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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e26961, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quantification of heterogeneity for the striatum and whole brain with F-18 FP-CIT PET images will be useful for diagnosis. The index obtained from texture analysis on PET images is related to pathological change that the neuronal loss of the nigrostriatal tract is heterogeneous according to the disease state. The aim of this study is to evaluate various heterogeneity indices of F-18 FP-CIT PET images in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and to access the diagnostic accuracy of the indices using machine learning (ML). METHODS: This retrospective study included F-18 FP-CIT PET images of 31 PD and 31 age-matched health controls (HC). The volume of interest was delineated according to iso-contour lines around standardized uptake value (SUV) 3.0 g/ml for each region of the striatum by PMod 3.603. One hundred eight heterogeneity indices were calculated using CGITA to find indices from which the PD and HC were classified using statistical significance. PD group was classified by constructing a 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional phase space quantifier using these heterogeneity indices. We used 71 heterogeneity indices to classify PD from HC using ML for dimensional reduction. RESULTS: The heterogeneity indices for classifying PD from HC were size-zone variability, contrast, inverse difference-moment, and homogeneity in the order of low P value. Three-dimensional quantifiers composed of normalized-contrast, code-similarity, and contrast were more clearly classified than 2-dimensional ones. After 71-dimensional reduction using PCA, classification was possible by logistic regression with 91.3% accuracy. The 2 groups were classified with an accuracy of 85.5% using the support vector machine and 88.4% using the random forest. The classification accuracy using the eXtreme Gradient Boosting was 95.7%, and feature importance was highest in order of SUV bias-corrected kurtosis, size-zone-variability, intensity-variability, and high-intensity-zone-variability. CONCLUSION: It was confirmed that PD patients is more clearly classified than the conventional 2-dimensional quantifier by introducing a 3-dimensional phase space quantifier. We observed that ML can be used to classify the 2 groups in an easy and explanatory manner. For the discrimination of the disease, 24 heterogeneity indices were found to be statistically useful, and the major cut-off values of 3 heterogeneity indices were size-zone variability (1906.44), intensity variability (129.21), and high intensity zone emphasis (800.29).


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Neuroimagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4825, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649403

RESUMO

Our purpose in this study is to evaluate the clinical feasibility of deep-learning techniques for F-18 florbetaben (FBB) positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction using data acquired in a short time. We reconstructed raw FBB PET data of 294 patients acquired for 20 and 2 min into standard-time scanning PET (PET20m) and short-time scanning PET (PET2m) images. We generated a standard-time scanning PET-like image (sPET20m) from a PET2m image using a deep-learning network. We did qualitative and quantitative analyses to assess whether the sPET20m images were available for clinical applications. In our internal validation, sPET20m images showed substantial improvement on all quality metrics compared with the PET2m images. There was a small mean difference between the standardized uptake value ratios of sPET20m and PET20m images. A Turing test showed that the physician could not distinguish well between generated PET images and real PET images. Three nuclear medicine physicians could interpret the generated PET image and showed high accuracy and agreement. We obtained similar quantitative results by means of temporal and external validations. We can generate interpretable PET images from low-quality PET images because of the short scanning time using deep-learning techniques. Although more clinical validation is needed, we confirmed the possibility that short-scanning protocols with a deep-learning technique can be used for clinical applications.

3.
Clin Pract ; 10(1): 1216, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266055

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor and is known to occur mainly in the metaphyses of long bones. However, a few cases of osteosarcoma in talus have been reported in older patients. We experienced an osteosarcoma of an 80-year-old male patient with a talus which is rarely reported and evaluated disease patterns with four different imaging modalities.

4.
BMC Neurosci ; 19(1): 45, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although amyloid beta (Aß) imaging is widely used for diagnosing and monitoring Alzheimer's disease in clinical fields, paralleling comparison between 18F-flutemetamol and 18F-florbetaben was rarely attempted in AD mouse model. We performed a comparison of Aß PET images between 18F-flutemetamol and 18F-florbetaben in a recently developed APPswe mouse model, C57BL/6-Tg (NSE-hAPPsw) Korl. RESULTS: After an injection (0.23 mCi) of 18F-flutemetamol and 18F-florbetaben at a time interval of 2-3 days, we compared group difference of SUVR and kinetic parameters between the AD (n = 7) and control (n = 7) mice, as well as between 18F-flutemetamol and 18F-florbetaben image. In addition, bio-distribution and histopathology were conducted. With visual image and VOI-based SUVR analysis, the AD group presented more prominent uptake than did the control group in both the 18F-florbetaben and 18F-flutemetamol images. With kinetic analysis, the 18F-florbetaben images showed differences in K1 and k4 between the AD and control groups, although 18F-flutemetamol images did not show significant difference. 18F-florbetaben images showed more prominent cortical uptake and matched well to the thioflavin S staining images than did the 18F-flutemetamol image. In contrast, 18F-flutemetamol images presented higher K1, k4, K1/k2 values than those of 18F-florbetaben images. Also, 18F-flutemetamol images presented prominent uptake in the bowel and bladder, consistent with higher bio-distribution in kidney, lung, blood and heart. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with 18F-flutemetamol images, 18F-florbetaben images showed prominent visual uptake intensity, SUVR, and higher correlations with the pathology. In contrast, 18F-flutemetamol was more actively metabolized than was 18F-florbetaben (Son et al. in J Nucl Med 58(Suppl 1):S278, 2017].


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Estilbenos/farmacologia
5.
Dev Biol ; 385(2): 253-62, 2014 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24247008

RESUMO

Hormone-induced changes in gene expression initiate periodic molts and metamorphosis during insect development. Successful execution of these developmental steps depends upon successive phases of rising and falling 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) levels, leading to a cascade of nuclear receptor-driven transcriptional activity that enables stage- and tissue-specific responses to the steroid. Among the cellular processes associated with declining steroids is acquisition of secretory competence in endocrine Inka cells, the source of ecdysis triggering hormones (ETHs). We show here that Inka cell secretory competence is conferred by the orphan nuclear receptor ßFTZ-F1. Selective RNA silencing of ßftz-f1 in Inka cells prevents ETH release, causing developmental arrest at all stages. Affected larvae display buttoned-up, the ETH-null phenotype characterized by double mouthparts, absence of ecdysis behaviors, and failure to shed the old cuticle. During the mid-prepupal period, individuals fail to translocate the air bubble, execute head eversion and elongate incipient wings and legs. Those that escape to the adult stage are defective in wing expansion and cuticle sclerotization. Failure to release ETH in ßftz-f1 silenced animals is indicated by persistent ETH immunoreactivity in Inka cells. Arrested larvae are rescued by precisely-timed ETH injection or Inka cell-targeted ßFTZ-F1 expression. Moreover, premature ßftz-f1 expression in these cells also results in developmental arrest. The Inka cell therefore functions as a "gateway cell", whose secretion of ETH serves as a key downstream physiological output enabling stage-specific responses to 20E that are required to advance through critical developmental steps. This secretory function depends on transient and precisely timed ßFTZ-F1 expression late in the molt as steroids decline.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecdisona/fisiologia , Glândulas Endócrinas/citologia , Receptores de Esteroides/fisiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 103(38): 14211-6, 2006 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16968777

RESUMO

At the end of each developmental stage, insects perform the ecdysis sequence, an innate behavior necessary for shedding the old cuticle. Ecdysis triggering hormones (ETHs) initiate these behaviors through direct actions on the CNS. Here, we identify the ETH receptor (ETHR) gene in the moth Manduca sexta, which encodes two subtypes of GPCR (ETHR-A and ETHR-B). Expression of ETHRs in the CNS coincides precisely with acquisition of CNS sensitivity to ETHs and behavioral competence. ETHR-A occurs in diverse networks of neurons, producing both excitatory and inhibitory neuropeptides, which appear to be downstream signals for behavior regulation. These peptides include allatostatins, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), calcitonin-like diuretic hormone, CRF-like diuretic hormones (DHs) 41 and 30, eclosion hormone, kinins, myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs), neuropeptide F, and short neuropeptide F. In particular, cells L(3,4) in abdominal ganglia coexpress kinins, DH41, and DH30, which together elicit the fictive preecdysis rhythm. Neurons IN704 in abdominal ganglia coexpress CCAP and MIPs, whose joint actions initiate the ecdysis motor program. ETHR-A also is expressed in brain ventromedial cells, whose release of EH increases excitability in CCAP/MIP neurons. These findings provide insights into how innate, centrally patterned behaviors can be orchestrated via recruitment of peptide cotransmitter neurons.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hormônios de Inseto/metabolismo , Manduca/fisiologia , Muda/fisiologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hibridização In Situ , Hormônios de Inseto/genética , Manduca/anatomia & histologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Peptídeos/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética
7.
Curr Biol ; 16(14): 1395-407, 2006 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16860738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the end of each molt, insects shed their old cuticle by performing the ecdysis sequence, an innate behavior consisting of three steps: pre-ecdysis, ecdysis, and postecdysis. Blood-borne ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) activates the behavioral sequence through direct actions on the central nervous system. RESULTS: To elucidate neural substrates underlying the ecdysis sequence, we identified neurons expressing ETH receptors (ETHRs) in Drosophila. Distinct ensembles of ETHR neurons express numerous neuropeptides including kinin, FMRFamides, eclosion hormone (EH), crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), myoinhibitory peptides (MIP), and bursicon. Real-time imaging of intracellular calcium dynamics revealed sequential activation of these ensembles after ETH action. Specifically, FMRFamide neurons are activated during pre-ecdysis; EH, CCAP, and CCAP/MIP neurons are active prior to and during ecdysis; and activity of CCAP/MIP/bursicon neurons coincides with postecdysis. Targeted ablation of specific ETHR ensembles produces behavioral deficits consistent with their proposed roles in the behavioral sequence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings offer novel insights into how a command chemical orchestrates an innate behavior by stepwise recruitment of central peptidergic ensembles.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hormônios de Inseto/fisiologia , Muda/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/citologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Drosophila/anatomia & histologia , FMRFamida/metabolismo , Hormônios de Inseto/metabolismo , Hormônios de Inseto/farmacologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo
8.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 36(4): 273-81, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16551541

RESUMO

Vitellogenin receptor (VgR) is responsible for the receptor-mediated endocytosis of vitellogenin (Vg) in the egg formation of an oviparous animal, including insects. Little is known about regulation of VgR gene expression. We analyzed the upstream region of the VgR gene from Aedes aegypti (AaVgR) to identify regulatory elements responsible for its expression in germ cell-specific ovarian expression. Experiments with genetic transformation using the transgene containing the 1.5-Kb upstream portion of the AaVgR gene fused with DsRed and the piggyBac vector showed that this regulatory region is sufficient for correct female and ovary-specific expression of the transgene. This 1.5-Kb upstream region contained binding sites for the ecdysone regulatory hierarchy early gene products E74 and BR-C, as well as transcription factors determining correct tissue- and stage-specific expression of GATA and HNF3/fkh. In situ hybridization demonstrated that in the ovaries of transgenic females DsRed mRNA was present in ovarian germ cells and nurse cells of mature ovarian follicles, together with VgR mRNA. In contrast, DsRed mRNA was absent in the oocyte that had a high level of endogenous VgR mRNA. Although the 1.5-Kb upstream region was sufficient to drive a high-level germ line cell-specific expression of the reporter, additional signals were required for translocation of exogenous mRNA from nurse cells into the oocyte.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Oócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipoproteínas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Aedes/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , DNA/genética , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Oócitos/citologia , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 101(17): 6704-9, 2004 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15096620

RESUMO

Corazonin is a highly conserved neuropeptide hormone of wide-spread occurrence in insects yet is associated with no universally recognized function. After discovery of the corazonin receptor in Drosophila, we identified its ortholog in the moth, Manduca sexta, as a prelude to physiological studies. The corazonin receptor cDNA in M. sexta encodes a protein of 436 amino acids with seven putative transmembrane domains and shares common ancestry with its Drosophila counterpart. The receptor exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for corazonin when expressed in Xenopus oocytes (EC(50) approximately 200 pM) or Chinese hamster ovary cells (EC(50) approximately 75 pM). Northern blot analysis locates the receptor in peripheral endocrine Inka cells, the source of preecdysis- and ecdysis-triggering hormones. Injection of corazonin into pharate larvae elicits release of these peptides from Inka cells, which induce precocious preecdysis and ecdysis behaviors. In vitro exposure of isolated Inka cells to corazonin (25-100 pM) induces preecdysis- and ecdysis-triggering hormone secretion. Using corazonin receptor as a biosensor, we show that corazonin concentrations in the hemolymph 20 min before natural preecdysis onset range from 20 to 80 pM and then decline over the next 30-40 min. These findings support the role of corazonin signaling in initiation of the ecdysis behavioral sequence. We propose a model for peptide-mediated interactions between Inka cells and the CNS underlying this process in insect development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Proteínas de Insetos , Muda/fisiologia , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Manduca , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Neuropeptídeos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/fisiologia , Xenopus
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