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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 1057-1068, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668705

RESUMO

Average arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep (AvSpO2S) is a clinically relevant measure of physiological stress associated with sleep-disordered breathing, and this measure predicts incident cardiovascular disease and mortality. Using high-depth whole-genome sequencing data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) project and focusing on genes with linkage evidence on chromosome 8p23,1,2 we observed that six coding and 51 noncoding variants in a gene that encodes the GTPase-activating protein (DLC1) are significantly associated with AvSpO2S and replicated in independent subjects. The combined DLC1 association evidence of discovery and replication cohorts reaches genome-wide significance in European Americans (p = 7.9 × 10-7). A risk score for these variants, built on an independent dataset, explains 0.97% of the AvSpO2S variation and contributes to the linkage evidence. The 51 noncoding variants are enriched in regulatory features in a human lung fibroblast cell line and contribute to DLC1 expression variation. Mendelian randomization analysis using these variants indicates a significant causal effect of DLC1 expression in fibroblasts on AvSpO2S. Multiple sources of information, including genetic variants, gene expression, and methylation, consistently suggest that DLC1 is a gene associated with AvSpO2S.

2.
Chest ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common respiratory disorder with a highly heterogeneous nature that remains poorly understood. The objective was to use whole genome sequencing (WGS) data to identify regions of common genetic variation contributing to lung function in individuals with a diagnosis of asthma. METHODS: WGS data were generated for 1,053 individuals from trios and extended pedigrees participating in the family-based Genetic Epidemiology of Asthma in Costa Rica study. The degree to which participants were affected by asthma was defined through a physician's diagnosis of asthma, and most participants with asthma also had airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine. Family-based association tests for single variants were performed to assess the associations with lung function phenotypes. RESULTS: A plausible association was identified between baseline FEV1/FVC ratio and a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the top hit cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain-containing 2 (CRISPLD2) (rs12051168; P = 3.6 × 10-8 in the unadjusted model) that retained suggestive significance in the covariate-adjusted model (P = 5.6 × 10-6). Rs12051168 was also nominally associated with other related phenotypes: baseline FEV1 (P = 3.3 × 10-3), postbronchodilator (PB) FEV1 (7.3 × 10-3), and PB FEV1/FVC ratio (P = 2.7 × 10-3). The identified baseline FEV1/FVC ratio and rs12051168 association was meta-analyzed and replicated in three independent cohorts in which most participants with asthma also had confirmed AHR (combined weighted z-score P = .015) but not in cohorts without information about AHR. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that using specific asthma characteristics, such as AHR, can help identify more genetically homogeneous asthma subgroups with genotype-phenotype associations that may not be observed in all children with asthma. CRISPLD2 also may be important for baseline lung function in individuals with asthma who also may have AHR.

3.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 160, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emphysema, characterized by lung destruction, is a key component of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple genetic factors associated with cross-sectional measures of quantitative emphysema, but the genetic determinants of longitudinal change in quantitative measures of emphysema remain largely unknown. Our study aims to identify genetic variants associated with longitudinal change in quantitative emphysema measured by computed tomography (CT) imaging. METHODS: We included current and ex-smokers from two longitudinal cohorts: COPDGene, a study of Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and African Americans (AA), and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE). We calculated annual change in two quantitative measures of emphysema based on chest CT imaging: percent low attenuation area (≤ - 950HU) (%LAA-950) and adjusted lung density (ALD). We conducted GWAS, separately in 3030 NHW and 1158 AA from COPDGene and 1397 Whites from ECLIPSE. We further explored effects of 360 previously reported variants and a lung function based polygenic risk score on annual change in quantitative emphysema. RESULTS: In the genome-wide association analysis, no variants achieved genome-wide significance (P < 5e-08). However, in the candidate region analysis, rs2076295 in the DSP gene, previously associated with COPD, lung function and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, was associated with change in %LAA-950 (ß (SE) = 0.09 (0.02), P = 3.79e-05) and in ALD (ß (SE) = - 0.06 (0.02), P = 2.88e-03). A lung function based polygenic risk score was associated with annual change in %LAA-950 (P = 4.03e-02) and with baseline measures of quantitative emphysema (P < 1e-03) and showed a trend toward association with annual change in ALD (P = 7.31e-02). CONCLUSIONS: DSP variants may be associated with longitudinal change in quantitative emphysema. Additional investigation of the DSP gene are likely to provide further insights into the disease progression in emphysema and COPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00608764 , NCT00292552 .

4.
PLoS Genet ; 15(7): e1008229, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269066

RESUMO

While many disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTLs), a large proportion of complex disease genome-wide association study (GWAS) variants are of unknown function. Some of these SNPs may contribute to disease by regulating gene splicing. Here, we investigate whether SNPs that are associated with alternative splicing (splice QTL or sQTL) can identify novel functions for existing GWAS variants or suggest new associated variants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). RNA sequencing was performed on whole blood from 376 subjects from the COPDGene Study. Using linear models, we identified 561,060 unique sQTL SNPs associated with 30,333 splice sites corresponding to 6,419 unique genes. Similarly, 708,928 unique eQTL SNPs involving 15,913 genes were detected at 10% FDR. While there is overlap between sQTLs and eQTLs, 55.3% of sQTLs are not eQTLs. Co-localization analysis revealed that 7 out of 21 loci associated with COPD (p<1x10-6) in a published GWAS have at least one shared causal variant between the GWAS and sQTL studies. Among the genes identified to have splice sites associated with top GWAS SNPs was FBXO38, in which a novel exon was discovered to be protective against COPD. Importantly, the sQTL in this locus was validated by qPCR in both blood and lung tissue, demonstrating that splice variants relevant to lung tissue can be identified in blood. Other identified genes included CDK11A and SULT1A2. Overall, these data indicate that analysis of alternative splicing can provide novel insights into disease mechanisms. In particular, we demonstrated that SNPs in a known COPD GWAS locus on chromosome 5q32 influence alternative splicing in the gene FBXO38.

5.
Elife ; 82019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343404

RESUMO

Murine studies have linked TGF-ß signaling to emphysema, and human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) studies of lung function and COPD have identified associated regions near genes in the TGF-ß superfamily. However, the functional regulatory mechanisms at these loci have not been identified. We performed the largest GWAS of emphysema patterns to date, identifying 10 GWAS loci including an association peak spanning a 200 kb region downstream from TGFB2. Integrative analysis of publicly available eQTL, DNaseI, and chromatin conformation data identified a putative functional variant, rs1690789, that may regulate TGFB2 expression in human fibroblasts. Using chromatin conformation capture, we confirmed that the region containing rs1690789 contacts the TGFB2 promoter in fibroblasts, and CRISPR/Cas-9 targeted deletion of a ~ 100 bp region containing rs1690789 resulted in decreased TGFB2 expression in primary human lung fibroblasts. These data provide novel mechanistic evidence linking genetic variation affecting the TGF-ß pathway to emphysema in humans.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339356

RESUMO

Rationale Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) are associated with the highest genetic risk locus for IPF; however, the extent to which there is additional overlap with IPF, or unique associations among those with ILA is not known. Objectives To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ILA. Methods: ILA and the subpleural-predominant subtype were assessed on chest computed tomography (CT) scans in the AGES, COPDGene, Framingham Heart, ECLIPSE, MESA, and SPIROMICS studies. We performed a GWAS of ILA in each cohort and combined the results using a meta-analysis. We assessed for overlapping associations in independent GWASs of IPF. Measurements and Main Results Genome-wide genotyping data were available in 1,699 ILA cases and 10,274 controls. The MUC5B promoter variant rs35705950 was significantly associated with both ILA (p=2.6x10-27) and subpleural ILA (p=1.6x10-29). We discovered novel genome-wide associations near IPO11 (rs6886640, p=3.8x10-8) and FCF1P3 (rs73199442, p=4.8x10-8) with ILA, and HTRE1 (rs7744971, p=4.2x10-8) with subpleural-predominant ILA. These novel associations were not associated with IPF. Of 12 previously reported IPF GWAS loci, 5 (DPP9, DSP, FAM13A, IVD, and MUC5B) were significantly associated (p<0.05/12) with ILA. Conclusions In a GWAS of ILA in six studies, we confirmed the association with a MUC5B promoter variant and found strong evidence for an effect of previously described IPF loci; however, novel ILA associations were not associated with IPF. These findings highlight common and suggest distinct genetically-driven biologic pathways between ILA and IPF.

7.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 64, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies clearly demonstrate a substantial association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), although little is known about the shared genetics that contribute to this association. METHODS: We conducted a large-scale cross-trait genome-wide association study to investigate genetic overlap between COPD (Ncase = 12,550, Ncontrol = 46,368) from the International COPD Genetics Consortium and four primary cardiac traits: resting heart rate (RHR) (N = 458,969), high blood pressure (HBP) (Ncase = 144,793, Ncontrol = 313,761), coronary artery disease (CAD)(Ncase = 60,801, Ncontrol = 123,504), and stroke (Ncase = 40,585, Ncontrol = 406,111) from UK Biobank, CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium, and International Stroke Genetics Consortium data. RESULTS: RHR and HBP had modest genetic correlation, and CAD had borderline evidence with COPD at a genome-wide level. We found evidence of local genetic correlation with particular regions of the genome. Cross-trait meta-analysis of COPD identified 21 loci jointly associated with RHR, 22 loci with HBP, and 3 loci with CAD. Functional analysis revealed that shared genes were enriched in smoking-related pathways and in cardiovascular, nervous, and immune system tissues. An examination of smoking-related genetic variants identified SNPs located in 15q25.1 region associated with cigarettes per day, with effects on RHR and CAD. A Mendelian randomization analysis showed a significant positive causal effect of COPD on RHR (causal estimate = 0.1374, P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: In a set of large-scale GWAS, we identify evidence of shared genetics between COPD and cardiac traits.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas/tendências , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(2): 199-208, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034279

RESUMO

Rationale: Several common and rare genetic variants have been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a progressive fibrotic condition that is localized to the lung. Objectives: To develop an integrated understanding of the rare and common variants located in multiple loci that have been reported to contribute to the risk of disease. Methods: We performed deep targeted resequencing (3.69 Mb of DNA) in cases (n = 3,624) and control subjects (n = 4,442) across genes and regions previously associated with disease. We tested for associations between disease and 1) individual common variants via logistic regression and 2) groups of rare variants via sequence kernel association tests. Measurements and Main Results: Statistically significant common variant association signals occurred in all 10 of the regions chosen based on genome-wide association studies. The strongest risk variant is the MUC5B promoter variant rs35705950, with an odds ratio of 5.45 (95% confidence interval, 4.91-6.06) for one copy of the risk allele and 18.68 (95% confidence interval, 13.34-26.17) for two copies of the risk allele (P = 9.60 × 10-295). In addition to identifying for the first time that rare variation in FAM13A is associated with disease, we confirmed the role of rare variation in the TERT and RTEL1 gene regions in the risk of IPF, and found that the FAM13A and TERT regions have independent common and rare variant signals. Conclusions: A limited number of common and rare variants contribute to the risk of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in each of the resequencing regions, and these genetic variants focus on biological mechanisms of host defense and cell senescence.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(14): 2352-2364, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997486

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are two pathologically distinct chronic lung diseases that are associated with cigarette smoking. Genetic studies have identified shared loci for COPD and IPF, including several loci with opposite directions of effect. The existence of additional shared genetic loci, as well as potential shared pathobiological mechanisms between the two diseases at the molecular level, remains to be explored. Taking a network-based approach, we built disease modules for COPD and IPF using genome-wide association studies-implicated genes. The two disease modules displayed strong disease signals in an independent gene expression data set of COPD and IPF lung tissue and showed statistically significant overlap and network proximity, sharing 19 genes, including ARHGAP12 and BCHE. To uncover pathways at the intersection of COPD and IPF, we developed a metric, NetPathScore, which prioritizes the pathways of a disease by their network overlap with another disease. Applying NetPathScore to the COPD and IPF disease modules enabled the determination of concordant and discordant pathways between these diseases. Concordant pathways between COPD and IPF included extracellular matrix remodeling, Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and ALK pathways, whereas discordant pathways included advanced glycosylation end product receptor signaling and telomere maintenance and extension pathways. Overall, our findings reveal shared molecular interaction regions between COPD and IPF and shed light on the congruent and incongruent biological processes lying at the intersection of these two complex diseases.

10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(6): 677-690, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908940

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and progressive disease that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. For many years, knowledge of the genetic basis of COPD was limited to Mendelian syndromes, such as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and cutis laxa, caused by rare genetic variants. Over the past decade, the proliferation of genome-wide association studies, the accessibility of whole-genome sequencing, and the development of novel methods for analyzing genetic variation data have led to a substantial increase in the understanding of genetic variants that play a role in COPD susceptibility and COPD-related phenotypes. COPDGene (Genetic Epidemiology of COPD), a multicenter, longitudinal study of over 10,000 current and former cigarette smokers, has been pivotal to these breakthroughs in understanding the genetic basis of COPD. To date, over 20 genetic loci have been convincingly associated with COPD affection status, with additional loci demonstrating association with COPD-related phenotypes such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and hypoxemia. In this review, we discuss the contributions of the COPDGene study to the discovery of these genetic associations as well as the ongoing genetic investigations of COPD subtypes, protein biomarkers, and post-genome-wide association study analysis.

11.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(3): 318-329, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740764

RESUMO

Genetic association studies have increasingly recognized variant effects on multiple phenotypes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease with environmental and genetic causes. Multiple genetic variants have been associated with COPD, many of which show significant associations to additional phenotypes. However, it is unknown if these associations represent biological pleiotropy or if they exist through correlation of related phenotypes ("mediated pleiotropy"). Using 6,670 subjects from the COPDGene study, we describe the association of known COPD susceptibility loci with other COPD-related phenotypes and distinguish if these act directly on the phenotypes (i.e., biological pleiotropy) or if the association is due to correlation (i.e., mediated pleiotropy). We identified additional associated phenotypes for 13 of 25 known COPD loci. Tests for pleiotropy between genotype and associated outcomes were significant for all loci. In cases of significant pleiotropy, we performed mediation analysis to test if SNPs had a direct association to phenotype. Most loci showed a mediated effect through the hypothesized causal pathway. However, many loci also had direct associations, suggesting causal explanations (i.e., emphysema leading to reduced lung function) are incomplete. Our results highlight the high degree of pleiotropy in complex disease-associated loci and provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying COPD.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 260-274, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639324

RESUMO

With advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) technology, more advanced statistical methods for testing genetic association with rare variants are being developed. Methods in which variants are grouped for analysis are also known as variant-set, gene-based, and aggregate unit tests. The burden test and sequence kernel association test (SKAT) are two widely used variant-set tests, which were originally developed for samples of unrelated individuals and later have been extended to family data with known pedigree structures. However, computationally efficient and powerful variant-set tests are needed to make analyses tractable in large-scale WGS studies with complex study samples. In this paper, we propose the variant-set mixed model association tests (SMMAT) for continuous and binary traits using the generalized linear mixed model framework. These tests can be applied to large-scale WGS studies involving samples with population structure and relatedness, such as in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. SMMATs share the same null model for different variant sets, and a virtue of this null model, which includes covariates only, is that it needs to be fit only once for all tests in each genome-wide analysis. Simulation studies show that all the proposed SMMATs correctly control type I error rates for both continuous and binary traits in the presence of population structure and relatedness. We also illustrate our tests in a real data example of analysis of plasma fibrinogen levels in the TOPMed program (n = 23,763), using the Analysis Commons, a cloud-based computing platform.

13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(2): 175-183, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673508

RESUMO

Rationale: Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) are radiologic abnormalities on chest computed tomography scans that have been associated with an early or mild form of pulmonary fibrosis. Although ILA have been associated with radiologic progression, it is not known if specific imaging patterns are associated with progression or risk of mortality. Objectives: To determine the role of imaging patterns on the risk of death and ILA progression. Methods: ILA (and imaging pattern) were assessed in 5,320 participants from the AGES-Reykjavik Study, and ILA progression was assessed in 3,167 participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with ILA progression, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess time to mortality. Measurements and Main Results: Over 5 years, 327 (10%) had ILA on at least one computed tomography, and 1,435 (45%) did not have ILA on either computed tomography. Of those with ILA, 238 (73%) had imaging progression, whereas 89 (27%) had stable to improved imaging; increasing age and copies of MUC5B genotype were associated with imaging progression. The definite fibrosis pattern was associated with the highest risk of progression (odds ratio, 8.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.7-25; P = 0.0003). Specific imaging patterns were also associated with an increased risk of death. After adjustment, both a probable usual interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia pattern were associated with an increased risk of death when compared with those indeterminate for usual interstitial pneumonia (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.4; P = 0.001; hazard ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-6.8;P < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions: In those with ILA, imaging patterns can be used to help predict who is at the greatest risk of progression and early death.

14.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 15, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrates in response to an inciting event, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk for ARDS. We hypothesized that HSCT patients with ARDS would have a unique transcriptomic profile identifiable in peripheral blood compared to those that did not undergo HSCT. METHODS: We isolated RNA from banked peripheral blood samples from a biorepository of critically ill ICU patients. RNA-Seq was performed on 11 patients with ARDS (5 that had undergone HSCT and 6 that had not) and 12 patients with sepsis without ARDS (5 that that had undergone HCST and 7 that had not). RESULTS: We identified 687 differentially expressed genes between ARDS and ARDS-HSCT (adjusted p-value < 0.01), including IFI44L, OAS3, LY6E, and SPATS2L that had increased expression in ARDS vs. ARDS-HSCT; these genes were not differentially expressed in sepsis vs sepsis-HSCT. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that many differentially expressed genes were related to response to type I interferon. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal significant differences in whole blood transcriptomic profiles of patients with non-HSCT ARDS compared to ARDS-HSCT patients and point toward different immune responses underlying ARDS and ARDS-HSCT that contribute to lung injury.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/sangue , Análise de Sequência de RNA/tendências
15.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 60(5): 523-531, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694715

RESUMO

DlCO is a widely used pulmonary function test in clinical practice and a particularly useful measure for assessing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that elucidating genetic determinants of DlCO could lead to better understanding of the genetic architecture of COPD. We estimated the heritability of DlCO using common genetic variants and performed genome-wide association analyses in four cohorts enriched for subjects with COPD (COPDGene [Genetic Epidemiology of COPD], NETT [National Emphysema Treatment Trial], GenKOLS [Genetics of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease study], and TESRA [Treatment of Emphysema With a Gamma-Selective Retinoid Agonist study]) using a combined European ancestry white dataset and a COPDGene African American dataset. We assessed our genome-wide significant and suggestive associations for DlCO in previously reported genome-wide association studies of COPD and related traits. We also characterized associations of known COPD-associated variants and DlCO. We estimated the SNP-based heritability of DlCO in the European ancestry white population to be 22% (P = 0.0004). We identified three genome-wide significant associations with DlCO: variants near TGFB2, CHRNA3, and PDE11A loci (P < 5 × 10-8). In addition, 12 loci were suggestively associated with DlCO in European ancestry white (P < 1 × 10-5 in the combined analysis and P < 0.05 in both COPDGene and GenKOLS), including variants near NEGR1, CADM2, PCDH7, RETREG1, DACT2, NRG1, ANKRD18A, KRT86, NTN4, ARHGAP28, INSR, and PCBP3. Some DlCO-associated variants were also associated with COPD, emphysema, and/or spirometric values. Among 25 previously reported COPD loci, TGFB2, CHRNA3/CHRNA5, FAM13A, DSP, and CYP2A6 were associated with DlCO (P < 0.001). We identified several genetic loci that were significantly associated with DlCO and characterized effects of known COPD-associated loci on DlCO. These results could lead to better understanding of the heterogeneous nature of COPD.

16.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(1): 1-16, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592451

RESUMO

High-throughput, "next-generation" sequencing methods are now being broadly applied across all fields of biomedical research, including respiratory disease, critical care, and sleep medicine. Although there are numerous review articles and best practice guidelines related to sequencing methods and data analysis, there are fewer resources summarizing issues related to study design and interpretation, especially as applied to common, complex, nonmalignant diseases. To address these gaps, a single-day workshop was held at the American Thoracic Society meeting in May 2017, led by the American Thoracic Society Section on Genetics and Genomics. The aim of this workshop was to review the design, analysis, interpretation, and functional follow-up of high-throughput sequencing studies in respiratory, critical care, and sleep medicine research. This workshop brought together experts in multiple fields, including genetic epidemiology, biobanking, bioinformatics, and research ethics, along with physician-scientists with expertise in a range of relevant diseases. The workshop focused on application of DNA and RNA sequencing research in common chronic diseases and did not cover sequencing studies in lung cancer, monogenic diseases (e.g., cystic fibrosis), or microbiome sequencing. Participants reviewed and discussed study design, data analysis and presentation, interpretation, functional follow-up, and reporting of results. This report summarizes the main conclusions of the workshop, specifically addressing the application of these methods in respiratory, critical care, and sleep medicine research. This workshop report may serve as a resource for our research community as well as for journal editors and reviewers of sequencing-based manuscript submissions in our research field.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 243: 16-22, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large sample GWAS is needed to identify genetic factors associated with depression. This study used genome-wide genotypic and phenotypic data from the COPDGene study to identify genetic risk factors for depression. METHODS: Data were from 9716 COPDGene subjects with ≥10 pack-year history. Depression was defined as antidepressant use and/or a HADS depression subscale score ≥8. Non-Hispanic White (6576) and African-American (3140) subsets were analyzed. A GWAS pipeline identified SNPs associated with depression in each group. Network analysis software analyzed gene interactions through common biological pathways, genetic interactions, and tissue-specific gene expression. RESULTS: The mean age was 59.4 years (SD 9.0) with 46.5% female subjects. Depression was in 24.7% of the NHW group (1622) and 12.5% of the AA group (391). No SNPs had genome-wide significance. One of the top SNPs, rs12036147 (p = 1.28 × 10-6), is near CHRM3. Another SNP was near MDGA2 (rs17118176, p = 3.52 × 10-6). Top genes formed networks for synaptic transmission with a statistically significant level of more co-expression in brain than other tissues, particularly in the basal ganglia (p = 1.00 × 10-4). LIMITATIONS: Limitations included a depression definition based on antidepressant use and a limited HADS score subgroup, which could increase false negatives in depressed patients not on antidepressants. Antidepressants used for smoking cessation in non-depressed patients could lead to false positives. CONCLUSIONS: Systems biology analysis identified statistically significant pathways whereby multiple genes influence depression. The gene set pathway analysis and COPDGene data can help investigate depression in future studies.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Fumar/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/psicologia , Biologia de Sistemas
18.
JCI Insight ; 3(22)2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9) is associated with inflammation and lung remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that elevated circulating MMP-9 represents a potentially novel biomarker that identifies a subset of individuals with COPD with an inflammatory phenotype who are at increased risk for acute exacerbation (AECOPD). METHODS: We analyzed Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) and Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohorts for which baseline and prospective data were available. Elevated MMP-9 was defined based on >95th percentile plasma values from control (non-COPD) sample in SPIROMICS. COPD subjects were classified as having elevated or nonelevated MMP-9. Logistic, Poisson, and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to identify associations with prospective AECOPD in both cohorts. RESULTS: Elevated MMP-9 was present in 95/1,053 (9%) of SPIROMICS and 41/140 (29%) of COPDGene participants with COPD. COPD subjects with elevated MMP-9 had a 13%-16% increased absolute risk for AECOPD and a higher median (interquartile range; IQR) annual AECOPD rate (0.33 [0-0.74] versus 0 [0-0.80] events/year and 0.9 [0.5-2] versus 0.5 [0-1.4] events/year for SPIROMICS and COPDGene, respectively). In adjusted models within each cohort, elevated MMP-9 was associated with increased odds (odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95%CI, 1.00-2.90; and OR, 3.03; 95%CI, 1.02-9.01), frequency (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.45; 95%CI, 1.23-1.7; and IRR, 1.24; 95%CI, 1.03-1.49), and shorter time-to-first AECOPD (21.7 versus 31.7 months and 14 versus 21 months) in SPIROMICS and COPDGene, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated MMP-9 was independently associated with AECOPD risk in 2 well-characterized COPD cohorts. These findings provide evidence for MMP-9 as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in COPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01969344 (SPIROMICS) and NCT00608764 (COPDGene). FUNDING: This work was funded by K08 HL123940 to JMW; R01HL124233 to PJC; Merit Review I01 CX000911 to JLC; R01 (R01HL102371, R01HL126596) and VA Merit (I01BX001756) to AG. SPIROMICS (Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study) is funded by contracts from the NHLBI (HHSN268200900013C, HHSN268200900014C,HHSN268200900015C HHSN268200900016C, HHSN268200900017C, HHSN268200900018C, HHSN268200900019C, and HHSN268200900020C) and a grant from the NIH/NHLBI (U01 HL137880), and supplemented by contributions made through the Foundation for the NIH and the COPD Foundation from AstraZeneca/MedImmune; Bayer; Bellerophon Therapeutics; Boehringer-Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc.; Chiesi Farmaceutici; Forest Research Institute Inc.; GlaxoSmithKline; Grifols Therapeutics Inc.; Ikaria Inc.; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; Nycomed GmbH; ProterixBio; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc.; Sanofi; Sunovion; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company; and Theravance Biopharma and Mylan. COPDGene is funded by the NHLBI (R01 HL089897 and R01 HL089856) and by the COPD Foundation through contributions made to an Industry Advisory Board composed of AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, Pfizer, Siemens, and Sunovion.

19.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 209, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is strongly influenced by genetics and is a risk factor for reduced lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults. This study investigates self-reported childhood asthma in adult smokers from the COPDGene Study. We hypothesize that childhood asthma is associated with decreased lung function, increased risk for COPD, and that a genome-wide association study (GWAS) will show association with established asthma variants. METHODS: We evaluated current and former smokers ages 45-80 of non-Hispanic white (NHW) or African American (AA) race. Childhood asthma was defined by self-report of asthma, diagnosed by a medical professional, with onset at < 16 years or during childhood. Subjects with a history of childhood asthma were compared to those who never had asthma based on lung function, development of COPD, and genetic variation. GWAS was performed in NHW and AA populations, and combined in meta-analysis. Two sets of established asthma SNPs from published literature were examined for association with childhood asthma. RESULTS: Among 10,199 adult smokers, 730 (7%) reported childhood asthma and 7493 (73%) reported no history of asthma. Childhood asthmatics had reduced lung function and increased risk for COPD (OR 3.42, 95% CI 2.81-4.18). Genotype data was assessed for 8031 subjects. Among NHWs, 391(7%) had childhood asthma, and GWAS identified one genome-wide significant association in KIAA1958 (rs59289606, p = 4.82 × 10- 8). Among AAs, 339 (12%) had childhood asthma. No SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the AAs or in the meta-analysis combining NHW and AA subjects; however, potential regions of interest were identified. Established asthma SNPs were examined, seven from the NHGRI-EBI database and five with genome-wide significance in the largest pediatric asthma GWAS. Associations were found in the current childhood asthma GWAS with known asthma loci in IL1RL1, IL13, LINC01149, near GSDMB, and in the C11orf30-LRRC32 region (Bonferroni adjusted p < 0.05 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood asthmatics are at increased risk for COPD. Defining asthma by self-report is valid in populations at risk for COPD, identifying subjects with clinical and genetic characteristics known to associate with childhood asthma. This has potential to improve clinical understanding of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) and enhance future research into ACO-specific treatment regimens. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00608764 (Active since January 28, 2008).

20.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 5(2): 134-143, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374451

RESUMO

Background: Adiponectin has been proposed as a biomarker of disease severity and progression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated with spirometry-defined COPD and with computed tomography (CT)-measured emphysema. Increased adiponectin plays a role in other diseases including diabetes/metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Previous studies of adiponectin and COPD have not assessed the relationship of adiponectin to airway disease in smokers and have not evaluated the effect of other comorbid diseases on the relationship of adiponectin and lung disease. We postulated that adiponectin levels would associate with both airway disease and emphysema in smokers with and without COPD, and further postulated that body composition and the comorbid diseases of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and diabetes might influence adiponectin levels. Methods: Current and former smokers from the COPD Genetic Epidemiology study (COPDGene) (n= 424) were assigned to 4 groups based on CT lung characteristics and volumetric Bone Density (vBMD). Emphysema (% low attenuation area at -950) and airway disease (Wall area %) were used to assess smoking-related lung disease (SRLD). Group 1) Normal Lung with Normal vBMD; Group 2) Normal Lung and Osteoporosis; Group 3) SRLD with Normal vBMD; Group 4) SRLD with Osteoporosis. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, C-reactive protein (CRP) and T-cadherin (soluble receptor for adiponectin) levels were defined for each group. Body composition was derived from chest CT. Multivariable regression assessed effects of emphysema, wall area %, bone density, comorbid diseases and other key factors on log adiponectin. Results: Group 4, SRLD with Osteoporosis, had significantly higher adiponectin levels compared to other groups and the effect persisted in adjusted models. Systemic inflammation (by CRP) was associated with SRLD in Groups 3 and 4 but not with osteoporosis alone. In regression models, lower bone density and worse emphysema were associated with higher adiponectin. Airway disease was associated with higher adiponectin levels when T-cadherin was added to the model. Male gender, greater muscle and fat were associated with lower adiponectin. Conclusions: Adiponectin is increased with both airway disease and emphysema in smokers. Bone density, and fat and muscle composition are all significant factors predicting adiponectin that should be considered when it is used as a biomarker of COPD. Increased adiponectin from chronic inflammation may play a role in the progression of bone loss in COPD and other lung diseases.

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