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1.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 174-184, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510476

RESUMO

We conducted genome-wide association analyses of over 250,000 participants of European (EUR) and African (AFR) ancestry from the Million Veteran Program using electronic health record-validated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis and quantitative symptom phenotypes. Applying genome-wide multiple testing correction, we identified three significant loci in European case-control analyses and 15 loci in quantitative symptom analyses. Genomic structural equation modeling indicated tight coherence of a PTSD symptom factor that shares genetic variance with a distinct internalizing (mood-anxiety-neuroticism) factor. Partitioned heritability indicated enrichment in several cortical and subcortical regions, and imputed genetically regulated gene expression in these regions was used to identify potential drug repositioning candidates. These results validate the biological coherence of the PTSD syndrome, inform its relationship to comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders and provide new considerations for treatment.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic inhibition of PCSK9 protects against coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS). The impact on other diseases remains less well characterized. METHODS: We created a genetic risk score (GRS) for PCSK9 using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at or near the PCSK9 locus known to impact lower LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C): rs11583680, rs11591147, rs2479409, and rs11206510. We then used our GRS to calculate weighted odds ratios reflecting the impact of a genetically determined 10 mg/dL decrease in LDL-C on several pre-specified phenotypes including CAD, IS, peripheral artery disease (PAD), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), type 2 diabetes, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. Finally, we used our weighted GRS to perform a phenome-wide association study. RESULTS: Genetic and electronic health record data that passed quality control was available in 312,097 individuals, (227,490 White participants, 58,907 Black participants, and 25,700 Hispanic participants). PCSK9 mediated reduction in LDL-C was associated with a reduced risk of CAD and AAA in trans-ethnic meta-analysis (CAD OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.80-0.87], p = 6.0 x 10-21; AAA OR 0.76 [95% CI 0.68-0.86], p = 2.9 x 10-06). Significant protective effects were noted for PAD in White individuals (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.71-0.97], p = 2.3 x 10-04) but not in other genetic ancestries. Genetically reduced PCSK9 function associated with a reduced risk of dementia in trans-ethnic meta-analysis (OR 0.86 [95% CI 0.78-0.93], p = 5.0 x 10-04). CONCLUSIONS: Genetically reduced PCSK9 function results in a reduction in risk of several important extra-coronary atherosclerotic phenotypes in addition to known effects on CAD and IS, including PAD and AAA. We also highlight a novel reduction in risk of dementia, supporting a well-recognized vascular component to cognitive impairment and an opportunity for therapeutic repositioning.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241825, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Available COVID-19 mortality indices are limited to acute inpatient data. Using nationwide medical administrative data available prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection from the US Veterans Health Administration (VA), we developed the VA COVID-19 (VACO) 30-day mortality index and validated the index in two independent, prospective samples. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We reviewed SARS-CoV-2 testing results within the VA between February 8 and August 18, 2020. The sample was split into a development cohort (test positive between March 2 and April 15, 2020), an early validation cohort (test positive between April 16 and May 18, 2020), and a late validation cohort (test positive between May 19 and July 19, 2020). Our logistic regression model in the development cohort considered demographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity), and pre-existing medical conditions and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) derived from ICD-10 diagnosis codes. Weights were fixed to create the VACO Index that was then validated by comparing area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) in the early and late validation cohorts and among important validation cohort subgroups defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic region. We also evaluated calibration curves and the range of predictions generated within age categories. 13,323 individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (median age: 63 years; 91% male; 42% non-Hispanic Black). We observed 480/3,681 (13%) deaths in development, 253/2,151 (12%) deaths in the early validation cohort, and 403/7,491 (5%) deaths in the late validation cohort. Age, multimorbidity described with CCI, and a history of myocardial infarction or peripheral vascular disease were independently associated with mortality-no other individual comorbid diagnosis provided additional information. The VACO Index discriminated mortality in development (AUC = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.77-0.81), and in early (AUC = 0.81 95% CI: 0.78-0.83) and late (AUC = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.78-0.86) validation. The VACO Index allows personalized estimates of 30-day mortality after COVID-19 infection. For example, among those aged 60-64 years, overall mortality was estimated at 9% (95% CI: 6-11%). The Index further discriminated risk in this age stratum from 4% (95% CI: 3-7%) to 21% (95% CI: 12-31%), depending on sex and comorbid disease. CONCLUSION: Prior to infection, demographics and comorbid conditions can discriminate COVID-19 mortality risk overall and within age strata. The VACO Index reproducibly identified individuals at substantial risk of COVID-19 mortality who might consider continuing social distancing, despite relaxed state and local guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Saúde dos Veteranos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nature ; 586(7831): 769-775, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057200

RESUMO

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that are characterized by the excessive production of mature myeloid cells and arise from the acquisition of somatic driver mutations in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Epidemiological studies indicate a substantial heritable component of MPNs that is among the highest known for cancers1. However, only a limited number of genetic risk loci have been identified, and the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to the acquisition of MPNs remain unclear. Here, by conducting a large-scale genome-wide association study (3,797 cases and 1,152,977 controls), we identify 17 MPN risk loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 7 of which have not been previously reported. We find that there is a shared genetic architecture between MPN risk and several haematopoietic traits from distinct lineages; that there is an enrichment for MPN risk variants within accessible chromatin of HSCs; and that increased MPN risk is associated with longer telomere length in leukocytes and other clonal haematopoietic states-collectively suggesting that MPN risk is associated with the function and self-renewal of HSCs. We use gene mapping to identify modulators of HSC biology linked to MPN risk, and show through targeted variant-to-function assays that CHEK2 and GFI1B have roles in altering the function of HSCs to confer disease risk. Overall, our results reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism for inherited MPN risk through the modulation of HSC function.

5.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; : CIRCOUTCOMES120006528, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in diabetes mellitus patients is used to guide primary prevention, but the performance of risk estimators (2013 Pooled Cohort Equations [PCE] and Risk Equations for Complications of Diabetes [RECODe]) varies across populations. Data from electronic health records could be used to improve risk estimation for a health system's patients. We aimed to evaluate risk equations for initial ASCVD events in US veterans with diabetes mellitus and improve model performance in this population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 183 096 adults with diabetes mellitus and without prior ASCVD who received care in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VA) from 2002 to 2016 with mean follow-up of 4.6 years. We evaluated model discrimination, using Harrell's C statistic, and calibration, using the reclassification χ2 test, of the PCE and RECODe equations to predict fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke and cardiovascular mortality. We then tested whether model performance was affected by deriving VA-specific ß-coefficients. Discrimination of ASCVD events by the PCE was improved by deriving VA-specific ß-coefficients (C statistic increased from 0.560 to 0.597) and improved further by including measures of glycemia, renal function, and diabetes mellitus treatment (C statistic, 0.632). Discrimination by the RECODe equations was improved by substituting VA-specific coefficients (C statistic increased from 0.604 to 0.621). Absolute risk estimation by PCE and RECODe equations also improved with VA-specific coefficients; the calibration P increased from <0.001 to 0.08 for PCE and from <0.001 to 0.005 for RECODe, where higher P indicates better calibration. Approximately two-thirds of veterans would meet a guideline indication for high-intensity statin therapy based on the PCE versus only 10% to 15% using VA-fitted models. CONCLUSIONS: Existing ASCVD risk equations overestimate risk in veterans with diabetes mellitus, potentially impacting guideline-indicated statin therapy. Prediction model performance can be improved for a health system's patients using readily available electronic health record data.

6.
Cell ; 182(5): 1198-1213.e14, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888493

RESUMO

Most loci identified by GWASs have been found in populations of European ancestry (EUR). In trans-ethnic meta-analyses for 15 hematological traits in 746,667 participants, including 184,535 non-EUR individuals, we identified 5,552 trait-variant associations at p < 5 × 10-9, including 71 novel associations not found in EUR populations. We also identified 28 additional novel variants in ancestry-specific, non-EUR meta-analyses, including an IL7 missense variant in South Asians associated with lymphocyte count in vivo and IL-7 secretion levels in vitro. Fine-mapping prioritized variants annotated as functional and generated 95% credible sets that were 30% smaller when using the trans-ethnic as opposed to the EUR-only results. We explored the clinical significance and predictive value of trans-ethnic variants in multiple populations and compared genetic architecture and the effect of natural selection on these blood phenotypes between populations. Altogether, our results for hematological traits highlight the value of a more global representation of populations in genetic studies.

7.
Circulation ; 142(17): 1633-1646, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality; however, its genetic determinants remain incompletely defined. In total, 10 previously identified risk loci explain a small fraction of AAA heritability. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program testing ≈18 million DNA sequence variants with AAA (7642 cases and 172 172 controls) in veterans of European ancestry with independent replication in up to 4972 cases and 99 858 controls. We then used mendelian randomization to examine the causal effects of blood pressure on AAA. We examined the association of AAA risk variants with aneurysms in the lower extremity, cerebral, and iliac arterial beds, and derived a genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) to identify a subset of the population at greater risk for disease. RESULTS: Through a genome-wide association study, we identified 14 novel loci, bringing the total number of known significant AAA loci to 24. In our mendelian randomization analysis, we demonstrate that a genetic increase of 10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.24-1.66]; P=1.6×10-6), as opposed to systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.97-1.15]; P=0.2), likely has a causal relationship with AAA development. We observed that 19 of 24 AAA risk variants associate with aneurysms in at least 1 other vascular territory. A 29-variant PRS was strongly associated with AAA (odds ratioPRS, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.18-1.36]; PPRS=2.7×10-11 per SD increase in PRS), independent of family history and smoking risk factors (odds ratioPRS+family history+smoking, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.14-1.35]; PPRS=1.27×10-6). Using this PRS, we identified a subset of the population with AAA prevalence greater than that observed in screening trials informing current guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: We identify novel AAA genetic associations with therapeutic implications and identify a subset of the population at significantly increased genetic risk of AAA independent of family history. Our data suggest that extending current screening guidelines to include testing to identify those with high polygenic AAA risk, once the cost of genotyping becomes comparable with that of screening ultrasound, would significantly increase the yield of current screening at reasonable cost.

8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(19): 3327-3337, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833022

RESUMO

Clinical observations have linked tobacco smoking with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Mendelian randomization analysis has recently suggested smoking may be a causal risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, this association could be mediated by additional risk factors correlated with smoking behavior, which have not been investigated. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) could help to explain the association between smoking and diabetes risk. First, we confirmed that genetic determinants of smoking initiation increased risk for type 2 diabetes (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.15-1.27, P = 1 × 10-12) and coronary artery disease (CAD; OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.16-1.26, P = 2 × 10-20). Additionally, 2-fold increased smoking risk was positively associated with increased BMI (~0.8 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98 kg/m2, P = 1.8 × 10-11). Multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses showed that BMI accounted for nearly all the risk smoking exerted on type 2 diabetes (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11, P = 0.03). In contrast, the independent effect of smoking on increased CAD risk persisted (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.17, P = 3 × 10-8). Causal mediation analyses agreed with these estimates. Furthermore, analysis using individual-level data from the Million Veteran Program independently replicated the association of smoking behavior with CAD (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12-1.37, P = 2 × 10-5), but not type 2 diabetes (OR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.89-1.08, P = 0.69), after controlling for BMI. Our findings support a model whereby genetic determinants of smoking increase type 2 diabetes risk indirectly through their relationship with obesity. Smokers should be advised to stop smoking to limit type 2 diabetes and CAD risk. Therapeutic efforts should consider pathophysiology relating smoking and obesity.

9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA119313847, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the third most common form of atherosclerotic vascular disease and is characterized by significant functional disability and increased cardiovascular mortality. Recent genetic data support a role for a procoagulation protein variant, the factor V Leiden mutation, in PAD. The role of other hemostatic factors in PAD remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of hemostatic factors in PAD using Mendelian randomization. Approach and Results: Two-sample Mendelian randomization to evaluate the roles of FVII (factor VII), FVIII (factor VIII), FXI (factor XI), VWF (von Willebrand factor), and fibrinogen in PAD was performed using summary statistics from GWAS for hemostatic factors performed within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in the Genome Epidemiology Consortium and from GWAS performed for PAD within the Million Veteran Program. Genetically determined FVIII and VWF, but not FVII, FXI, or fibrinogen, were associated with PAD in Mendelian randomization experiments (FVIII: odds ratio, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.23-1.62], P=6.0×10-7, VWF: odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.07-1.52], P=0.0073). In single variant sensitivity analysis, the ABO locus was the strongest genetic instrument for both FVIII and VWF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a role for hemostasis, and by extension, thrombosis in PAD. Further study is warranted to determine whether VWF and FVIII independently affect the biology of PAD.

10.
JAMA ; 324(1): 68-78, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633800

RESUMO

Importance: Data are limited regarding statin therapy for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in adults 75 years and older. Objective: To evaluate the role of statin use for mortality and primary prevention of ASCVD in veterans 75 years and older. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study that used Veterans Health Administration (VHA) data on adults 75 years and older, free of ASCVD, and with a clinical visit in 2002-2012. Follow-up continued through December 31, 2016. All data were linked to Medicare and Medicaid claims and pharmaceutical data. A new-user design was used, excluding those with any prior statin use. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to evaluate the association of statin use with outcomes. Analyses were conducted using propensity score overlap weighting to balance baseline characteristics. Exposures: Any new statin prescription. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary outcomes included a composite of ASCVD events (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and revascularization with coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention). Results: Of 326 981 eligible veterans (mean [SD] age, 81.1 [4.1] years; 97% men; 91% white), 57 178 (17.5%) newly initiated statins during the study period. During a mean follow-up of 6.8 (SD, 3.9) years, a total 206 902 deaths occurred including 53 296 cardiovascular deaths, with 78.7 and 98.2 total deaths/1000 person-years among statin users and nonusers, respectively (weighted incidence rate difference [IRD]/1000 person-years, -19.5 [95% CI, -20.4 to -18.5]). There were 22.6 and 25.7 cardiovascular deaths per 1000 person-years among statin users and nonusers, respectively (weighted IRD/1000 person-years, -3.1 [95 CI, -3.6 to -2.6]). For the composite ASCVD outcome there were 123 379 events, with 66.3 and 70.4 events/1000 person-years among statin users and nonusers, respectively (weighted IRD/1000 person-years, -4.1 [95% CI, -5.1 to -3.0]). After propensity score overlap weighting was applied, the hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.74-0.76) for all-cause mortality, 0.80 (95% CI, 0.78-0.81) for cardiovascular mortality, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.91-0.94) for a composite of ASCVD events when comparing statin users with nonusers. Conclusions and Relevance: Among US veterans 75 years and older and free of ASCVD at baseline, new statin use was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Further research, including from randomized clinical trials, is needed to more definitively determine the role of statin therapy in older adults for primary prevention of ASCVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Veteranos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde para Veteranos Militares
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e208236, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662843

RESUMO

Importance: Current guidelines recommend statin therapy for millions of US residents for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). It is unclear whether traditional prediction models that do not account for current widespread statin use are sufficient for risk assessment. Objectives: To examine the performance of the Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) for 5-year ASCVD risk estimation in a contemporary cohort and to test the hypothesis that inclusion of statin therapy improves model performance. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included adult patients in the Veterans Affairs health care system without baseline ASCVD. Using national electronic health record data, 3 Cox proportional hazards models were developed to estimate 5-year ASCVD risk, as follows: the variables and published ß coefficients from the PCE (model 1), the PCE variables with cohort-derived ß coefficients (model 2), and model 2 plus baseline statin use (model 3). Data were collected from January 2002 to December 2012 and analyzed from June 2016 to March 2020. Exposures: Traditional ASCVD risk factors from the PCE plus baseline statin use. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident ASCVD and ASCVD mortality. Results: Of 1 672 336 patients in the cohort (mean [SD] baseline age 58.0 [13.8] years, 1 575 163 [94.2%] men, 1 383 993 [82.8%] white), 312 155 (18.7%) were receiving statin therapy at baseline. During 5 years of follow-up, 66 605 (4.0%) experienced an ASCVD event, and 31 878 (1.9%) experienced ASCVD death. Compared with the original PCE, the cohort-derived model did not improve model discrimination in any of the 4 age-sex strata but did improve model calibration. The PCE overestimated ASCVD risk compared with the cohort-derived model; 211 237 of 1 136 161 white men (18.6%), 29 634 of 218 463 black men (13.6%), 1741 of 44 399 white women (3.9%), and 836 of 16 034 black women (5.2%) would be potentially eligible for statin therapy under the PCE but not the cohort-derived model. When added to the cohort-derived model, baseline statin therapy was associated with a 7% (95% CI, 5%-9%) lower relative risk of ASCVD and a 25% (95% CI, 23%-28%) lower relative risk for ASCVD death. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, lower than expected rates of incident ASCVD events in a contemporary national cohort were observed. The PCE overestimated ASCVD risk, and more than 15% of patients would be potentially eligible for statin therapy based on the PCE but not on a cohort-derived model. In the statin era, health care professionals and systems should base ASCVD risk assessment on models calibrated to their patient populations.

12.
AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc ; 2020: 326-334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477652

RESUMO

Electronic health records (EHRs) provide a wealth of data for phenotype development in population health studies, and researchers invest considerable time to curate data elements and validate disease definitions. The ability to reproduce well-defined phenotypes increases data quality, comparability of results and expedites research. In this paper, we present a standardized approach to organize and capture phenotype definitions, resulting in the creation of an open, online repository of phenotypes. This resource captures phenotype development, provenance and process from the Million Veteran Program, a national mega-biobank embedded in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). To ensure that the repository is searchable, extendable, and sustainable, it is necessary to develop both a proper digital catalog architecture and underlying metadata infrastructure to enable effective management of the data fields required to define each phenotype. Our methods provide a resource for VHA investigators and a roadmap for researchers interested in standardizing their phenotype definitions to increase portability.

13.
AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc ; 2020: 533-541, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477675

RESUMO

The Department of Veteran's Affairs (VA) archives one of the largest corpora of clinical notes in their corporate data warehouse as unstructured text data. Unstructured text easily supports keyword searches and regular expressions. Often these simple searches do not adequately support the complex searches that need to be performed on notes. For example, a researcher may want all notes with a Duke Treadmill Score of less than five or people that smoke more than one pack per day. Range queries like this and more can be supported by modelling text as semi-structured documents. In this paper, we implement a scalable machine learning pipeline that models plain medical text as useful semi-structured documents. We improve on existing models and achieve an F1-score of 0.912 and scale our methods to the entire VA corpus.

14.
Nat Genet ; 52(7): 680-691, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541925

RESUMO

We investigated type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic susceptibility via multi-ancestry meta-analysis of 228,499 cases and 1,178,783 controls in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), DIAMANTE, Biobank Japan and other studies. We report 568 associations, including 286 autosomal, 7 X-chromosomal and 25 identified in ancestry-specific analyses that were previously unreported. Transcriptome-wide association analysis detected 3,568 T2D associations with genetically predicted gene expression in 687 novel genes; of these, 54 are known to interact with FDA-approved drugs. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was strongly associated with increased risk of T2D-related retinopathy and modestly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and neuropathy. We investigated the genetic etiology of T2D-related vascular outcomes in the MVP and observed statistical SNP-T2D interactions at 13 variants, including coronary heart disease (CHD), CKD, PAD and neuropathy. These findings may help to identify potential therapeutic targets for T2D and genomic pathways that link T2D to vascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Afro-Americanos , Cromossomos Humanos X , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco
15.
PLoS Genet ; 16(3): e1008684, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226016

RESUMO

Lipid levels are important markers for the development of cardio-metabolic diseases. Although hundreds of associated loci have been identified through genetic association studies, the contribution of genetic factors to variation in lipids is not fully understood, particularly in U.S. minority groups. We performed genome-wide association analyses for four lipid traits in over 45,000 ancestrally diverse participants from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study, followed by a meta-analysis with several European ancestry studies. We identified nine novel lipid loci, five of which showed evidence of replication in independent studies. Furthermore, we discovered one novel gene in a PrediXcan analysis, minority-specific independent signals at eight previously reported loci, and potential functional variants at two known loci through fine-mapping. Systematic examination of known lipid loci revealed smaller effect estimates in African American and Hispanic ancestry populations than those in Europeans, and better performance of polygenic risk scores based on minority-specific effect estimates. Our findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of lipid traits and highlight the importance of conducting genetic studies in diverse populations in the era of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Grupos Minoritários , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Clin Nutr ; 39(9): 2842-2847, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited and inconsistent data are available on the relation between egg consumption and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and it is unclear if adiposity or type 2 diabetes modifies egg-MI relation. We tested the primary hypothesis that egg consumption is positively associated with incidence of MI among veterans. In secondary analyses, we examined potential effect modification of egg-MI relation by adiposity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We analyzed data collected on 188,267 US veterans who were enrolled in the Million Veteran Program (MVP) from 2011 to 2018. Information on egg consumption was obtained via self-administered food frequency questionnaire and we used electronic health records to identify incident MI. RESULTS: The mean age was 64.4 (SD = 12.0) years and 9.9% of the population were female. We ascertained 10,260 new cases of non-fatal MI during an average follow up of 3.24 years (range: 0.002 to 7.49 y). Hazard ratio (95% CI) for non-fatal MI were 1.00 (ref), 0.93 (0.85-0.1.02), 0.96 (0.87-1.05), 0.98 (0.89-1.07), 1.08 (0.98-1.19), 1.11 (1.00-1.24), and 1.13 (1.00-1.28) for egg consumption of <1/month, 1-3/month, 1/week, 2-4/week, 5-6/week, 1/d, and 2+/d, respectively, controlling for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, exercise, alcohol intake, and overall dietary pattern (p non-linear trend 0.019). In secondary analyses, we observed similar results with a composite endpoint including fatal MI, coronary angioplasty and revascularization. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed no association of infrequent consumption of eggs with non-fatal MI but a slightly elevated risk with intake of 1 or more eggs per day among US veterans.

17.
Clin Nutr ; 39(4): 1203-1208, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279615

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of the relationship between fried food consumption and coronary artery disease (CAD) have yielded conflicting results. We tested the hypothesis that frequent fried food consumption is associated with a higher risk of incident CAD events in Million Veteran Program (MVP) participants. METHODS: Veterans Health Administration electronic health record data were linked to questionnaires completed at MVP enrollment. Self-reported fried food consumption at baseline was categorized: (<1, 1-3, 4-6 times per week or daily). The outcome of interest was non-fatal myocardial infarction or CAD events. We fitted a Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, race, education, exercise, smoking and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Of 154,663 MVP enrollees with survey data, mean age was 64 years and 90% were men. During a mean follow-up of approximately 3 years, there were 6,725 CAD events. There was a positive linear relationship between frequency of fried food consumption and risk of CAD (p for trend 0.0015). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) were 1.0 (ref), 1.07 (1.01-1.13), 1.08 (1.01-1.16), and 1.14 (1.03-1.27) across consecutive increasing categories of fried food intake. CONCLUSIONS: In a large national cohort of U.S. Veterans, fried food consumption has a positive, dose-dependent association with CAD.

18.
Clin Nutr ; 39(2): 574-579, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Observational and clinical trial evidence suggests an inverse association of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality, although relationships with non-fatal CAD and stroke are less clear. We investigated whether omega-3 fatty acid supplement use and fish intake were associated with incident non-fatal CAD and ischemic stroke among US Veterans. METHODS: The Million Veteran Program (MVP) is an ongoing nation-wide longitudinal cohort study of US Veterans with self-reported survey, biospecimen, and electronic health record data. Regular use of omega-3 supplements (yes/no) and frequency of fish intake within the past year were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations of omega-3 supplement use and fish intake with incident non-fatal CAD and ischemic stroke, defined from electronic health records using validated algorithms. Multivariable models included demographics, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol intake, and exercise frequency. RESULTS: Among 197,761 participants with food frequency data (mean age: 66 ± 12 years, 92% men), 21% regularly took omega-3 supplements and median fish intake was 1 (3-5 ounce) serving/week. Over a median follow-up of 2.9 years for non-fatal CAD and 3.3 years for non-fatal ischemic stroke, we observed 6265 and 4042 incident cases of non-fatal CAD and non-fatal ischemic stroke, respectively. Omega-3 fatty acid supplement use was independently associated with a lower risk of non-fatal ischemic stroke [HR (95% CI): 0.88 (0.81, 0.95)] but not non-fatal CAD [0.99 (0.93, 1.06)]. Fish intake was not independently associated with non-fatal CAD [1.01 (0.94, 1.09) for 1-3 servings/month, 1.03 (0.98, 1.11) for 1 serving/week, 1.02 (0.93, 1.11) for 2-4 servings/week, and 1.15 (0.98, 1.35) for ≥5 servings/week, reference = <1 serving/month, linear p-trend = 0.09] or non-fatal ischemic stroke [0.92 (0.84, 1.00) for 1-3 servings/month, 0.93 (0.85, 1.02) for 1 serving/week, 0.96 (0.86, 1.07) for 2-4 servings/week, and 1.13 (0.93-1.38) for ≥5 servings/week, linear p-trend = 0.16]. CONCLUSIONS: Neither omega-3 supplement use, nor fish intake, was associated with non-fatal CAD among US Veterans. While omega-3 supplement use was associated with lower risk of non-fatal ischemic stroke, fish intake was not. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm whether omega-3 supplementation is protective against ischemic stroke in a US population.

19.
J Biomed Inform ; 100: 103322, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With its increasingly widespread adoption, electronic health records (EHR) have enabled phenotypic information extraction at an unprecedented granularity and scale. However, often a medical concept (e.g. diagnosis, prescription, symptom) is described in various synonyms across different EHR systems, hindering data integration for signal enhancement and complicating dimensionality reduction for knowledge discovery. Despite existing ontologies and hierarchies, tremendous human effort is needed for curation and maintenance - a process that is both unscalable and susceptible to subjective biases. This paper aims to develop a data-driven approach to automate grouping medical terms into clinically relevant concepts by combining multiple up-to-date data sources in an unbiased manner. METHODS: We present a novel data-driven grouping approach - multi-view banded spectral clustering (mvBSC) combining summary data from multiple healthcare systems. The proposed method consists of a banding step that leverages the prior knowledge from the existing coding hierarchy, and a combining step that performs spectral clustering on an optimally weighted matrix. RESULTS: We apply the proposed method to group ICD-9 and ICD-10-CM codes together by integrating data from two healthcare systems. We show grouping results and hierarchies for 13 representative disease categories. Individual grouping qualities were evaluated using normalized mutual information, adjusted Rand index, and F1-measure, and were found to consistently exhibit great similarity to the existing manual grouping counterpart. The resulting ICD groupings also enjoy comparable interpretability and are well aligned with the current ICD hierarchy. CONCLUSION: The proposed approach, by systematically leveraging multiple data sources, is able to overcome bias while maximizing consensus to achieve generalizability. It has the advantage of being efficient, scalable, and adaptive to the evolving human knowledge reflected in the data, showing a significant step toward automating medical knowledge integration.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Algoritmos , Automação , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos
20.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1574-1579, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676865

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism is a significant cause of mortality1, yet its genetic determinants are incompletely defined. We performed a discovery genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program and UK Biobank, with testing of approximately 13 million DNA sequence variants for association with venous thromboembolism (26,066 cases and 624,053 controls) and meta-analyzed both studies, followed by independent replication with up to 17,672 venous thromboembolism cases and 167,295 controls. We identified 22 previously unknown loci, bringing the total number of venous thromboembolism-associated loci to 33, and subsequently fine-mapped these associations. We developed a genome-wide polygenic risk score for venous thromboembolism that identifies 5% of the population at an equivalent incident venous thromboembolism risk to carriers of the established factor V Leiden p.R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations. Our data provide mechanistic insights into the genetic epidemiology of venous thromboembolism and suggest a greater overlap among venous and arterial cardiovascular disease than previously thought.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
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