Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594736

RESUMO

The solid-state 15N NMR powder spectra of the thorium nitride complex, [K(18-crown-6)(THF)2][(R2N)3Th(µ-15N)Th(NR2)3] ([K][1-15N], R = SiMe3), and the thorium amide complex, [Th(NR2)3(15NH2)] (2-15N), were recorded. The spectrum for [K][1-15N] represents the first reported solid-state 15N NMR data for an actinide complex. The experimentally measured tensor spans are Ω = 847 ppm for [K][1-15N] and Ω = 237 ppm for 2-15N. Both shielding tensors exhibit axial symmetry, which for [K][1-15N] is consistent with a local rotational symmetry of its 15N-labeled nitride ligand. For 2-15N, the axial asymmetry can be rationalized by a quasi-free Th-NH2 bond rotation in the solid-state. Density functional theory calculations overestimate the tensor span somewhat for [K][1-15N], but provide isotropic shifts in good agreement with both the solid-state and solution values for both complexes. Natural localized molecular orbital analyses of the nuclear shielding reveal that the larger tensor span in [K][1-15N] vs 2-15N is primarily a consequence of more pronounced covalency of the σ(N-Th) bonds and large spin-orbit coupling due to significant Th 5f orbital contribution to those bonds, impacting the principal components of the shielding tensor perpendicular to the Th-N-Th axis. Overall, our analysis confirms the involvement of the 5f orbitals in Th-N multiple bonds and further demonstrates the value of solid-state NMR spectroscopy for interrogating actinide-ligand bonding.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 58(20): 14015-14023, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498596

RESUMO

Dilute aqueous pertechnic acid has long been known as strong monoprotic acid that behaves as a simple pertechnetate ion in aqueous solution. As pertechnic acid concentrates by evaporation, it becomes yellow and then dark red, and dark-red crystalline material may ultimately be obtained. We show that as pertechnic acid concentrates, at least three compounds are formed: a yellow viscous liquid, a colorless (not red) crystalline solid, and a small amount of an intensely colored red-purple compound. The colorless crystalline compound melts at 118 °C and can be melted and recrystallized several times with little decomposition. The red-purple compound is apparently not stable at room temperature and quickly decomposes if it is isolated. UV-vis spectra show that Beer's law does not hold as pertechnic acid concentrates by evaporation. We report densities, 99Tc nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra for highly pure aqueous pertechnic acid (accompanied by the other technetium compounds that form) ranging from 1 to 14 M in technetium concentration.

3.
ACS Omega ; 4(5): 8167-8177, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31459906

RESUMO

A comprehensive molecular analysis of a simple aqueous complexing system-U(VI) acetate-selected to be independently investigated by various spectroscopic (vibrational, luminescence, X-ray absorption, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and quantum chemical methods was achieved by an international round-robin test (RRT). Twenty laboratories from six different countries with a focus on actinide or geochemical research participated and contributed to this scientific endeavor. The outcomes of this RRT were considered on two levels of complexity: first, within each technical discipline, conformities as well as discrepancies of the results and their sources were evaluated. The raw data from the different experimental approaches were found to be generally consistent. In particular, for complex setups such as accelerator-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy, the agreement between the raw data was high. By contrast, luminescence spectroscopic data turned out to be strongly related to the chosen acquisition parameters. Second, the potentials and limitations of coupling various spectroscopic and theoretical approaches for the comprehensive study of actinide molecular complexes were assessed. Previous spectroscopic data from the literature were revised and the benchmark data on the U(VI) acetate system provided an unambiguous molecular interpretation based on the correlation of spectroscopic and theoretical results. The multimethodologic approach and the conclusions drawn address not only important aspects of actinide spectroscopy but particularly general aspects of modern molecular analytical chemistry.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 55(17): 8371-80, 2016 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27513717

RESUMO

The synthesis, electronic structure, and characterization via single-crystal X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility of (Me4N)2PuCl6 are reported. NMR measurements were performed to both search for the direct (239)Pu resonance and to obtain local magnetic and electronic information at the Cl site through (35)Cl and (37)Cl spectra. No signature of (239)Pu NMR was observed. The temperature dependence of the Cl spectra was simulated by diagonalizing the Zeeman and quadrupolar Hamiltonians for (35)Cl, (37)Cl, and (14)N isotopes. Electronic structure calculations predict a magnetic Γ5 triplet ground state of Pu(IV) in the crystalline electric field of the undistorted PuCl6 octahedron. A tetragonal distortion would result in a very small splitting (∼20 cm(-1)) of the triplet ground state into a nonmagnetic singlet and a doublet state. The Cl shifts have an inflection point at T ≈ 15 K, differing from the bulk susceptibility, indicating a nonmagnetic crystal field ground state. The Cl spin-lattice relaxation time is constant to T = 15 K, below which it rapidly increases, also supporting the nonmagnetic crystal field ground state.

5.
J Cheminform ; 8: 8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26865863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The testing of theoretical models with experimental data is an integral part of the scientific method, and a logical place to search for new ways of stimulating scientific productivity. Often experiment/theory comparisons may be viewed as a workflow comprised of well-defined, rote operations distributed over several distinct computers, as exemplified by the way in which predictions from electronic structure theories are evaluated with results from spectroscopic experiments. For workflows such as this, which may be laborious and time consuming to perform manually, software that could orchestrate the operations and transfer results between computers in a seamless and automated fashion would offer major efficiency gains. Such tools also promise to alter how researchers interact with data outside their field of specialization by, e.g., making raw experimental results more accessible to theorists, and the outputs of theoretical calculations more readily comprehended by experimentalists. RESULTS: An implementation of an automated workflow has been developed for the integrated analysis of data from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments and electronic structure calculations. Kepler (Altintas et al. 2004) open source software was used to coordinate the processing and transfer of data at each step of the workflow. This workflow incorporated several open source software components, including electronic structure code to compute NMR parameters, a program to simulate NMR signals, NMR data processing programs, and others. The Kepler software was found to be sufficiently flexible to address several minor implementation challenges without recourse to other software solutions. The automated workflow was demonstrated with data from a [Formula: see text] NMR study of uranyl salts described previously (Cho et al. in J Chem Phys 132:084501, 2010). CONCLUSIONS: The functional implementation of an automated process linking NMR data with electronic structure predictions demonstrates that modern software tools such as Kepler can be used to construct programs that comprehensively manage complex, multi-step scientific workflows spanning several different computers. Automation of the workflow can greatly accelerate the pace of discovery, and allows researchers to focus on the fundamental scientific questions rather than mastery of specialized software and data processing techniques. Future developments that would expand the scope and power of this approach include tools to standardize data and associated metadata formats, and the creation of interactive user interfaces to allow real-time exploration of the effects of program inputs on calculated outputs.

6.
J Phys Chem B ; 118(18): 4883-8, 2014 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24694007

RESUMO

Reorientational correlation times of various amine bases (namely, pyridine, 2,6-lutidine, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) and organic solvents (dichloromethane, toluene) were determined by solution-state NMR relaxation time measurements and compared with predictions from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The amine bases are reagents in complex reactions catalyzed by frustrated Lewis pairs (FLP), which display remarkable activity in metal-free H2 scission. The comparison of measured and simulated correlation times is a key test of the ability of recent MD and quantum electronic structure calculations to elucidate the mechanism of FLP activity. Correlation times were found to be in the range of 1.4-3.4 (NMR) and 1.23-5.28 ps (MD) for the amines and 0.9-2.3 (NMR) and 0.2-1.7 ps (MD) for the solvent molecules.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 42(3): 615-9, 2013 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22996636

RESUMO

Calorimetry is used to measure the reaction enthalpies of hydrogen (H(2)) activation by 2,6-lutidine (Lut), 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TMP), N-methyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (MeTMP), and tri-tert-butylphosphine (TBP) with tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (BCF). At 6.6 bar H(2) the conversion of the Lewis acid Lewis base pair to the corresponding ionic pair in bromobenzene at 294 K was quantitative in under 60 min. Integration of the heat release from the reaction of the Frustrated Lewis Pair (FLP) with H(2) as a function of time yields a relative rate of hydrogenation in addition to the enthalpy of hydrogenation. The half-lives of hydrogenation range from 230 s with TMP, ΔH(H2) = -31.5(0.2) kcal mol(-1), to 1400 s with Lut, ΔH(H2) = -23.4(0.4) kcal mol(-1). The (11)B nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of B(C(6)F(5))(3) in bromobenzene exhibits three distinct traits depending on the sterics of the Lewis base; (1) in the presence of pyridine, only the dative bond adduct pyridine-B(C(6)F(5))(3) is observed; (2) in the presence of TMP and MeTMP, only the free B(C(6)F(5))(3) is observed; and (3) in the presence of Lut, both the free B(C(6)F(5))(3) and the Lut-B(C(6)F(5))(3) adduct appear in equilibrium. A measure of the change in K(eq) of Lut + B(C(6)F(5))(3) ⇔ Lut-B(C(6)F(5))(3) as a function of temperature provides thermodynamic properties of the Lewis acid Lewis base adduct, ΔH = -17.9(1.0) kcal mol(-1) and a ΔS = -49.2(2.5) cal mol(-1) K, suggesting the Lut-B(C(6)F(5))(3) adduct is more stable in bromobenzene than in toluene.

8.
Forensic Sci Int ; 214(1-3): 178-81, 2012 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21885219

RESUMO

The highly toxic anticoagulant rodenticide brodifacoum is an organic compound that has two diastereomeric forms. In this paper, we consider the hypothesis that the relative population of the diastereomers is a characteristic of forensic value for the association or source attribution of specimens of brodifacoum. In general, the stereoisomer distribution in an organic compound depends on the reagents, conditions, and methods used for synthesis and purification, and may vary over time due to differential stabilities of the stereoisomers. The stereoisomer distribution may thus serve as an identifier of the production methods and history of samples and provide a basis for comparing recovered specimens. We refer to this novel approach for signature detection as stereoisomer distribution analysis or SDA. If the stereoisomers are diastereomers, quantitative determination of the diastereomer ratio in a specimen can be performed by a number of techniques, notably gas or liquid chromatography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This paper describes an NMR spectroscopic analysis of ten commercial technical grade brodifacoum samples from distinct batches originating from three different sources. The results reveal detectable source-to-source and batch-to-batch variations in diastereomer ratios.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 50(9): 4073-85, 2011 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21456543

RESUMO

Four new cyclic 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane ligands have been prepared and used to synthesize [Ni(P(Ph)(2)N(R)(2))(2)](2+) complexes in which R is a mono- or dipeptide. These complexes represent a first step in the development of an outer-coordination sphere for this class of complexes that can mimic the outer-coordination sphere of the active sites of hydrogenase enzymes. Importantly, these complexes retain the electrocatalytic activity of the parent [Ni(P(Ph)(2)N(Ph)(2))(2)](2+) complex in an acetonitrile solution with turnover frequencies for hydrogen production ranging from 14 to 25 s(-1) in the presence of p-cyanoanilinium trifluoromethanesulfonate and from 135 to 1000 s(-1) in the presence of protonated dimethylformamide, with moderately low overpotentials, ∼0.3 V. The addition of small amounts of water results in rate increases of 2-7 times. Unlike the parent complex, these complexes demonstrate dynamic structural transformations in solution. These results establish a building block from which larger peptide scaffolding can be added to allow the [Ni(P(R)(2)N(R')(2))(2)](2+) molecular catalytic core to begin to mimic the multifunctional outer-coordination sphere of enzymes.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Hidrogênio/química , Peptídeos/química , Aminoácidos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/síntese química , Catálise , Dipeptídeos/química , Eletroquímica , Hidrogenase/química , Hidrogenase/metabolismo , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Nitrogênio/química , Análise Espectral , Água/química
10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 132(38): 13138-40, 2010 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20806889

RESUMO

A relativistic density functional theory description of the electronic structure of Tc(2)O(7) has been evaluated by comparison with solid-state (99)Tc and (17)O NMR spectroscopic data (the former isotope is a weak ß emitter). Every site in the molecule can be populated by a nucleus with favorable NMR characteristics, providing the rare opportunity to obtain a comprehensive set of chemical shift and electric field gradient tensors for a small molecular transition-metal oxide. NMR parameters were computed for the central molecule of a (Tc(2)O(7))(17) cluster using standard ZORA-optimized all-electron QZ4P basis sets for the central molecule and DZ basis sets for the surrounding atoms. The magnitudes of the predicted tensor principal values appear to be uniformly larger than those observed experimentally, but the discrepancies were within the accuracy of the approximation methods used. The convergence of the calculated and measured NMR data suggests that the theoretical analysis has validity for the quantitative understanding of structural, magnetic, and chemical properties of Tc(VII) oxides in condensed phases.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 132(8): 084501, 2010 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20192301

RESUMO

A combined theoretical and solid-state (17)O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the electronic structure of the uranyl ion UO(2)(2+) in (NH(4))(4)UO(2)(CO(3))(3) and rutherfordine (UO(2)CO(3)) is presented, the former representing a system with a hydrogen-bonding environment around the uranyl oxygens and the latter exemplifying a uranyl environment without hydrogens. Relativistic density functional calculations reveal unique features of the U-O covalent bond, including the finding of (17)O chemical shift anisotropies that are among the largest for oxygen ever reported (>1200 ppm). Computational results for the oxygen electric field gradient tensor are found to be consistently larger in magnitude than experimental solid-state (17)O NMR measurements in a 7.05 T magnetic field indicate. A modified version of the Solomon theory of the two-spin echo amplitude for a spin-5/2 nucleus is developed and applied to the analysis of the (17)O echo signal of U (17)O(2)(2+).

13.
Magn Reson Chem ; 47(10): 897-901, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19569076

RESUMO

Proton and (13)C NMR chemical shifts and (1)H-(1)H scalar couplings for the two diastereomers of the potent vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) inhibitor brodifacoum have been determined at 293 K from acetone solutions containing both diastereomers. To facilitate difficult assignments, homo- and heteronuclear correlation spectra were acquired at 750 and 900 MHz over 268-303 K temperature range. Conformations of both diastereomers inferred from the scalar couplings and 1-D NOE measurements reveal that one diastereomer (SS/RR) adopts a strained geometry in the cyclohexene ring system of the tetralin group. The NMR spectra also show evidence of line broadening due to conformational exchange at room temperature for the SR/RS diastereomer. These assignments and conformational analyses may be useful in studies of biomolecular interactions of brodifacoum with target proteins such as VKOR and in source determination of brodifacoum.


Assuntos
4-Hidroxicumarinas/análise , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/normas , Prótons , Isótopos de Carbono , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Oxigenases de Função Mista/antagonistas & inibidores , Conformação Molecular , Padrões de Referência , Estereoisomerismo , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases
14.
J Phys Chem A ; 112(18): 4277-83, 2008 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18407708

RESUMO

Variable temperature 2H NMR experiments on the orthorhombic phase of selectively deuterated NH3BH3 spanning the static to fast exchange limits of the borane and amine motions are reported. New values of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor parameters have been obtained from the static 2H spectra of V(zz) = 1.652 (+/-0.082) x 10(21) V/m(2) and eta = 0.00 +/- 0.05 for the borane hydrogens and V(zz) = 2.883 (+/-0.144) x 10(21) V/m(2) and eta = 0.00 +/- 0.05 for the amine hydrogens. The molecular symmetry inferred from the observation of equal EFG tensors for the three borane hydrogens and likewise for the three amine hydrogens is in sharp contrast with the C(s) symmetry derived from diffraction studies. The origin of the apparent discrepancy has been investigated using molecular dynamics methods in combination with electronic structure calculations of NMR parameters, bond lengths, and bond angles. The computation of parameters from a statistical ensemble rather than from a single set of atomic Cartesian coordinates gives values that are in close quantitative agreement with the 2H NMR electric field gradient tensor measurements and are more consistent with the molecular symmetry revealed by the NMR spectra.

15.
Nature ; 445(7124): 190-3, 2007 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17215840

RESUMO

There are large amounts of heavy alpha-emitters in nuclear waste and nuclear materials inventories stored in various sites around the world. These include plutonium and minor actinides such as americium and curium. In preparation for geological disposal there is consensus that actinides that have been separated from spent nuclear fuel should be immobilized within mineral-based ceramics rather than glass because of their superior aqueous durability and lower risk of accidental criticality. However, in the long term, the alpha-decay taking place in these ceramics will severely disrupt their crystalline structure and reduce their durability. A fundamental property in predicting cumulative radiation damage is the number of atoms permanently displaced per alpha-decay. At present, this number is estimated to be 1,000-2,000 atoms/alpha in zircon. Here we report nuclear magnetic resonance, spin-counting experiments that measure close to 5,000 atoms/alpha in radiation-damaged natural zircons. New radiological nuclear magnetic resonance measurements on highly radioactive, 239Pu zircon show damage similar to that caused by 238U and 232Th in mineral zircons at the same dose, indicating no significant effect of half-life or loading levels (dose rate). On the basis of these measurements, the initially crystalline structure of a 10 weight per cent 239Pu zircon would be amorphous after only 1,400 years in a geological repository (desired immobilization timescales are of the order of 250,000 years). These measurements establish a basis for assessing the long-term structural durability of actinide-containing ceramics in terms of an atomistic understanding of the fundamental damage event.

16.
J Magn Reson ; 183(2): 308-14, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16996760

RESUMO

We introduce a general numerical approach for solving the Liouville equation of an isolated quadrupolar nuclide that can be used to analyze the unitary dynamics of time-domain NQR experiments. A numerical treatment is necessitated by the dimensionality of the Liouville space, which precludes analytical, closed form solutions for I > 3/2. Accurate simulations of experimental nutation curves, forbidden transition intensities, powder and single crystal spectra, and off-resonance irradiation dynamics can be computed with this method. We also examine the validity of perturbative approximations where the signal intensity of a transition is proportional to the transition moment between the eigenstates of the system, thus providing a simple basis for determining selection rules. Our method allows us to calculate spectra for all values of the asymmetry parameter, eta, and sample orientations relative to the coil axis. We conclude by demonstrating the methodology for calculating the response of the quadrupole system to amplitude- and frequency-modulated pulses.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Simulação por Computador , Marcadores de Spin
17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 128(7): 2324-35, 2006 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16478188

RESUMO

Evidence for nine new solution state silicate oligomers has been discovered by (29)Si NMR homonuclear correlation experiments of (29)Si-enriched samples. In addition to enhancing signal sensitivity, the isotopic enrichment increases the probability of the (29)Si-(29)Si two-bond scalar couplings that are necessary for the observation of internuclear correlations in 2-D experiments. The proposed assignments are validated by comparisons of experimental and simulated cross-peaks obtained with high digital resolution. The internuclear connectivity indicated by the NMR data suggests that several of these oligomers can have multiple stereoisomers, including conformers and/or diastereomers. The stabilities of these oligomers and their possible stereoisomers have been investigated by electronic structure calculations.

18.
Solid State Nucl Magn Reson ; 29(1-3): 219-26, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16325381

RESUMO

An experiment for acquiring two-dimensional homonuclear correlation spectra of nuclei in solids in the presence of strong homonuclear dipolar couplings is described. The experiment utilizes a multiple-pulse homonuclear decoupling sequence with an effective precession axis parallel to the rotating frame z-axis during the evolution and detection periods. A multiple-pulse sequence that suppresses chemical shift and heteronuclear dipolar coupling evolution and scales the static homonuclear dipolar coupling is proposed for the mixing period. The evolution during the mixing period is analogous to the dynamics of the mixing period in solution-state TOCSY experiments, and can be interpreted as the oscillatory exchange of longitudinal magnetization between coupled spins. For nuclides with large gyromagnetic ratios, the static homonuclear dipolar interaction will be substantially larger than the mechanisms used to develop internuclear correlations in solution state 2-D experiments, which should make it possible to establish correlations over much longer distances and with significantly shorter mixing times. Extensions to separated local field experiments are discussed.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Simulação por Computador , Marcadores de Spin , Estatística como Assunto
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 126(37): 11583-8, 2004 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15366905

RESUMO

The uniquely well-resolved (99)Tc NMR spectrum of the pertechnetate ion in liquid water poses a stringent test of the accuracy of ab initio calculations. The displacement of the (99)Tc chemical shift as a function of temperature has been measured over the range 10-45 degrees C for the three isotopomers Tc((16)O)(4)(-), Tc((16)O)(3)((18)O)(-), and Tc((16)O)(3)((17)O)(-) at natural oxygen isotope abundance levels, and in addition the temperature dependence of the Tc-O scalar coupling was determined for the Tc((16)O)(3)((17)O)(-) isotopomer. Values for these parameters were computed using relativistic spin-orbit density functional theory with an unsolvated ion approximation and with treatments of the solvated ion based on the COnductor-like Screening MOdel (COSMO) approach. The temperature and isotope dependence of (99)Tc NMR parameters inferred by these methods were in good quantitative agreement with experimental observations. The change in the Tc-O bond length associated with the changes in temperatures considered here was determined to be of the order of 10(-)(4) A. Vibrational energies and Tc-O bond lengths derived from these models also compare favorably with previous experimental studies.

20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 38(3): 674-81, 2004 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14968850

RESUMO

Amending poultry litter (PL) with aluminum sulfate (alum) has proven to be effective in reducing water-soluble phosphorus (P) in the litter and in runoff from fields that have received PL applications; it has therefore been suggested as a best management practice. Although its effectiveness has been demonstrated on a macroscopic scale in the field, little is known about P speciation in either alum-amended or unamended litter. This knowledge is important forthe evaluation of the long-term stability and bioavailability of P, which is a necessary prerequisite forthe assessment of the sustainability of intensive poultry operations. Both solid-state MAS and CP-MAS 31P NMR as well as 31P[27Al]-TRAPDOR were used to investigate P speciation in alum-amended and unamended PL. The results indicate the presence of a complex mixture of organic and inorganic orthophosphate phases. A calcium phosphate phase, probably a surface precipitate on calcium carbonate, could be identified in both unamended and alum-amended PL, as well as physically bound HPO4(2-). Phosphate associated with Al was found in the alum-amended PL, most probably a mixture of a poorly ordered wavellite and phosphate surface complexes on aluminum hydroxide that had been formed by the hydrolysis of alum. However, a complex mixture of organic and inorganic phosphate species could not be resolved. Phosphate associated with Al comprised on average 40 +/- 14% of the total P in alum-amended PL, whereas calcium phosphate phases comprised on average 7 +/- 4% in the alum-amended PL and 14 +/- 5% in the unamended PL.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alúmen/química , Esterco , Fósforo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Eutrofização , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Fósforo/análise , Isótopos de Fósforo/análise , Aves Domésticas , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA