized to receive 0.625 mg/d of CEE alone and 5429, placebo. The CEE-plus-MPA trial was stopped in 2002 after 5.6 years' median intervention duration, and the CEE-only trial was stopped in 2004 after 7.2 years' median intervention duration. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was breast cancer incidence (protocol prespecified primary monitoring outcome for harm) and secondary outcomes were deaths from breast cancer and deaths after breast cancer. Results: Among 27 347 postmenopausal women who were randomized in both trials (baseline mean [SD] age, 63.4 years [7.2 years]), after more than 20 years of median cumulative follow-up, mortality information was available for more than 98%. CEE alone compared with placebo among 10 739 women with a prior hysterectomy was associated with statistically significantly lower breast cancer incidence with 238 cases (annualized rate, 0.30%) vs 296 cases (annualized rate, 0.37%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.93; P = .005) and was associated with statistically significantly lower breast cancer mortality with 30 deaths (annualized mortality rate, 0.031%) vs 46 deaths (annualized mortality rate, 0.046%; HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37-0.97; P = .04). In contrast, CEE plus MPA compared with placebo among 16 608 women with a uterus was associated with statistically significantly higher breast cancer incidence with 584 cases (annualized rate, 0.45%) vs 447 cases (annualized rate, 0.36%; HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13-1.45; P < .001) and no significant difference in breast cancer mortality with 71 deaths (annualized mortality rate, 0.045%) vs 53 deaths (annualized mortality rate, 0.035%; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.94-1.95; P= .11). Conclusions and Relevance: In this long-term follow-up study of 2 randomized trials, prior randomized use of CEE alone, compared with placebo, among women who had a previous hysterectomy, was significantly associated with lower breast cancer incidence and lower breast cancer mortality, whereas prior randomized use of CEE plus MPA, compared with placebo, among women who had an intact uterus, was significantly associated with a higher breast cancer incidence but no significant difference in breast cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Histerectomia , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Risco
9.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(26): 3071-3072, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614701
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2096-2099, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is biologically plausible that genotoxic estrogens, namely estrogen DNA adducts (EDA), have a role in breast cancer development. Support comes from three prior studies that reported elevated concentrations of EDA relative to estrogen metabolites and conjugates (EDA:EMC) in women with breast cancer relative to control women. METHODS: In postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), EDA:EMC in 191 controls was compared with findings in 194 prediagnosis urine samples from breast cancer cases. EDA:EMC determinations were by mass spectrometry as previously described, and logistic regression was employed to estimate ORs. RESULTS: EDA:EMC did not differ in breast cancer cases compared with controls overall [0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.23)], with a mean (SD) of 2.3 (0.8) and 2.4 (1.1) in cases and controls, respectively. Similarly, the ratio did not differ when examined by estrogen receptor or recency of biospecimen collection prior to breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the demonstrated genotoxic properties of certain catechol estrogens resulting in EDAs, this analysis did not provide evidence for an increased breast cancer risk in relation to an elevated EDA:EMC. IMPACT: This analysis, conducted prospectively within postmenopausal women in the WHI study, suggests that a strong association between EDA:EMC and breast cancer could be ruled out, as this study was powered to detect an OR of 2.2 or greater.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e207227, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602908

RESUMO

Importance: Interval breast cancers (IBCs) are cancers that emerge after a mammogram with negative results but before the patient's next scheduled screening. Interval breast cancer has a worse prognosis than cancers detected by screening; however, it is unknown whether the length of the interscreening period is associated with prognostic features and mortality. Objective: To compare the prognostic features and mortality rate of women with IBCs diagnosed within 1 year or between 1 and 2.5 years of a mammogram with negative results with the prognostic features and mortality rate of women with breast cancers detected by screening. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used mammography data, tumor characteristics, and patient demographic data from the Women's Health Initiative study, which recruited participants from 1993 to 1998 and followed up with participants for a median of 19 years. The present study sample for these analyses included women aged 50 to 79 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative study and includes data collected through March 31, 2018. There were 5455 incidents of breast cancer; only 3019 women compliant with screening were retained in analyses. Statistical analysis was performed from October 25, 2018, to November 24, 2019. Breast cancers detected by screening and IBCs were defined based on mammogram history, date of last mammogram, type of visit, and results of examination. Interval breast cancers were subdivided into those occurring within 1 year or between 1 and 2.5 years after the last protocol-mandated mammogram with negative results. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome of this study was breast cancer-specific mortality for each case of breast cancer detected by screening and IBCs detected within 1 year or between 1 and 2.5 years from a mammogram with negative results. Secondary outcomes included prognostic and tumor characteristics for each group. Comparisons between groups were made using the t test, the χ2 test, and Fine-Gray multivariable cumulative incidence regression analyses. Results: Among the 3019 participants in this analysis, all were women with a mean (SD) age of 63.1 (6.8) years at enrollment and 68.5 (7.1) years at diagnosis. A total of 1050 cases of IBC were identified, with 324 (30.9%) diagnosed within 1 year from a mammogram with negative results and 726 (69.1%) diagnosed between 1 and 2.5 years after last mammogram with negative results. The remaining 1969 cases were breast cancers detected by screening. Interval breast cancers diagnosed within 1 year from a mammogram with negative results had significantly more lobular histologic characteristics (13.0% vs. 8.1%), a larger tumor size (1.97 cm vs 1.43 cm), a higher clinical stage (28.4% vs 17.3% regional and 3.7% vs 0.6% distant), and more lymph node involvement (27.1% vs 17.0%) than cancers detected by screening. Unadjusted breast cancer-specific mortality hazard ratios were significantly higher for IBCs diagnosed within 1 year from a mammogram with negative results compared with breast cancers detected by screening (hazard ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.39-2.65). Higher breast cancer-specific mortality remained statistically significant for IBCs diagnosed within 1 year after adjusting for trial group, molecular subtype, waist to hip ratio, histologic characteristics, and either tumor size (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.03-2.08) or lymph node involvement (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.03-2.01). However, significance was lost when tumor size and lymph node involvement were both included in the model (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.96-1.88). Interval breast cancers diagnosed between 1 and 2.5 years from a mammogram with negative results were not different from breast cancers detected by screening based on prognostic factors or mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: Women with IBCs diagnosed within 1 year of negative mammogram results overall were associated with worse survival than women with breast cancers detected by screening. These differences in survival may be due to a uniquely aggressive biology among IBC cases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde da Mulher
12.
Cancer ; 126(16): 3638-3647, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with higher all-cause and cancer-specific mortality in postmenopausal women. However, to the authors' knowledge, information regarding insulin resistance and breast cancer mortality risk is limited. Therefore, the authors examined associations between insulin resistance and breast cancer incidence and mortality in a subsample of Women's Health Initiative participants. METHODS: A total of 22,837 postmenopausal women with fasting baseline glucose and insulin levels were followed for incident breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Breast cancers were verified by medical record review and serial National Death Index linkage-enhanced mortality findings. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for quartile comparisons. Outcomes included breast cancer incidence, deaths from breast cancer, and deaths after breast cancer (breast cancer followed by death from any cause). RESULTS: During a median of 19.8 years of follow-up of 1328 breast cancer cases, there were 512 deaths reported, 151 of which were from breast cancer. Breast cancer incidence was higher in women in the highest HOMA-IR quartile (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.12-1.61 [P for trend = .003]). Although HOMA-IR was not found to be associated with risk of death from breast cancer (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.60-1.79), women in the highest versus those in the lowest HOMA-IR quartile were at a higher risk of death after breast cancer (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.32-2.39 [P for trend <.001]). CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women are associated with higher breast cancer incidence and higher all-cause mortality after breast cancer.

13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(9): 972-981, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314781

RESUMO

Dual-outcome intention-to-treat hazard rate analyses have potential to complement single-outcome analyses for the evaluation of treatments or exposures in relation to multivariate time-to-response outcomes. Here we consider pairs formed from important clinical outcomes to obtain further insight into influences of menopausal hormone therapy on chronic disease. As part of the Women's Health Initiative, randomized, placebo-controlled hormone therapy trials of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) among posthysterectomy participants and of these same estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) among participants with an intact uterus were carried out at 40 US clinical centers (1993-2016). These data provide the context for analyses covering the trial intervention periods and a nearly 20-year (median) cumulative duration of follow-up. The rates of multiple outcome pairs were significantly influenced by hormone therapy, especially over cumulative follow-up, providing potential clinical and mechanistic insights. For example, among women randomized to either regimen, hazard ratios for pairs defined by fracture during intervention followed by death from any cause were reduced and hazard ratios for pairs defined by gallbladder disease followed by death were increased, though these findings may primarily reflect single-outcome associations. In comparison, hazard ratios for diabetes followed by death were reduced with CEE but not with CEE + MPA, and those for hypertension followed by death were increased with CEE + MPA but not with CEE.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(4): e15906, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding how older patients with chronic illnesses use the internet to obtain health information is relevant for the design of digital interventions aimed at improving the health and well-being of adults aged 65 years and older; this cohort represents the sickest, most expensive, and fastest-growing segment of the US population. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to describe online health information-seeking behavior among older patients with chronic illnesses and to compare the characteristics of patients who report using the internet to obtain health information with those who do not. METHODS: The study population included 72,806 women aged 65 years and older enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), a national cohort study, who completed a 2014 supplemental questionnaire assessing everyday technology use and internet use for researching health conditions. Comparisons were made between participants with and without a history of chronic illness and between users and nonusers of online sources for health information. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Of the total, 59% (42,887/72,806) of older women used the internet for health information. Compared with women who did not use the internet to obtain health information, those who used the internet were younger (median age: 76 vs 81 years), more likely to be non-Hispanic white (90% [38,481/42,887] vs 87% [26,017/29,919]), earned a higher income (over $US 50,000: 55% [23,410/42,887] vs 33% [9991/29,919]), achieved a higher educational level (more than high school: 87% [37,493/42,887] vs 75% [22,377/29,919]), and were more likely to live with a partner (52% [22,457/42,887] vs 36% [10,759/29,919]) (all P<.001). Women with Alzheimer disease were least likely to report online health information-seeking compared to those without the disease (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.38-0.43). In contrast, women with a recent diagnosis of cancer, within the previous 2 years (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.36) or 2-5 years ago (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.19), were most likely to use the internet for health information. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 6 in 10 older women participating in the WHI reported using the internet to obtain health information. Patients recently diagnosed with cancer are more likely to be looking for health information online, even after adjustment for age, suggesting that these patients may have a greater need for digital health resources.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação/fisiologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Saúde da Mulher/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Oncologist ; 25(8): 712-721, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical trials have evaluated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEis), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and beta blockers (BBs) in relation to cardiotoxicity in patients with cancer, typically defined by ejection fraction declines. However, these trials have not examined long-term, hard clinical endpoints. Within a prospective study, we examined the risk of heart failure (HF) and coronary heart disease (CHD) events in relation to use of commonly used antihypertensive medications, including ACEis/ARBs, BBs, calcium channel blockers (CCB), and diuretics, comparing women with and without cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cohort of 56,997 Women's Health Initiative study participants free of cardiovascular disease who received antihypertensive treatment, we used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of developing CHD, HF, and a composite outcome of cardiac events (combining CHD and HF) in relation to use of ACEis/ARBs, CCBs, or diuretics versus BBs, separately in women with and without cancer. RESULTS: Whereas there was no difference in risk of cardiac events comparing ACEi/ARB with BB use among cancer-free women (HR = 0.99 [0.88-1.12]), among cancer survivors ACEi/ARB users were at a 2.24-fold risk of total cardiac events (1.18-4.24); p-interaction = .06). When investigated in relation to CHD only, an increased risk was similarly observed in ACEi/ARB versus BB use for cancer survivors (HR = 1.87 [0.88-3.95]) but not in cancer-free women (HR = 0.91 [0.79-1.06]; p-interaction = .04). A similar pattern was also seen in relation to HF but did not reach statistical significance (p-interaction = .23). CONCLUSION: These results from this observational study suggest differing risks of cardiac events in relation to antihypertensive medications depending on history of cancer. Although these results require replication before becoming actionable in a clinical setting, they suggest the need for more rigorous examination of the effect of antihypertensive choice on long-term cardiac outcomes in cancer survivors. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Although additional research is needed to replicate these findings, these data from a large, nationally representative sample of postmenopausal women indicate that beta blockers are favorable to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in reducing the risk of cardiac events among cancer survivors. This differs from the patterns observed in a noncancer cohort, which largely mirrors what is found in the randomized clinical trials in the general population.

17.
Menopause ; 27(6): 632-639, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized trial identified age differences in the benefit-risk profile of estrogen-alone (ET) use. The impact of WHI trial on disease-associated medical expenditures attributable to subsequent decreased ET utilization has, however, not been measured. Therefore, the objective of this analysis was to quantify the age-specific disease-associated medical expenditures attributable to reduced ET utilization after the WHI Hormone Therapy (HT) trials. METHODS: Population-level disease counts and associated expenditures between 2003 and 2015 were compared between an observed ET-user population versus a hypothetical ET-user population assuming absence of the WHI HT trials, constructed by extrapolating ET utilization rates from 1996 to 2002 assuming pre-WHI HT rates would have continued without publication of the WHI HT trial data (2002-2004). Analyses were stratified by age (50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years). Input data were extracted from Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the literature. The primary outcomes were: ET utilization, chronic diseases (breast cancer, stroke, coronary heart disease, colorectal cancer, pulmonary embolism, and hip fracture) and disease-associated direct medical expenditures. RESULTS: Over 13 years, the decline in ET utilization was associated with $4.1 billion expenditure for excess chronic diseases (37,549 excess events) among women in their 50s, compared to savings of $1.5 billion and $4.4 billion for diseases averted by lower ET utilization among women in their 60s (13,495 fewer events) and 70s (40,792 fewer events), respectively. CONCLUSION: The decline in ET utilization had differential disease and expenditure consequences by age groups in the United States. These results are limited by the lack of inclusion of vasomotor symptom benefit and costs of alternative medications for these symptoms in the analysis.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(6): 1128-1134, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in patients with colorectal cancer have been consistently associated with higher mortality in observational studies. It is unclear whether low 25(OH)D levels directly influence colorectal cancer mortality. To minimize bias, we use genetic variants associated with vitamin D levels to evaluate the association with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival. METHODS: Six genetic variants have been robustly identified to be associated with 25(OH)D levels in genome-wide association studies. On the basis of data from the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium, the individual genetic variants and a weighted genetic risk score were tested for association with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox proportional hazards models in 7,657 patients with stage I to IV colorectal cancer, of whom 2,438 died from any cause and 1,648 died from colorectal cancer. RESULTS: The 25(OH)D decreasing allele of SNP rs2282679 (GC gene, encodes group-specific component/vitamin D-binding protein) was associated with poorer colorectal cancer-specific survival, although not significant after multiple-testing correction. None of the other five SNPs showed an association. The genetic risk score showed nonsignificant associations with increased overall [HR = 1.54; confidence interval (CI), 0.86-2.78] and colorectal cancer-specific mortality (HR = 1.76; 95% CI, 0.86-3.58). A significant increased risk of overall mortality was observed in women (HR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.45-7.33; P heterogeneity = 0.01) and normal-weight individuals (HR = 4.14; 95% CI, 1.50-11.43, P heterogeneity = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided little evidence for an association of genetic predisposition of lower vitamin D levels with increased overall or colorectal cancer-specific survival, although power might have been an issue. IMPACT: Further studies are warranted to investigate the association in specific subgroups.

19.
Cancer ; 126(13): 2956-2964, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212335

RESUMO

After reports from the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial evaluating estrogen plus progestin, there was a sudden, substantial, and sustained decrease in all categories of menopausal hormone therapy, and the first reduction in age-adjusted breast cancer incidence in more than 20 years was seen in 2003-2004 among US women 50 years of age or older. Subsequent trends in breast cancer incidence have been described, but most reports have not focused on the postmenopausal age group or fully engaged the potential influence of reduced hormone therapy on breast cancer incidence trends by race/ethnicity. To address this gap, this commentary examines trends for annual age-adjusted breast cancer incidence over a 40-year period from 1975 to 2015 for white and black women on the basis of findings from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 registries. Overall, the sharp decline in breast cancer incidence seen in 2003-2004 was followed in the subsequent decade by a continued low breast cancer incidence plateau in white women that has largely persisted. In contrast, a new discordance between breast cancer incidence trends in black and white women has emerged. In the 2005-2015 decade, a sustained increase in breast cancer incidence in black women has resulted in annual incidence rates comparable, for the first time, to those in white women. This commentary explores the hypothesis that the over-decade-long and discordant changes in breast cancer incidence rates in postmenopausal black and white women are, to a large extent, associated with changes in hormone therapy use in these 2 groups.

20.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(13): 1419-1428, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031879

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Observational studies of dietary fat intake and breast cancer have reported inconsistent findings. This topic was addressed in additional analyses of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Dietary Modification (DM) clinical trial that evaluated a low-fat dietary pattern influence on breast cancer incidence. METHODS: In the WHI DM trial, 48,835 postmenopausal women, ages 50-79 years, with no prior breast cancer, and a dietary fat intake of ≥ 32% of energy were randomly assigned at 40 US centers to a usual diet comparison group (60%) or dietary intervention group (40%). The goals were to reduce fat intake to 20% of energy and increase vegetable, fruit, and grain intake. Breast cancers were confirmed after central medical record review and serial National Death Index linkages to enhance mortality findings. RESULTS: During 8.5 years of dietary intervention, breast cancer incidence and deaths as a result of breast cancer were nonsignificantly lower in the intervention group, while deaths after breast cancer were statistically significantly lower both during intervention and through a 16.1-year (median) follow-up. Now, after a long-term, cumulative 19.6-year (median) follow-up, the significant reduction in deaths after breast cancer persists (359 [0.12%] v 652 [0.14%] deaths; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.96; P = .01), and a statistically significant reduction in deaths as a result of breast cancer (breast cancer followed by death attributed to the breast cancer) emerged (132 [0.037%, annualized risk] v 251 [0.047%] deaths, respectively; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.97; P = .02). CONCLUSION: Adoption of a low-fat dietary pattern associated with increased vegetable, fruit, and grain intake, demonstrably achievable by many, may reduce the risk of death as a result of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

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