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Crit Care Med ; 47(7): 910-917, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985388


OBJECTIVES: Hypotension thresholds that provoke renal injury, myocardial injury, and mortality in critical care patients remain unknown. We primarily sought to determine the relationship between hypotension and a composite of myocardial injury (troponin T ≥ 0.03 ng/mL without nonischemic cause) and death up to 7 postoperative days. Secondarily, we considered acute kidney injury (creatinine concentration ≥ 0.3 mg/dL or 1.5 times baseline). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Surgical ICU at an academic medical center. PATIENTS: Two-thousand eight-hundred thirty-three postoperative patients admitted to the surgical ICU. INTERVENTIONS: A Cox proportional hazard survival model was used to assess the association between lowest mean arterial pressure on each intensive care day, considered as a time-varying covariate, and outcomes. In sensitivity analyses hypotension defined as pressures less than 80 mm Hg and 70 mm Hg were also considered. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There was a strong nonlinear (quadratic) association between the lowest mean arterial pressure and the primary outcome of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery or mortality, with estimated risk increasing at lower pressures. The risk of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery or mortality was an estimated 23% higher at the 25th percentile (78 mm Hg) of lowest mean arterial pressure compared with at the median of 87 mm Hg, with adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of 1.23 (1.12-1.355; p < 0.001). Overall results were generally similar in sensitivity analyses based on every hour of mean arterial pressure less than 80 mm Hg and any mean arterial pressure less than 70 mm Hg. Post hoc analyses showed that the relationship between ICU hypotension and outcomes depended on the amount of intraoperative hypotension. The risk of acute kidney injury increased over a range of minimum daily pressures from 110 mm Hg to 50 mm Hg, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% CI, 1.18-1.37; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing amounts of hypotension (defined by lowest mean arterial pressures per day) were strongly associated with myocardial injury, mortality, and renal injury in postoperative critical care patients.

Paediatr Anaesth ; 29(2): 169-174, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521078


BACKGROUND: Surgical wound infiltration with local anesthetics is common as part of multimodal analgesia and enhanced recovery pathways in pediatric surgical patients. Liposomal bupivacaine can provide up to 92 hours of pain relief, and was approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration for local infiltration in adults. It is also commonly used by pediatric surgeons, but its safety profile in this age group has not been described. AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of local anesthetic systemic toxicity syndrome in pediatric surgical patients receiving liposomal bupivacaine compared to plain bupivacaine for surgical wound infiltration. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, single center, assessor blinded cohort study of pediatric surgical inpatients having open or laparoscopic surgery in the Cleveland Clinic between 2013 and 2017 and receiving wound infiltration with local anesthetics. We compared the incidence of local anesthetic systemic toxicity among those who received any dose of liposomal bupivacaine and those who received plain bupivacaine. Groups were matched 1:2 according to procedure type, age, and physical status score. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity was primarily defined as at least two signs or symptoms possibly related to anesthetic toxicity, as judged by two independent adjudicators blinded to the type of local anesthetic. A sensitivity analysis compared the incidence of a single sign/symptom possibly related to anesthetic toxicity. RESULTS: A total of 924 surgical cases were included in the final analysis (356 liposomal bupivacaine and 568 plain bupivacaine cases). The primary outcome did not occur in any patient. The sensitivity analysis found three cases in the liposomal bupivacaine group and two cases in the plain bupivacaine group having a single sign/symptom possibly related to local anesthetic administration (relative risk 2.4, 95% CI 0.4-14.0, P = 0.38). CONCLUSION: In a cohort of pediatric surgical patients receiving wound infiltration with either plain or liposomal bupivacaine, we identified no cases of local anesthetic systemic toxicity syndrome, and only few patients with any sign or symptom that could potentially be related to local anesthetic toxicity.

Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anestesia Local/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Local/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Laparoscopia , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suspensões/administração & dosagem
Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 21(4): 330-340, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28549395


BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is increasingly used in children undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures. We compared the percentage of surgical time with hemodynamic instability and the incidence of postoperative agitation between pediatric cardiac catheterization patients who received dexmedetomidine infusion and those who did not and the incidence of postoperative agitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We matched 653 pediatric patients scheduled for cardiac catheterization. Two separate multivariable linear mixed models were used to assess the association between dexmedetomidine use and intraoperative blood pressure and heart rate instability. A multivariate logistic regression was used for relationship between dexmedetomidine and postoperative agitation. RESULTS: No difference between the study groups was found in the duration of MAP ( P = .867) or heart rate (HR) instabilities ( P = .224). The relationship between dexmedetomidine use and the duration of negative hemodynamic effects does not depend on any of the considered CHD types (all P > .001) or intervention ( P = .453 for MAP and P = .023 for HR). No difference in postoperative agitation was found between the study groups ( P = .590). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated no benefit in using dexmedetomidine infusion compared with other general anesthesia techniques to maintain hemodynamic stability or decrease agitation in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures.

Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Delírio do Despertar/induzido quimicamente , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Pediatria/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
J Trop Pediatr ; 58(3): 189-93, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21908546


In routine practice, 4-6 h of kangaroo mother care (KMC) is adopted. Many mothers feel the duration impracticable. In 86 preterm babies, pre and post 1 h KMC changes in heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), axillary temperature and SpO(2) are measured, in each baby. Postnatal age at the time of the study is 7.7 ± 5.2 days. Significant changes observed are decrease in mean HR by 3 bpm, RR by 3 min(-1) and increase in mean axillary temperature by 0.4 F and SpO(2) by 1.1%. In SGA babies, post KMC decrease in mean HR by 5 bpm, increase in mean axillary temperature by 0.6 F and SpO(2) by 2.1% are significant. In female babies, post KMC decrease in mean RR by 6 min(-1) and increase mean axillary temperature by 0.3 F and SpO(2) by 1.5% are significant. We conclude that preterm babies are benefited by 1 h KMC. SGA and female preterm babies showed different and greater response.

Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Método Canguru , Relações Mãe-Filho , Estimulação Física , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Apego ao Objeto , Nascimento Prematuro , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento