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1.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806073

RESUMO

Sargassum fusiforme, a plant used as a medicine and food, is regarded as a marine vegetable and health supplement to improve life expectancy. Here, we demonstrate that S. fusiforme extract (SFE) has antiviral effects against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in vitro and in vivo mouse model. Treatment of HEp2 cells with a non-cytotoxic concentration of SFE significantly reduced RSV replication, RSV-induced cell death, RSV gene transcription, RSV protein synthesis, and syncytium formation. Moreover, oral inoculation of SFE significantly improved RSV clearance from the lungs of BALB/c mice. Interestingly, the phenolic compounds eicosane, docosane, and tetracosane were identified as active components of SFE. Treatment with a non-cytotoxic concentration of these three components elicited similar antiviral effects against RSV infection as SFE in vitro. Together, these results suggest that SFE and its potential components are a promising natural antiviral agent candidate against RSV infection.

2.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857364

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of waiting time, from diagnosis to initiation of definitive concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT), on overall survival in cervical cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Patients with cervical cancer who were treated with definitive CCRT between 2000 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Time from initial pathological diagnosis to definitive CCRT was analyzed both as a continuous variable (per day) and as a categorical variable in 2 groups (Group 1 ≤ median, Group 2 > median). Patients with a waiting time of more than 60 days were excluded. Results: The median waiting time was 14 days (0-60). There were differences between Group 1 and Group 2 in age and chemotherapy regimens. However, no significant difference was found in the FIGO stage, cell type, or the number of cycles of chemotherapy received during CCRT. A longer waiting time was associated with poorer overall survival on the Kaplan-Meier curve (Group 1 vs. Group 2, p=0.042). On multivariate analysis, intervals as either a continuous variable (HR; 1. 023, 95% CI; 1.006-1.040, p=0.007) or a categorical variable (HR; 1.513, 95% CI; 1.073-2.134, p=0.018), FIGO stage, cell type, and the number of cycles of chemotherapy received during CCRT were significant independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Conclusion: A shorter waiting time from pathological diagnosis to definitive CCRT showed benefit on overall survival. Our findings suggest that an effort to minimize waiting times should be recommended in cervical cancer patients who are candidates for CCRT.

3.
Radiother Oncol ; 158: 167-174, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the longitudinal impact of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) on persistent severe lymphedema (PSL) using arm volume measurements by an infrared optoelectronic volumetry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the patients who underwent mastectomy between 2008 and 2016, we included 330 patients with secondary arm lymphedema. Percentage of excessive volume (PEV) of the arm were serially assessed using an optoelectronic volumetry 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months after the lymphedema diagnosis (Tlymh_Dx). We defined PSL as 2 or more episodes of PEV ≥ 20%. Risk factors for PSL were evaluated using stepwise regression analyses. RESULTS: Patients who received PMRT (n = 202, 61.2%) were more likely to have larger extent of axillary node dissection (AND), and frequent stage II/III lymphedema at Tlymh_Dx than those who did not receive PMRT (p < 0.001). With a median follow-up of 72.5 months, PSL occurred in 71 (21.5%) patients. Patients with PSL were more frequently treated with AND of ≥ 20 nodes without reconstruction, had advanced lymphedema stage and higher PEV at Tlymh_Dx, and more frequent events of cellulitis compared to those without PSL. The risk of developing PSL was significantly associated with PMRT with regional node irradiation (RNI), AND of ≥20 nodes, lymphedema stage, and PEV at Tlymh_Dx, cellulitis, and compliance with physical therapy. CONCLUSION: PMRT, especially RNI, was associated with a consistent increase in PEV in patients with arm lymphedema. Therefore, timely physical therapy is necessary for this patient population.

4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 56, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of comorbidities on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been usually studied individually in the past. In this study, we aimed to investigate the comorbidities associated with mortality, the effect of multimorbidity on mortality and other factors associated with mortality among Korean COPD population. METHODS: The Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort version 2.0, collected between 2002 and 2015, was used. Among COPD patients [entire cohort (EC), N = 12,779], 44% of the participants underwent additional health examination, and they were analysed separately [health-screening cohort (HSC), N = 5624]. Fifteen comorbidities previously reported as risk factors for mortality were studied using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: Total mortality rates were 38.6 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 37.32-40.01) and 27.4 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 25.68-29.22) in EC and HSC, respectively. The most common causes of death were disease progression, lung cancer, and pneumonia. Only some of the comorbidities had a direct impact on mortality. Multimorbidity, assessed by the number of comorbid diseases, was an independent risk factor of all-cause mortality in both cohorts and was a risk factor of respiratory mortality only in HSC. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significant differences in survival trajectories according to the number of comorbidities in all-cause mortality but not in respiratory mortality. Low BMI, old age and male sex were independent risk factors for both mortalities in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The number of comorbidities might be an independent risk factor of COPD mortality. Multimorbidity contributes to all-cause mortality in COPD, but the effect of multimorbidity is less evident on respiratory mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Idoso , Asma/epidemiologia , Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Multimorbidade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562345

RESUMO

Previous studies suggest that factors related to smoking cessation may vary with age. This study examined the factors affecting smoking cessation by age among Korean adult male smokers using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2018 (excluding 2013). Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate various factors associated with smoking cessation in three different age groups. Out of a total of 15,492 individuals, 31.5% of the 3523 individuals aged 19-39 years (young adult), 54.7% of the 7390 individuals aged 40-64 years (middle-aged), and 78.6% of the 4589 individuals aged ≥65 years (older adults) succeeded in quitting. In the young adult and middle-aged groups, being married was associated with successful quitting, and lifetime smoking was associated with unsuccessful quitting. Willpower and several comorbidities were related to successful cessation in the middle-aged and older adult groups. Skipping any meal, which suggests unhealthy behavior, was negatively related to quitting in the young adult group. We observed that factors associated with smoking cessation success or failure differed by age, which should be considered when developing smoking cessation policies and programs.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fumantes , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-7, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522358

RESUMO

Propose: We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of dry eye syndrome (DES) among a population-based cohort study.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 475 subjects (184 men and 291 women) enrolled in the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease at July 2013. Using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), we measured the DES severity and defined DES as OSDI score ≥13. Current symptoms of DES and possible risk factors such as body mass index, occupations, comorbidities, exercise, smoking and drinking status were assessed by multivariate logistic regression.Results: Prevalence of DES was significantly higher in women (52.6%) than in men (41.9%) (p < .001). Compared to white-collar workers, blue-collar workers and unemployed persons showed significantly higher DES prevalence and severity. Compared to those with low BMI (<23.0 kg/m2), people with extremely high BMI (≥30.0 kg/m2) had significantly higher odds ratio (OR) of having DES after fully adjusted for sex, age, hypertension, diabetes, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, occupation, and lifestyle factors (OR: 2.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-7.71).Conclusions: We found some novel factors which have been unknown to the relationship with DES through the five years observation of the cohort. The positive associations of unemployment status, blue-collar work, alcohol habit, and obesity with DES suggests a person's comprehensive condition, not individual factors, contribute significantly in developing DES. Further studies will be helpful to understand the underlying mechanisms.

7.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 258: 396-400, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This multi-institutional study aimed to identify the optimal treatment strategy for small cell carcinoma of the cervix. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively collected the medical records of 166 patients diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix from January 2000 to December 2015 from 13 institutions of the Korean Radiation Oncology Group. After excluding 18 (10.8 %) patients who initially had distant metastasis, the treatment outcomes of 148 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: After a median 46.4 (1.4-231.9) months of follow-up, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of all patients were 45.9 % and 63.5 %, respectively. Distant metastasis was the dominant pattern of failure occurring in 67 patients (45.3 %). We stratified the patients according to the primary local treatment: primary surgery (n = 119), primary radiotherapy (RT) (n = 26), and no local treatment group (n = 3). Although the primary RT group had advanced disease (FIGO stage ≧ IIB) more frequently than the primary surgery group (80.8 % vs. 47.9 %), the PFS and OS did not differ between the groups in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Definitive RT is a reasonable local treatment option for small cell cervical cancer, particularly for advanced cases. Given the high rates of distant relapse, an effective systemic therapy protocol is warranted for small cell cervical cancer patients.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467209

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue and constitutes about 40% of total body mass. Herein, we report that crude water extract (CWE) of G. uralensis enhanced myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Pretreatment of mice with the CWE of G. uralensis prior to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury was found to enhance muscle regeneration by inducing myogenic gene expression and downregulating myostatin expression. Furthermore, this extract reduced nitrotyrosine protein levels and atrophy-related gene expression. Of the five different fractions of the CWE of G. uralensis obtained, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction more significantly enhanced myoblast proliferation and differentiation than the other fractions. Ten bioactive compounds were isolated from the EtOAc fraction and characterized by GC-MS and NMR. Of these compounds (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, liquiritigenin, (R)-(-)-vestitol, isoliquiritigenin, medicarpin, tetrahydroxymethoxychalcone, licochalcone B, liquiritin, liquiritinapioside, and ononin), liquiritigenin, tetrahydroxymethoxychalcone, and licochalcone B were found to enhance myoblast proliferation and differentiation, and myofiber diameters in injured muscles were wider with the liquiritigenin than the non-treated one. Computational analysis showed these compounds are non-toxic and possess good drug-likeness properties. These findings suggest that G. uralensis-extracted components might be useful therapeutic agents for the management of muscle-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Chalconas/química , Chalconas/farmacologia , Chalconas/uso terapêutico , Flavanonas/química , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Miostatina/genética , Miostatina/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/metabolismo
9.
J Radiat Res ; 62(1): 149-154, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392616

RESUMO

The postoperative hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (POHIM-RT) trial is a phase II study to evaluate toxicity following hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer. This study describes the results of a benchmark procedure for RT quality assurance of the POHIM-RT trial. Six participating institutions were provided computed tomography for RT planning and an IMRT plan for a sample and were instructed to delineate volumes, create a treatment plan and quality assurance (QA) plan, and submit the results of all procedures. The inter-institutional agreements on RT volume and plan results were evaluated using the kappa value and dice similarity coefficients. The simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) method was employed to generate a consensus target volume. The treatment volumes, organs-at-risk volumes, and results of the RT plan and QA reported by the institutions were acceptable and adhered well to the protocol. In terms of clinical target volume (CTV) delineation, there were differences between the institutions, particularly in vaginal cuff and paracolpium subsites. Consensus CTV was generated from the collected CTVs with the STAPLE method. The participating institutions showed considerable agreement regarding volume, dose and QA results. To improve CTV agreement in CTV, we provided feedback with images of the consensus target volume and detailed written guidelines for specific subsites that were the most heterogeneous.

10.
Chest ; 159(1): e13-e17, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422234

RESUMO

CASE PRESENTATION: A 21-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with recurrent bilateral pneumothorax and hemoptysis. Three years earlier, he underwent coil embolization due to a subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by an intracerebral aneurysm rupture. Two months after the coil embolization, he underwent an emergent total colectomy due to a massive infarction of the colon. One year after the colectomy, he started to have recurrent hemoptysis, and a few months later, multiple episodes of bilateral pneumothorax that required a chest tube placement began to occur. Notably, he had a history of easy bruising. He was taking Depakote and aspirin to prevent seizure and thromboembolic complications, respectively, both of which he began taking after the coil embolization. He denied the use of any illicit drugs. The histories of his parents and sister were not remarkable.

11.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321566

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to identify the prognostic value of early metabolic response assessed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) during radiation therapy (RT) for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: We identified 116 patients treated with definitive RT, including FDG-PET/CT-guided intracavitary brachytherapy, between 2009 and 2018. We calculated parameters including maximum (SUVmax) and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) for baseline FDG-PET/CT (PETbase) and brachytherapy planning FDG-PET/CT (PETIGBT). Multivariable analyses of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed. Results: We observed a time-dependent decrease in PET parameters between PETbase and PETIGBT; ΔSUVmax, ΔSUVmean, ΔMTV, and ΔTLG were 65%, 61%, 78%, and 93%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 59.5 months, the 5-year DFS and OS rates were 66% and 79%, respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that ΔSUVmax ≥50% was associated with favorable DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-5.77) and OS (HR, 5.14; 95% CI, 1.55-17.01). Patients with ΔSUVmax ≥50% (n=87) showed better DFS and OS than those with ΔSUVmax<50% (n=29) (DFS, 76% vs. 35%, p<0.001; OS, 90% vs. 41%, p<0.001, respectively). Adenocarcinoma was frequently observed in ΔSUVmax <50% compared to ΔSUVmax≥50% (27.6% vs. 10.3%, p=0.003). In addition, models incorporating metabolic parameters showed improved accuracy for predicting DFS (p=0.012) and OS (p=0.004) than models with clinicopathologic factors. Conclusion: Changes in metabolic parameters, especially those in SUVmax by >50%, can help improve survival outcome predictions for patients with cervical cancer treated with definitive RT.

12.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126569

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor regression rate according to radiation phase and histologic subtype in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) treated with chemoradiation. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 398 patients with FIGO stage IIB-IVA cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) between 2001 and 2019. Tumor response was assessed using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at three time points: pre-treatment, post-external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and post-intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR). Tumor regression pattern according to histologic subtype and radiation phase (EBRT and ICR) was evaluated. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were the primary outcomes. Of 398 patients, 44 patients had adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (AC/ASC) and 354 patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). AC/ASC was associated with significantly worse PFS and OS than SCC (p < 0.001). AC/ASC had a relatively poorer regression rate in response to EBRT than SCC (p < 0.001), whereas there was no significant difference in overall tumor regression rate after completion of RT (EBRT and ICR) between the two histologic subtypes. Multivariable analysis demonstrated AC/ASC histology to be an independent prognostic factor of decreased PFS and OS. Moreover, tumor regression rate after completion of EBRT (post-EBRT tumor regression rate (EBRTregression ≤ 26%) and proportion of tumor regression during EBRT to overall tumor regression (EBRTproportion ≤ 40%) were independent predictors of poor survival in patients with LACC. Tumor regression pattern of LACC in response to CCRT differs according to histologic subtype. AC/ASC histology and poor tumor response to EBRT are independent prognostic factors for worse survival in patients with LACC. Further studies are needed to develop a CCRT protocol that is specialized for patients with AC/ASC.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058534

RESUMO

AIM: This study was performed to evaluate patterns of breast cancer subtypes in Korean patients with synchronous (SBC) or metachronous bilateral breast cancer (MBC). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 302 patients with SBC (n = 161) or MBC (n = 141) who received curative surgery at our hospital between 1995 and 2013. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. We categorized breast cancers into the following subtypes: ER+ or PR+, HER2- (i.e., luminalA); ER+ or PR+, HER2+ (i.e., luminalB HER2+); ER-, PR- and HER2+ (i.e., HER2-enriched); ER-, PR- and HER2- (i.e., triple negative, TN). RESULTS: More patients with MBC were ≤40 years at the time of breast cancer diagnosis than patients with SBC (34.6% vs. 19.3%, P < 0.01). The proportion of subtypes in SBC and MBC were as follows: luminalA, 65.8% vs. 45.0%; luminalB, HER2+, 9.0% vs. 8.5%; HER2-enriched, 4.1% vs. 12.1%; and TN, 11.2% vs. 31.2%, respectively (P < 0.01). The 10-year overall survival rate in patients with SBC and MBC was 89.0% and 93.6%, respectively. The 10-year disease-free survival rate in patients with SBC and MBC was 79.6% and 80.9%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was found in 2.5% of patients with SBC and 9.9% of patients with MBC. Distant metastasis occurred in 8.7% of patients with SBC and 4.9% of patients with MBC. CONCLUSION: The distribution of breast cancer subtypes was different between SBC and MBC. TN-subtype was profoundly more frequent in MBC whereas luminal-subtype was most frequently found among SBC.

14.
Mol Vis ; 26: 691-704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088173

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study aimed to determine whether the administration of Acer palmatum thumb. leaf extract (KIOM-2015E) protects against the degeneration of rat retinal ganglion cells after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced by midbrain cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min of MCAO, which produces transient ischemia in both the retina and brain due to the use of an intraluminal filament that blocks the ophthalmic and middle cerebral arteries. This was followed by reperfusion under anesthesia with isoflurane. The day after surgery, the eyes were treated three times (eye drop) or one time (oral administration) daily with KIOM-2015E for five days. Retinal histology was assessed in flat mounts and vertical sections to determine the effect of KIOM-2015E on I/R injury. Results: A significant loss of brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3A (Brn3a) and neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin (Tuj-1) fluorescence and a marked increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamine synthetase (GS) expression were observed after five days in the PBS-treated MCAO group compared to the sham-operated control group. However, KIOM-2015E treatment reduced (1) MCAO-induced upregulation of GFAP and GS, (2) retinal ganglion cell loss, (3) nerve fiber degeneration, and (4) the number of TUNEL-positive cells. KIOM-2015E application also increased staining for parvalbumin (a marker of horizontal cell associated calcium-binding protein and amacrine cells) and recoverin (a marker of photoreceptor expression) in rats subjected to MCAO-induced retinal damage. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that KIOM-2015E treatment exerted protective effects against retinal damage following MCAO injury and that this extract may aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for retinal diseases, such as glaucoma and age-related macular disease.

15.
Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 25(3): 163-168, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871654

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze growth patterns over 2 years after birth according to preterm infant birth weight and length percentiles. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements of 82 preterm infants were retrospectively reviewed. Preterm infants with birth weight or length below the 10th percentile were classified as small for gestational age (SGA) (n=19) and those between the 10th and 89th percentile as appropriate for gestational age (AGA) (n=63). The association between the length standard deviation score (SDS) at 2 years of corrected age and clinical factors were analyzed. RESULTS: The length SDS of the SGA group was significantly increased at 6 months (-1.30±1.71) and 24 months (-0.97±1.06) of corrected age. The length SDS was lower in the SGA group than those in the AGA group at 6 months (-1.30±1.71 vs. -0.25±1.15, P=0.004), 18 months (-0.97±1.39 vs. -0.03±1.29, P=0.015), and 24 months (-0.97±1.06 vs. -0.29±1.12, P=0.022,). The percentage of children with a length SDS of <-2 (growth failure) at 24 months was 15.8% in the SGA group and 4.8% in the AGA group (P=0.108). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that length at 24 months of corrected age was negatively correlated with birth length below the 10th percentile (coefficient ß=-0.91, P=0.001) and duration of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (coefficient ß=-0.01, P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Despite the fact that catch-up growth occurs during the early period of infancy in a large portion of preterm SGA infants, a significant portion of these infants show growth failure at 24 months of age. Growth over 2 years after birth is affected by birth length and duration of stay in the NICU in preterm children.

16.
Tumori ; : 300891620937795, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646298

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the prognostic impact of sarcopenia on the survival of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 299 patients diagnosed with LAPC and treated with definitive CCRT from 2000 to 2015. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was measured using computed tomography scans and sarcopenia was defined as SMI <29.6 cm2/m2 for women and <36.2 cm2/m2 for men. The significance of sarcopenia for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was evaluated. RESULTS: Sarcopenia was present in 29 patients (9.7%). In multivariate analysis, sarcopenia was a significant factor for PFS (p = 0.043). Although sarcopenia was not a significant factor for OS (p = 0.121) in multivariate analysis, long-term survivors were observed only in the no sarcopenia group (OS at 60 months: 9.5% vs 0%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing CCRT for LAPC, sarcopenia is an independent factor for adverse prognosis.

17.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(10): 1150-1156, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of para-aortic lymph node sampling or dissection in recently revised International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics IIIC1p cervical cancer treated with primary surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 343 patients with early-stage cervical cancer and pathologically proven pelvic lymph node metastasis following curative surgery from 2001 to 2014. No patient had imaging evidence of para-aortic lymph node involvement, and all patients received adjuvant concurrent chemotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy. We investigated the significance of para-aortic lymph node sampling or dissection on disease-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: After median follow-up of 58.3 months, 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival in all patients were 69.9 and 80.2%, respectively. Disease-free survival and overall survival did not differ between the para-aortic lymph node dissection group and the No para-aortic lymph node dissection group (P = 0.700 and P = 0.605). However, patients with para-aortic lymph node-positive disease had poorer disease-free survival and overall survival compared with those with para-aortic lymph node-negative disease (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study found no survival benefit of para-aortic lymph node evaluation among patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics IIIC1p cervical cancer who were clinically para-aortic lymph node-negative. Although para-aortic lymph node metastasis is a poor prognosticator, the benefit of para-aortic lymph node dissection in terms of survival needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Aorta/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290037

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: The relationship between sarcopenia, characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength, and survival outcomes of esophageal cancer is controversial. This study aimed to assess the effect of sarcopenia and skeletal muscle loss on overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of esophageal cancer patients. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the medical records of 248 male patients diagnosed with squamous cell esophageal cancer and who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) followed by surgery. We measured the cross-sectional area of the skeletal muscle at the L3 vertebra level using computed tomography images and calculated the skeletal muscle index (SMI). Sarcopenia was defined as SMI <52.4 cm2/m2, and excessive muscle loss was defined as SMI change <-10.0%/50 days during NACRT. Moreover, laboratory test results, such as albumin, prognostic nutritional index (PNI), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) before and after NACRT, were collected. RESULTS: In the univariable Cox analysis, pre- (p = 0.689) and post-radiotherapy (RT) sarcopenia (p = 0.669) were not associated with OS. However, excessive muscle loss had a significant association with OS in both the univariable and multivariable analyses (all p = 0.001). Excessive muscle loss was also related to RFS in both the univariable (p = 0.011) and multivariable (p = 0.022) Cox analysis. Patients with excessive muscle loss had significantly lower levels of post-RT albumin (p < 0.001) and PNI (p < 0.001), higher levels of post-RT NLR (p = 0.031) and PLR (p = 0.071), larger decrease in albumin (p < 0.001) and PNI (p < 0.001) after NACRT, and larger increase in NLR (p = 0.051) and PLR (p = 0.088) after NACRT than in those with non-excessive muscle loss. CONCLUSION: Excessive muscle loss rather than pre- and post-RT sarcopenia was a significant prognostic factor for OS and RFS, and it was also related to nutritional and inflammatory markers.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294924

RESUMO

Due to a superior dose conformity to the target, proton beam therapy (PBT) continues to rise in popularity. Recently, considerable efforts have been directed toward discovering treatment options for use in combination with PBT. This study aimed to investigate the targeting of checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1), a critical player regulating the G2/M checkpoint, as a promising strategy to potentiate PBT in human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Protons induced cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M checkpoint more readily in response to increased CHK1 activation than X-rays. A clonogenic survival assay revealed that CHK1 inhibition using PF-477736 or small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced the sensitivity toward protons to a greater extent than toward X-rays. Western blotting demonstrated that PF-477736 treatment in the background of proton irradiation increased the pro-apoptotic signaling, which was further supported by flow cytometry using annexin V. Immunofluorescence revealed that proton-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were further enhanced by PF-477736, which was linked to the downregulation of Rad51, essential for the homologous recombination repair of DSBs. Direct inactivation of Rad51 resulted in enhanced proton sensitization. Collectively, these data suggest that targeting CHK1 may be a promising approach for improving PBT efficacy in the treatment of TNBC.

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