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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While increased breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the effect of fatty liver disease on breast density is unknown. We investigated whether fatty liver is a risk factor for changes in breast density over ~ 4 years of follow-up in pre- and postmenopausal women. METHODS: This study included 74,781 middle-aged Korean women with mammographically determined dense breasts at baseline. Changes in dense breasts were identified by more screening mammograms during follow-up. Hepatic steatosis (HS) was measured using ultrasonography. Flexible parametric proportional hazards models were used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and a Weibull accelerated failure time model (AFT) was used to determine the time ratios (TRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 4.1 years, 4022 women experienced resolution of the dense breasts. The association between HS and dense breast resolution differed by the menopause status (P for interaction < 0.001). After adjusting for body mass index and other covariates, the aHRs (95% CI) for dense breast resolution comparing HS to non-HS were 0.81 (0.70-0.93) in postmenopausal women, while the association was converse in premenopausal women with the corresponding HRs of 1.30 (1.18-1.43). As an alternative approach, the multivariable-adjusted TR (95% CI) for dense breast survival comparing HS to non-HS were 0.81 (0.75-0.87) and 1.19 (1.06-1.33) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. CONCLUSION: The association between HS and changes in dense breasts differed with the menopause status. HS increased persistent dense breast survival in postmenopausal women but decreased it in premenopausal women.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360285

RESUMO

The association of short-term particulate matter concentration with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among cancer survivors is yet unclear. Using the National Health Insurance Service database from South Korea, the study population consisted of 22,864 5-year cancer survivors with CVD events during the period 2015-2018. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design, each case date (date of incident CVD) was matched with three or four referent dates, resulting in a total of 101,576 case and referent dates. The daily average particulate matter 10 (PM10), 2.5 (PM2.5), and 2.5-10 (PM2.5-10) on the day of case or referent date (lag0), 1-3 days before the case or referent date (lag1, lag2, and lag3), and the mean value 0-3 days before the case or referent date (lag0-3) were determined. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD according to quartiles of PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10. Compared to the 1st (lowest) quartile of lag0-3 PM10, the 4th (highest) quartile of lag0-3 PM10 was associated with higher odds for CVD (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.21). The 4th quartiles of lag1 (aOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.19), lag2 (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16), lag3 (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.12), and lag0-3 (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.18) PM2.5 were associated with higher odds for CVD compared to the respective 1st quartiles. Similarly, the 4th quartile of lag0-3 PM2.5-10 was associated with higher CVD events (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19) compared to the 1st quartile. Short-term exposure to high levels of PM may be associated with increased CVD risk among cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
3.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 39(5): 833-842, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association between hemoglobin (Hb) level including anemia and fracture has not been studied thoroughly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 197, 187 adults ≥ 50 years from the National Health Insurance Service of Korea were studied. Hb was determined during health screening examinations in 2004 or 2005. From 1 January 2006, participants were followed up for fracture until 31 December 2013. Hb levels (g/dL) were categorized into five groups, with normal hemoglobin levels subdivided into three groups (low normal, normal, and high normal Hb): < 13, ≥ 13 to < 14, ≥ 14 to < 16, ≥ 16 to < 17, 17 for men and < 12, ≥ 12 to < 13, ≥ 13 to < 14, ≥ 14 to < 16, ≥ 16 for women. Anemia was defined as Hb < 13 g/dL and < 12 g/dL for men and women, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for fracture according to Hb. RESULTS: Compared to individuals with normal Hb, those with anemia and low normal Hb were associated with significantly increased risk of fracture. In women, those with anemia had a higher risk for any (aHR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.17), hip (aHR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.59), and radius fracture (aHR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.25). In men, those with anemia had a higher risk for any (aHR 1.37, 95% CI 1.23-1.51), vertebral (aHR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.53), and hip fracture (aHR 1.64, 95% CI 1.30-2.08). This risk-enhancing association was preserved among various subgroups. CONCLUSION: Among adults ≥ 50 years, anemia and low normal Hb are risk factors for fracture.

4.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 67, 2021 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839996

RESUMO

In Korean adults aged 50 years and older, the overall risk of fractures increased with greater BMI variability among both men and women, specifically, spinal fractures for men and both spinal and hip fractures for women. PURPOSE: The bone-health-related outcome, such as fractures due to BMI fluctuation, has been understudied within Asian populations. In this large-scale, population-based cohort study in Korea, we aimed to investigate the relationship between variability in body mass index (BMI) and the risk of fractures. METHODS: The study included 166,932 subjects aged ≥ 50 years from the National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort. The BMI variability value from three follow-up examinations during 2002-2007 was categorized into quartiles. The hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effects of BMI variability on the risk of admission from hip, spine, and upper extremity fractures during 2008-2015 were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: Compared to those in the lowest BMI variability (1st quartile), men in the highest BMI variability (4th quartile) showed an increased risk of spinal fractures (aHR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.36) with a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0.021). Compared to those in the lowest BMI variability (1st quartile), women in the highest BMI variability (4th quartile) showed an increased risk of hip and spinal fractures (aHR 1.35, 95% CI 1.05-1.69; aHR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.28) with significant linear trends (P for trend = 0.021; P for trend = 0.003, respectively). There was no association between BMI variability and incidents of upper extremity fractures for men or women. CONCLUSION: Association between BMI variability and increased fracture risk depended on sex and fracture types. BMI maintenance, instead of high BMI fluctuation, may be beneficial in terms of lowering the overall fracture risk for Korean adults over 50 years old.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Eur Heart J ; 42(25): 2487-2497, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780974

RESUMO

AIMS: Little is known about the trade-off between the health benefits of physical activity (PA) and the potential harmful effects of increased exposure to air pollution during outdoor PA. We examined the association of the combined effects of air pollution and changes in PA with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: This nationwide cohort study included 1 469 972 young adults aged 20-39 years. Air pollution exposure was estimated by the annual average cumulative level of particulate matter (PM). PA was calculated as minutes of metabolic equivalent tasks per week (MET-min/week) based on two consecutive health examinations from 2009 to 2012. Compared with the participants exposed to low-to-moderate levels of PM2.5 or PM10 who continuously engaged in ≥1000 MET-min/week of PA, those who decreased their PA from ≥1000 MET-min/week to 1-499 MET-min/week [PM10 adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.48] and to 0 MET-min/week (physically inactive; PM10 aHR 1.38; 95% CI 1.07-1.78) had an increased risk of CVD (P for trend <0.01). Among participants exposed to high levels of PM2.5 or PM10, the risk of CVD was elevated with an increase in PA above 1000 MET-min/week. CONCLUSION: Reducing PA may lead to subsequent elevation of CVD risk in young adults exposed to low-to-moderate levels of PM2.5 or PM10, whereas a large increase in PA in a high-pollution environment may adversely affect cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto Jovem
6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 188(1): 203-214, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599866

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association of physical activity among long-term breast cancer survivors on the occurrence of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: We investigated the risk of CVD among 39,775 breast cancer patients who were newly diagnosed in 2006 and survived until 2011 within the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Patients were followed up from 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis to the date of CVD event, death, or December 31, 2018, whichever came earliest. Every 500 MET-mins/week correspond to 152, 125, and 62.5 min per week of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression by physical activity levels. RESULTS: Compared with those with physical activity of 0 MET-min/week, those with 1-499 (aHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98), 500-999 (aHR 0.75, 95% CI 0.63-0.90), and ≥ 1,000 (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.93) MET-min/week of PA had lower risk of CVD. Higher levels of PA were associated with lower risk of stroke (p for trend = 0.016). The benefits of PA on obese and overweight breast cancer survivors were smaller than those in normal weight survivors. The frequency of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) showed a reverse J-curve association with CVD, and the best benefit occurred in the 3-4 times MVPA per week group (aHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.74). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that even small amounts of PA may be beneficial in potentially decreasing the risk of CVD, CHD, and stroke in breast cancer survivors. Our result will be useful to prescribe and delivery exercise among long-term breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 37(6): 567-571, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined whether tibolone (TIB), a type of hormone replacement therapy widely used in Asia and Europe, affects dementia risk in postmenopausal women. Our study aims to investigate the association of TIB and dementia risk in Korean women aged 50-80 years. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study was conducted using the Korean National Health Insurance Service claims database merged with national health examination data from 2002 to 2015. Among 13,110 participants, exposure to TIB was determined using the standardized defined daily dose (DDD) system from 2003 to 2007. Starting from 2007, participants were followed up for overall dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) until 2015. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of dementia according to TIB use. RESULTS: TIB use was not significantly associated with the risk of total dementia (aHR = 1.040; 95% CI = 0.734-1.472; p = .827), AD (aHR = 0.949; 95% CI = 0.652-1.381; p = .785) and VD (aHR = 1.245; 95% CI = 0.631-2.457; p = .528). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that TIB use does not have a significant association with dementia risk. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to elucidate the role of exogenous hormones in the development of dementia.

8.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(1)2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The role of sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and biological indicators as potential risk factors for suicide is relatively understudied among young adults. The aim of this study is to explore the association of these variables with the risk of death by suicide among young adults. METHODS: The study population consisted of 15,534,438 individuals aged 20-39 years from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Sociodemographic factors associated with death by suicide during 2006-2015 were evaluated. 3,396,353 individuals who underwent health examinations between 2002 and 2005 were separately assessed for health behaviors and biological indicators associated with death by suicide. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for suicide mortality according to sociodemographic factors (age, household income, job status, residence, and Charlson comorbidity index score), health behaviors (physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption), and biological indicators (blood pressure, total cholesterol level, body mass index, and fasting serum glucose level). RESULTS: Low household income, self- and non-employment, increased comorbidity, smoking, and normal weight elevated the risk of death by suicide among young adults. While older age was associated with elevated risk for death by suicide among men (adjusted HR [aHR] = 2.11; 95% CI, 2.02-2.20 for men aged 35-39 years), older age reduced the risk for death by suicide among women (aHR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.69-0.75 for women aged 35-39 years). Elevated blood pressure and fasting serum glucose level were associated with increased risk for death by suicide among men (aHR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.28 and aHR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.26-1.75, respectively). Finally, high total cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk for death by suicide among women (aHR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.19-2.13). CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and biological indicators were associated with suicide mortality among young adults.


Assuntos
Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Demografia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suicídio/economia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(6): 839-847, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507945

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Air particulate matter (PM) is an environmental exposure associated with oxidation and inflammation. Whether particulate matter is associated with risk of osteoporotic bone fracture is unclear. We investigated the association between exposure to PM and risk of bone fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data of 44,602 participants living in three metropolitan cities in Republic of Korea from National Health Insurance Service database. We examined the association of 2 year averaged concentrations of PM and osteoporotic fracture over 4 years. Exposure to 2-year averaged air pollution [PM2.5 (< 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter), PM10 [< 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter], PM coarse (PM ranging from 2.5 µm to 10 µm)] concentrations were estimated from 2008 to 2009 in Air Korea data. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for osteoporotic fractures were calculated using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, household income, and Charlson Comorbidity Index, PM 2.5 in one pollutant model increased the risk of osteoporotic fractures, compared to the first quartile group (4th quartile group aHR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.24). Also, PM 2.5 increased the risk of spine and non-spine fractures compared to the first quartile group (4th quartile group aHR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.00-1.38, aHR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). We found no association between PM10/PM coarse and osteoporotic fractures. CONCLUSION: We found that PM2.5 is a risk factor for osteoporotic bone fractures.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Idoso , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326144

RESUMO

Cancer survivors are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between particulate matter (PM) and CVD risk among cancer survivors (alive >5 years since diagnosis) is unclear. We investigated the risk of CVD among 40,899 cancer survivors within the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Exposure to PM was determined by assessing yearly average PM levels obtained from the Air Korea database from 2008 to 2011. PMs with sizes <2.5 (PM2.5), <10 (PM10), or 2.5-10 (PM2.5-10) µm in diameter were compared, with each PM level exposure further divided into quintiles. Patients were followed up from January 2012 to date of CVD event, death, or December 2017, whichever came earliest. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression by PM exposure levels. Compared with cancer survivors in the lowest quintile of PM2.5 exposure, those within the highest quintile had a greater risk for CVD (aHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.59). Conversely, increasing PM10 and PM2.5-10 levels were not associated with increased CVD risk (p for trend 0.078 and 0.361, respectively). Cancer survivors who reduce PM2.5 exposure may benefit from lower risk of developing CVD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Material Particulado , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , República da Coreia
11.
Arch Osteoporos ; 13(1): 46, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696513

RESUMO

In this cross-sectional study based on Korean elderly men and women, heavy alcohol intake for men was related to low whole-body BMD and light alcohol intake for women was associated with high whole-body, lumbar, and total femur BMD. PURPOSE: Alcohol is a risk factor of osteoporosis but previous studies on its effect on bone health has been controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alcohol intake and bone mineral density in Korean elderly men and women. METHODS: Based on the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), 2657 men and 2080 women 50 to 79 years of age were included. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Alcohol consumption was determined by self-administered questionnaires and classified into four groups according to sex: non-drinkers (0 g/day), light drinking (1-19 g/day men, 1-9 g/day women), moderate drinking (20-39 g/day men, 10-29 g/day women), and heavy drinking (≥ 40 g/day men, ≥ 20 g/day women). The adjusted mean values calculated by linear regression analysis for BMD were determined according to the amount of alcohol consumed. RESULTS: Light drinkers had the highest whole-body BMD for both men (mean 1.164, SD 0.047-1.281) and women (mean 1.046, SD 0.912-1.180). Among men, mean whole-body BMD for heavy drinkers was significantly lower than that among light drinkers (P = 0.031). Among women, BMD for light drinkers was significantly higher in the whole body, lumbar, and total femur than that for non-drinkers (P < 0.001, P = 0.026, P = 0.040, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Heavy alcohol intake may be associated with lower BMD in men while light alcohol intake may associate with higher BMD among women. Future longitudinal studies investigating the effect of alcohol consumption on bone mineral density are needed to validate the findings of this study.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/etiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
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