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1.
Pharmgenomics Pers Med ; 15: 9-16, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35046699

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the one-carbon metabolism pathway (MTR rs1805087; MTHFR rs1801133; ALDH1L1 rs2002287, rs2276731; DNMT1 rs16999593, rs2228611; DNMT3B rs2424908) and the risk of female breast cancer (BC) in a Chinese population. Methods: A population-based case-control study was conducted, involving a total of 439 BC patients and 439 age-matched healthy controls. We adopted Sequence MASSarray to identify genotyping, and used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to test the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) in tumor tissue. Results: We found that rs16999593 (TC/CC vs TT: adjusted OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.03-1.84, p=0.030) was associated with an increased risk of BC, while rs2228611 was related to a decreased BC risk (GA/AA vs GG: adjusted OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.56-0.97, p=0.030). In addition, stratified analysis revealed that DNMT1 rs16999593, rs2228611 and ALDH1L1 rs2002287 contributed to the risk of BC, with associations with ER, PR and HER-2 expression. Conclusion: In summary, this study revealed that DNMT1 rs16999593 and rs2228611 were associated with BC risk.

2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 7644648, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900089

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been a preclinical and clinical concern due to high hospitalization rate and mortality. This study was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and safety of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) for AMI and exploring the possible mechanism of oxidative stress. Six databases were searched on March 26, 2021. Twenty-four studies were included and accessed by the RoB 2.0 or SYRCLE tool. Compared with routine treatment (RT), SBP showed the effectiveness in the clinical efficacy (RR = 1.15, 95% CI [1.06, 1.25]), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (SMD = 0.73, 95% CI [0.62, 0.95]), glutathione (GSH) (SMD = 2.07, 95% CI [1.51, 2.64]), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (SMD = 0.92, 95% CI [0.58, 1.26]), malondialdehyde (MDA) (SMD = -4.23, 95% CI [-5.80, -2.66]), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) (SMD = -4.98, 95% CI [-5.64, -4.33]), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) (SMD = -2.17, 95% CI [-2.57, -1.76]), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) (SMD = -1.34, 95% CI [-1.56, -1.12]), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (SMD = -0.99, 95% CI [-1.26, -0.71]), triglycerides (TG) (SMD = -0.52, 95% CI [-0.83, -0.22]), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) (SMD = 1.39, 95% CI [1.06, 1.72]), von Willebrand Factor (vWF) (SMD = -1.77, 95% CI [-2.39, -1.15]), nitric oxide (NO) (SMD = 0.89, 95% CI [0.65, 1.13]), and recurrent rate (RR = 0.30, 95% CI [0.15, 0.59]). But SBP adjunctive to RT plus PCI had no improvements in almost pooled outcomes except for the Hs-CRP (SMD = -1.19, 95% CI [-1.44, -0.94]) and TG (SMD = -0.25, 95% CI [-0.48, -0.02]). Laboratory findings showed that SBP enhanced the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and regulated laboratory indexes especially for homocysteine. In conclusion, SBP has adjunctive effects on AMI via the mechanism of antioxidative stress. The current evidence supports the use of SBP for mild and moderate AMI patients.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor prognosis. By performing multiomic profiling, we recently uncovered super-enhancer heterogeneity between breast cancer subtypes. Our data also revealed TCOF1 as a putative TNBC-specific super-enhancer-regulated gene. TCOF1 plays a critical role in craniofacial development but its function in cancer remains unclear. METHODS: Overall survival and multivariant Cox regression analyses were conducted using the METABRIC data set. The effect of TCOF1 knockout on TNBC growth and stemness was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo assays. RNA-seq and rescue experiments were performed to explore the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: TCOF1 is frequently upregulated in TNBC and its elevated expression correlates with shorter overall survival. TCOF1 depletion significantly inhibits the growth and stemness of basal-like TNBC, but not of mesenchymal-like cells, highlighting the distinct molecular dependency in different TNBC subgroups. RNA-seq uncovers several stem cell molecules regulated by TCOF1. We further demonstrate that KIT is a downstream effector of TCOF1 in mediating TNBC stemness. TCOF1 expression in TNBC is regulated by the predicted super-enhancer. CONCLUSIONS: TCOF1 depletion potently attenuates the growth and stemness of basal-like TNBC. Expression of TCOF1 may serve as a TNBC prognostic marker and a therapeutic target.

5.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 16(11): 1307-1317, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058918

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based therapeutics and vaccines have emerged as a disruptive new drug class for various applications, including regenerative medicine, cancer treatment, and prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an update about the rational structure-based design of various formats of mRNA-based therapeutics. The authors discuss the recent advances in the mRNA modifications that have been used to enhance stability, promote translation efficiency and regulate immunogenicity for specific applications. EXPERT OPINION: Extensive research efforts have been made to optimize mRNA constructs and preparation procedures to unleash the full potential of mRNA-based therapeutics and vaccines. Sequence optimization (untranslated region and codon usage), chemical engineering of nucleotides and modified 5'cap, and optimization of in vitro transcription and mRNA purification protocols have overcome the major obstacles (instability, delivery, immunogenicity and safety) hindering the clinical applications of mRNA therapeutics and vaccines. The optimized design parameters should not be applied as default to different biological systems, but rather individually optimized for each mRNA sequence and intended application. Further advancement in the mRNA design and delivery technologies for achieving cell type- and organ site-specificity will broaden the scope and usefulness of this new class of drugs.

6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 635007, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113560

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including monoclonal antibodies against programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), have dramatically improved the survival and quality of life of a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Multiple predictive biomarkers have been proposed to select the patients who may benefit from the immune checkpoint inhibitors. EGFR-mutant NSCLC is the most prevalent molecular subtype in Asian lung cancer patients. However, patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC show poor response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment. While small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the preferred initial treatment for EGFR-mutant NSCLC, acquired drug resistance is severely limiting the long-term efficacy. However, there is currently no further effective treatment option for TKIs-refractory EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. The reasons mediating the poor response of EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients to immunotherapy are not clear. Initial investigations revealed that EGFR-mutated NSCLC has lower PD-L1 expression and a low tumor mutational burden, thus leading to weak immunogenicity. Moreover, the use of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade prior to or concurrent with osimertinib has been reported to increase the risk of pulmonary toxicity. Furthermore, emerging evidence shows that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in NSCLC patients can lead to hyperprogressive disease associated with dismal prognosis. However, it is difficult to predict the treatment toxicity. New biomarkers are urgently needed to predict response and toxicity associated with the use of PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy in EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Recently, promising data have emerged to suggest the potentiation of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy by anti-angiogenic agents and a few other novel therapeutic agents. This article reviews the current investigations about the poor response of EGFR-mutated NSCLC to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, and discusses the new strategies that may be adopted in the future.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2242, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854062

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, affecting over 3.5 million women worldwide, yet the functional role of cis-regulatory elements including super-enhancers in different breast cancer subtypes remains poorly characterized. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with a poor prognosis. Here we apply integrated epigenomic and transcriptomic profiling to uncover super-enhancer heterogeneity between breast cancer subtypes, and provide clinically relevant biological insights towards TNBC. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing, we identify genes that are specifically regulated by TNBC-specific super-enhancers, including FOXC1 and MET, thereby unveiling a mechanism for specific overexpression of the key oncogenes in TNBC. We also identify ANLN as a TNBC-specific gene regulated by super-enhancer. Our studies reveal a TNBC-specific epigenomic landscape, contributing to the dysregulated oncogene expression in breast tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Edição de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247860, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647045

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy targets at epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to compare the EGFR mutation-guided target therapy versus empirical chemotherapy for first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC in the public healthcare setting of Hong Kong. METHODS: A Markov model was designed to simulate outcomes of a hypothetical cohort of advanced (stage IIIB/IV) NSCLC adult patients with un-tested EGFR-sensitizing mutation status. Four treatment strategies were evaluated: Empirical first-line chemotherapy with cisplatin-pemetrexed (empirical chemotherapy group), and EGFR mutation-guided use of a TKI (afatinib, erlotinib, and gefitinib). Model outcome measures were direct medical cost, progression-free survival, overall survival, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Incremental cost per QALY gained (ICER) was estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine robustness of model results. RESULTS: Empirical chemotherapy and EGFR mutation-guided gefitinib gained lower QALYs at higher costs than the erlotinib group. Comparing with EGFR mutation-guided erlotinib, the afatinib strategy gained additional QALYs with ICER (540,633 USD/QALY). In 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations for probabilistic sensitivity analysis, EGFR mutation-guided afatinib, erlotinib, gefitinib and empirical chemotherapy were preferred strategy in 0%, 98%, 0% and 2% of time at willingness-to-pay (WTP) 47,812 USD/QALY (1x gross domestic product (GDP) per capita), and in 30%, 68%, 2% and 0% of time at WTP 143,436 USD/QALY (3x GDP per capita), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: EGFR mutation-guided erlotinib appears to be the cost-effective strategy from the perspective of Hong Kong public healthcare provider over a broad range of WTP.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/economia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Afatinib/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/economia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Gefitinibe/administração & dosagem , Hong Kong , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets ; 21(4): 289-305, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535954

RESUMO

Drug resistance is the major reason accounting for the treatment failure in cancer chemotherapy. Dysregulation of the epigenetic machineries is known to induce chemoresistance. It was reported that numerous genes encoding the key mediators in cancer proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and drug efflux are dysregulated in resistant cancer cells by aberrant DNA methylation. The imbalance of various enzymes catalyzing histone post-translational modifications is also known to alter chromatin configuration and regulate multiple drug resistance genes. Alteration in miRNA signature in cancer cells also gives rise to chemoresistance. Flavonoids are a large group of naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds ubiquitously found in plants, fruits, vegetables and traditional herbs. There has been increasing research interest in the health-promoting effects of flavonoids. Flavonoids were shown to directly kill or re-sensitize resistant cancer cells to conventional anticancer drugs by epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the current findings of the circumvention of drug resistance by flavonoids through correcting the aberrant epigenetic regulation of multiple resistance mechanisms. More investigations including the evaluation of synergistic anticancer activity, dosing sequence effect, toxicity in normal cells, and animal studies, are warranted to establish the full potential of the combination of flavonoids with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of cancer with drug resistance.

10.
Bipolar Disord ; 23(6): 615-625, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lithium is especially taken as a maintenance medication for Bipolar Disorder. In women with bipolar disorder, lithium is often effective during postpartum period, but breast-feeding for medicated mothers is controversial because of harmful effects for her child. At present, the biological mechanisms of lithium are not well-understood, affecting its usage and overall health implications. PROCEDURE: We developed a rat lithium and breast-feeding model at human therapeutic levels to study the effects of lithium exposure through breast-milk on pups' thyroid function. Novel laser analytical spectroscopy, along with traditional blood and immunohistochemical tests, were applied to further investigate the mechanisms behind the thyroid dysfunction. Maternal iodine supplementation was evaluated as a therapeutic method to address the pups' thyroid dysfunction. RESULTS: Pups exposed to lithium via breastmilk, even with the dam on a sub-therapeutic level, experienced weight gain, reduced blood thyroxine (T4 ), and elevated blood urea nitrogen, indicating effects on thyroid and kidney function. We show that lithium inhibited iodine uptake by thyroid follicles, initiating a mechanism that reduced iodination of tyrosine, thyroglobulin cleavage, and thyroid hormone production. Importantly, infant thyroid function can be significantly improved by administering supplementary iodine to the medicated dam's diet during breast-feeding. CONCLUSION: These results elucidate the mechanisms of lithium in thyroid function, provide valuable information on use postpartum, and suggest a clinically applicable remedy to side-effects. The results are particularly important for patients (and their infants) who respond well to lithium and need, or choose, to breast-feed.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Iodo , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Iodo/análise , Lítio , Leite Humano , Ratos , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Tireotropina
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(4): 471-480, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the mainstay treatment for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, some patients obtain little benefit and experience unnecessary toxicities from IC. We intended to develop a gene-expression signature that can identify beneficiaries of IC. METHODS: We screened chemosensitivity-related genes by comparing gene-expression profiles of patients with short-term tumor response or nonresponse to IC (n = 95) using microarray analysis. Chemosensitivity-related genes were quantified by digital expression profiling in a training cohort (n = 342) to obtain a gene signature. We then validated this gene signature in the clinical trial cohort (n = 187) and an external independent cohort (n = 240). Tests of statistical significance are 2-sided. RESULTS: We identified 43 chemosensitivity-related genes associated with the short-term tumor response to IC. In the training cohort, a 6-gene signature was developed that was highly accurate at predicting the short-term tumor response to IC (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.87, sensitivity = 87.5%, specificity = 75.6%). We further found that IC conferred failure-free survival benefits only in patients in the benefit group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34 to 0.87; P = .01) and not on those in the no-benefit group (HR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.62 to 2.51; P = .53). In the clinical trial cohort, the 6-gene signature was also highly accurate at predicting the tumor response (AUC = 0.82, sensitivity = 87.5%, specificity = 71.8%) and indicated failure-free survival benefits. In the external independent cohort, similar results were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The 6-gene signature can help select beneficiaries of IC and lay a foundation for a more individualized therapeutic strategy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Quimioterapia de Indução , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Coortes , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/mortalidade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 579160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282861

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the most diagnosed carcinoma and the leading cause of cancer death in female over 100 countries. Thanks to the advance in therapeutic strategies, patients' survival has improved. However, the lack of response to treatments and drug resistance are still a main concern, demanding for new therapeutic approaches, in particular for the advanced stages of the disease. Androgen receptor (AR) is gaining increasing interest as a fourth targetable receptor in BC, however, its regulation in BC cells is still poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Here, we identified miR-9-5p as an inhibitor of AR expression, we validated the inverse correlation between miR-9-5p and AR in primary BC samples and we further identified a feedback loop in which androgen agonists of AR up-regulate miR-9-5p. We also provided evidence that miR-9-5p elicits anti-proliferative effects in BC cell lines regardless of their estrogen receptor status. Finally, we showed that miR-9-5p can revert AR-downstream signaling even in presence of AR-agonists, highlighting the role of this miR in the hormonal response of BC. In conclusion, this study supports the role of miR-9-5p as an anti-proliferative miR in BC and as a central modulator of AR-signaling response to circulating androgens in BC.

14.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 25: 100229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gefitinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved for first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with sensitizing EGFR mutations. However, NSCLC patients bearing mutant KRAS are inherently unresponsive to gefitinib. Defective autophagy was proposed to mediate resistance to EGFR-TKIs. In this study, the reversal of primary resistance to gefitinib in NSCLC by putative autophagy inducers was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A few putative autophagy inducers were investigated in NSCLC cells harboring KRAS or EGFR mutations. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate expression of autophagy-related genes and proteins. Sulforhodamine B assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity of drug combinations. Flow cytometric asssays were used to study apoptotic and cell cycle effects. RESULTS: The antidiarrheal agent loperamide was identified as an autophagy inducer. Loperamide promoted the formation of autophagosomes and it potentiated the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib specifically in NSCLC cells bearing mutant KRAS and wild-type EGFR. Gefitinib-loperamide combination enhanced apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest, both of which could not be reversed by pharmacological autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine). Moreover, synergistic anticancer effect of gefitinib-loperamide combination was observed in both autophagy-proficient (Atg5-wild type) and -deficient (Atg5-knockout) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Loperamide overcome gefitinib resistance in NSCLC harboring mutant KRAS and wild-type EGFR through increased apoptosis but independent of autophagy induction. CONCLUSION: Loperamide could be repurposed to overcome primary resistance to gefitinib in KRAS-mutation bearing NSCLC as it also helps relieve the common side effect of diarrhea caused by EGFR-TKIs.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Loperamida/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Animais , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Autofagia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Humanos , Loperamida/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos
15.
Life Sci ; 262: 118522, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011217

RESUMO

AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Mutation of various cell signaling molecules or aberrant activation of signaling pathways leads to poor response to chemotherapy in CRC. Signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 (STAT3) is an important signaling molecule, which plays crucial roles in regulating cell survival and growth. In this study, the potentitation of chemotherapy by putative STAT3 inhibitors for treating CRC was investigated. MAIN METHODS: A few putative STAT3 inhibitors were investigated. Niclosamide, originally indicated for the treatment of tapeworm infection, was chosen for further investigation in five CRC cell lines (HCT116, HT29, HCC2998, LoVo and SW480). Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the expression of STAT3/phospho-STAT3 and its downstream targets. Sulforhodamine B assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of drug combinations. Flow cytometric assays were used to investigate the apoptotic and cell cycle effect. KEY FINDINGS: Niclosamide was found to inhibit expression and activation of STAT3 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, thereby downregulating STAT3 downstream targets including survivin and cyclin-D1 to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. When combined with niclosamide or specific STAT3 inhibitor (C188-9), the cytotoxicity and DNA damage response from SN38 (the active metabolite from irinotecan) were significantly enhanced. The sequential exposure of SN38 followed by niclosamide was found to be the most potent treatment sequence for the drug combination. SIGNIFICANCE: Niclosamide represents a promising candidate for repurposing to potentiate the anticancer activity of chemotherapeutic drugs.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Irinotecano/farmacologia , Niclosamida/administração & dosagem , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Niclosamida/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 20(11): 1149-1159, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the majority of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients demonstrate favorable outcomes after radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, about 8-10% of patients will develop recurrent disease, and genomic alterations (GAs) associated with the recurrence are unclear. METHODS: This study investigated the GAs in the paired primary tumors and recurrent tumors of 7 NPC patients with relapse, as well as the primary tumors of 15 NPC patients without relapse by deep targeted next-generation sequencing on 440 cancer-related genes. RESULTS: BRCA1 and TP53 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with relapse (P = 0.021 and P = 0.023, respectively). Survival analysis revealed that the GAs of TP53, ZNF217, VEGFB, CDKN1B, GNAS, PRDM1, and MEN1 were associated with significantly shorter overall survival. The GAs of the tumor also altered after treatment in the relapsed group, and five genes (CDK4, FGFR3, ALK, BRCA1, and CHEK2) in the recurrent tumors were potentially druggable. CONCLUSIONS: The discovery of GAs associated with recurrence or survival in NPC may serve as potential prognostic gene signatures of high-risk patients. Targeted therapies are available in some of the clinically relevant GAs and may be considered in future clinical trials. Given the limitation of the sample size, validation by a larger cohort is warranted.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Variação Genética , Genômica , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/mortalidade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Prognóstico , Recidiva
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1099, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore the effect of public hospital managers' risk and gain perception on their attitude towards physician dual practice (PDP). METHODS: A cross-sectional study enrolling 1513 managers from public hospitals in the East, Middle and West of China was conducted. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to identify the determinants of managers' support for PDP. RESULTS: The rate of managers' support for allowing PDP or implementing PDP with restriction, was 94.3% (95% CI: 0.93, 0.95). The mean score of managers' risk perception was 67.7 ± 14.46, and the mean score of managers' gain perception was 24.0 ± 5.56. After controlling for individual and institutional characteristics, the GLMM presented the score for risk perception increased 1 score and the rate of managers' support for PDP decreased by 5% (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.93, 0.97); while the score for gain perception increased 1 score and the rate of managers' support increased by 18% (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.24). CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that the majority of Chinese public hospital managers are in favor of allowing or implementing PDP with restrictions. Although gain perception is comparatively weaker than risk perception, a stronger influence in determining public hospital managers' support for PDP is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Administradores Hospitalares/psicologia , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Médicos/organização & administração , Setor Privado , Setor Público , Adulto , Atitude , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Medição de Risco
18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637415

RESUMO

Upregulation of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 9 (ADAM9) is correlated with progression of cancers, such as prostate, bladder, and pancreatic cancers. However, its role in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is still unclear. Our study aimed to investigate whether ADAM9 is upregulated and promoted the aggressiveness in TNBC. Breast cancer cell lines and patient specimens were used to evaluate the ADAM9 expression by western blotting and immunohistochemistry staining, respectively. Compared with the non-TNBC, ADAM9 expression was significantly increased in TNBC cells and TNBC patient specimens. Based on the data acquired from public databases, the correlation between ADAM9 expression and breast cancer patient survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. It was shown that ADAM9 overexpression was significantly correlated with poorer survival in patients with TNBC. Furthermore, ADAM9 in TNBC cells was knocked down by small interference RNA and then studied by the MTT/colony formation assay, wound healing assay and transwell invasion assay on the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, respectively. We found that inhibiting ADAM9 expression suppressed TNBC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by lowering the activation of AKT/NF-κB pathway. Our results demonstrated that ADAM9 is an important molecule in mediating TNBC aggressiveness and may be a potential useful therapeutic target in TNBC treatment.

19.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 14: 1753466620915156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation often initially respond to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment but may acquire drug resistance due to multiple factors. MicroRNAs are a class of small noncoding and endogenous RNA molecules that may play a role in overcoming the resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we explored and validated, through in vitro experiments and in vivo models, the ability of a combination treatment of EGFR-TKI, namely gefitinib, and a microRNA mimic, miR-30a-5p, to overcome drug resistance through regulation of the insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF1R) and hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling pathways, which all converge on phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), in NSCLC. First, we examined the hypothesized mechanisms of drug resistance in H1650, H1650-acquired gefitinib-resistance (H1650GR), H1975, and H460 cell lines. Next, we investigated a potential combination treatment approach to overcome acquired drug resistance in the H1650GR cell line and an H1650GR cell implanted mouse model. RESULTS: Dual inhibitors of EGFR and IGF1R significantly lowered the expression levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-ERK) compared with the control group in all cell lines. With the ability to repress PI3K expression, miR-30a-5p mimics induced cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell invasion and migration in the treated H1650GR cell line. CONCLUSION: Gefitinib, combined with miR-30a-5p mimics, effectively suppressed the growth of H1650GR-induced tumor in xenografts. Hence, a combination therapy of gefitinib and miR-30a-5p may play a critical role in overcoming acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Oligonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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