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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052024

RESUMO

Objectives: Common cavity deformity is a rare congenital bony labyrinth malformation associated with profound hearing loss. Cochlear implants are widely used for hearing rehabilitation for common cavity deformities; however, the reported prognosis is poor. Due to the deformed anatomical structure, it is important to consider the position of the electrodes to maximize the performance of the cochlear implant. The present study discusses the impact of electrode placement on hearing outcomes. Methods: A retrospective medical chart review of eight common cavity deformity patients (10 cochlear implants) who received cochlear implants was performed at a single university hospital. In all eight patients, implant surgery was performed using single-slit labyrinthotomy. Electrodes wer e manually bent before insertion to prevent misplacement and to reduce physical damage to the neuroepithelium. Results: Four of the 10 electrodes were misplaced, with their tips placed in the anterior semicircular canal or internal auditory canal. However, after implant surgery, all patients-including those with misplaced electrodes-gained auditory perception and improved hearing function. One patient who had electrodes that did not contact the inner wall of the cavity showed limited activity of the electrodes (27%) compared to others (64%-100%). Conclusions: Proper contact of the electrode with the inner wall was more likely to be important for cochlear implant success in cases of common cavity deformity than appropriate placement of the electrode tip.

3.
Nanotechnology ; 33(13)2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902844

RESUMO

Vanadium selenide (V2Se9) is a true one-dimensional (1D) crystal composed of atomic nanochains bonded by van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Recent experiments revealed the mechanical exfoliation of newly synthesized V2Se9. In this study, we predicted the electronic and transport properties of V2Se9through computational analyses. We calculated the intrinsic carrier mobility of V2Se9monolayers (MLs) and nanoribbons (NRs) using density functional theory and deformation potential theory. We found that the electron mobility of the two-dimensional (2D) (010)-plane ML of V2Se9is highly anisotropic, reachingµ2D,ze=1327cm2V-1s-1across the chain direction. The electron mobility of 1D NR systems in a (010)-plane ML of V2Se9along the chain direction continuously increased as the thickness increased from 1-chain to 4-chain NR (width below 3 nm). Interestingly, the electron mobility of 1D 4-chain NR along the chain direction (µ1D,xe=775cm2V-1s-1) was higher than that of a 2D (010)-plane ML (µ2D,xe=567cm2V-1s-1). These results demonstrate the potential of vdW-1D crystal V2Se9as a new nanomaterial for ultranarrow (sub-3 nm width) optoelectronic devices with high electron mobility.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127267, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583162

RESUMO

Novel integration of adsorption followed by catalytic oxidation is expected to be more beneficial for higher Mn(II) removal performance. We prepared self-assembled 3D flower-like Mg(OH)2 coated on granular-sized polyurethane (namely FMHP) via hydrothermal method at 120 °C under a facile synthesis route. The optimized material, FMHP prepared with 7 g MgO and 20 g polyurethane (FMH0.35P), achieved up to 351.2 mg g-1 Mn(II) removal capacity by Langmuir isotherm model. Besides, FMHP exhibited high Mn(II) removal in a wide range of NaCl concentration (0~0.1 M) and pH 2-9. Notably, through consecutive kinetics, BET, XPS, XRD, FESEM, and TEM analyses, it was found that the MnOx layer grows in-situ via ion exchange with Mg(II) on FMHP and further boosts the Mn(II) removal via catalytic oxidation during the Mn(II) removal process. Further, column experiments revealed that the FMH0.35P exhibited superior Mn(II) removal capacities up to 135.9 mg g-1 and highly compatible treatment costs ($0.062 m-3) compared to conventional chemical processes. The granular-sized FMH0.35P prepared by economic precursors and simple synthesis route revealed a high potential for Mn(II) containing water treatment due to its high removal capacities and easy operation.

5.
JMIR Med Inform ; 9(12): e33049, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep learning (DL)-based artificial intelligence may have different diagnostic characteristics than human experts in medical diagnosis. As a data-driven knowledge system, heterogeneous population incidence in the clinical world is considered to cause more bias to DL than clinicians. Conversely, by experiencing limited numbers of cases, human experts may exhibit large interindividual variability. Thus, understanding how the 2 groups classify given data differently is an essential step for the cooperative usage of DL in clinical application. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the differential effects of clinical experience in otoendoscopic image diagnosis in both computers and physicians exemplified by the class imbalance problem and guide clinicians when utilizing decision support systems. METHODS: We used digital otoendoscopic images of patients who visited the outpatient clinic in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Severance Hospital, Seoul, South Korea, from January 2013 to June 2019, for a total of 22,707 otoendoscopic images. We excluded similar images, and 7500 otoendoscopic images were selected for labeling. We built a DL-based image classification model to classify the given image into 6 disease categories. Two test sets of 300 images were populated: balanced and imbalanced test sets. We included 14 clinicians (otolaryngologists and nonotolaryngology specialists including general practitioners) and 13 DL-based models. We used accuracy (overall and per-class) and kappa statistics to compare the results of individual physicians and the ML models. RESULTS: Our ML models had consistently high accuracies (balanced test set: mean 77.14%, SD 1.83%; imbalanced test set: mean 82.03%, SD 3.06%), equivalent to those of otolaryngologists (balanced: mean 71.17%, SD 3.37%; imbalanced: mean 72.84%, SD 6.41%) and far better than those of nonotolaryngologists (balanced: mean 45.63%, SD 7.89%; imbalanced: mean 44.08%, SD 15.83%). However, ML models suffered from class imbalance problems (balanced test set: mean 77.14%, SD 1.83%; imbalanced test set: mean 82.03%, SD 3.06%). This was mitigated by data augmentation, particularly for low incidence classes, but rare disease classes still had low per-class accuracies. Human physicians, despite being less affected by prevalence, showed high interphysician variability (ML models: kappa=0.83, SD 0.02; otolaryngologists: kappa=0.60, SD 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Even though ML models deliver excellent performance in classifying ear disease, physicians and ML models have their own strengths. ML models have consistent and high accuracy while considering only the given image and show bias toward prevalence, whereas human physicians have varying performance but do not show bias toward prevalence and may also consider extra information that is not images. To deliver the best patient care in the shortage of otolaryngologists, our ML model can serve a cooperative role for clinicians with diverse expertise, as long as it is kept in mind that models consider only images and could be biased toward prevalent diseases even after data augmentation.

6.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of myocarditis after administration of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. METHODS: Nine case series and 15 case reports (74 patients) of myocarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine were reviewed from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. We analyzed clinical manifestations, diagnostic findings, and outcomes. In addition, we performed a pooled analysis and investigated risk factors leading to admission to ICU and recovery with conservative care. RESULTS: Most patients were male (94.6%), and the median age (range) was 17.6 (14-70) years. Patients who received the BNT162b2 (n=58, 78.4%) vaccine presented fewer systemic symptoms and left ventricular dysfunction than mRNA-1273 recipients. Although patients under 20 years experienced more fever and myalgia, they had better ejection fraction and less prominent myocardial inflammation in magnetic resonance imaging than older patients. The clinical course of all patients was favourable without mortality, and one-third of patients resolved with conservative care alone. Risk factor analyses revealed that patients with gastrointestinal symptoms required intensive care (OR:20.3, 95% CI 1.90-217, p=0.013). CONCLUSION: The risk of fatality in myocarditis subjected to mRNA vaccination seems to be low. While patients with gastrointestinal symptoms received more intensive care, a significant proportion of patients recovered with conservative management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Hear Res ; 412: 108378, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735822

RESUMO

Acoustic trauma induces an inflammatory response in the cochlea, resulting in debilitating hearing function. Clinically, amelioration of inflammation substantially prevents noise-induced hearing loss. The Limulus factor C, Cochlin, and Lgl1 (LCCL) peptide plays an important role in innate immunity during bacteria-induced inflammation in the cochlea. We aimed to investigate the LCCL-induced innate immune response to noise exposure and its impact on hearing function. METHODS: We used Coch (encodes cochlin harboring LCCL peptide) knock-out and p.G88E knock-in mice to compare the immune responses before and after noise exposure. We explored their hearing function and hair cell degeneration. Moreover, we investigated distinct characteristics of immune responses upon noise exposure using flow cytometry and RNA sequencing. RESULTS: One day after noise exposure, the LCCL peptide cleaved from cochlin increased over time in the perilymph space. Both Coch-/- and CochG88E/G88E mutant mice revealed more preserved hearing following acoustic trauma compared to wild-type mice. The outer hair cells were more preserved in Coch-/- than in wild-type mice upon noise exposure. The RNA sequencing data demonstrated significantly upregulated cell migration gene ontology in wild-type mice than in Coch-/- mice following noise exposure, indicating that the infiltration of immune cells was dependent on cochlin. Notably, infiltrated monocytes from blood (C11b+/Ly6G-/Ly6C+) were remarkably higher in wild-type mice than in Coch-/- mice at 1 day after noise exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Noise-induced hearing loss was attributed to over-stimulated cochlin, and led to the cleavage and secretion of LCCL peptide in the cochlea. The LCCL peptide recruited more monocytes from the blood vessels upon noise stimulation, thus highlighting a novel therapeutic target for noise-induced hearing loss.

8.
Nanoscale ; 13(42): 17945-17952, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698323

RESUMO

Recently, ternary transition metal chalcogenides Ta2X3Se8 (X = Pd or Pt) have attracted great interest as a class of emerging one-dimensional (1D) van der Waals (vdW) materials. In particular, Ta2Pd3Se8 has been actively studied owing to its excellent charge transport properties as an n-type semiconductor and ultralong ballistic phonon transport properties. Compared to subsequent studies on the Pd-containing material, Ta2Pt3Se8, another member of this class of materials has been considerably less explored despite its promising electrical properties as a p-type semiconductor. Herein, we demonstrate the electrical properties of Ta2Pt3Se8 as a promising channel material for nanoelectronic applications. High-quality bulk Ta2Pt3Se8 single crystals were successfully synthesized by a one-step vapor transport reaction. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy measurements were used to investigate the surface potential difference and work function of the Ta2Pt3Se8 nanoribbons of various thicknesses. Field-effect transistors fabricated on exfoliated Ta2Pt3Se8 nanoribbons exhibited moderate p-type transport properties with a maximum hole mobility of 5 cm2 V-1 s-1 and an Ion/Ioff ratio of >104. Furthermore, the charge transport mechanism of Ta2Pt3Se8 was analyzed by temperature-dependent transport measurements in the temperature range from 90 to 320 K. To include Ta2Pt3Se8 in a building block for modern 1D electronics, we demonstrate p-n junction characteristics using the electron beam doping method.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702025

RESUMO

We synthesized ternary composition chalcogenide Ta2NiSe7, a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) material with excellent crystallinity. To utilize the excellent electrical conductivity property of Ta2NiSe7, the breakdown current density (JBD) according to thickness change through mechanical exfoliation was measured. It was confirmed that as the thickness decreased, the maximum breakdown voltage (VBD) increased, and at 18 nm thickness, 35 MA cm-2 of JBD was measured, which was 35 times higher than that of copper, which is commonly used as an interconnect material. By optimization of the exfoliation process, it is expected that through a theoretical model fitting, the JBD can be increased to about 356 MA cm-2. It is expected that the low-dimensional materials with ternary compositions proposed through this experiment can be used as candidates for current-carrying materials that are required for the miniaturization of various electronic devices.

10.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719115

RESUMO

On October 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved remdesivir as the first drug for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), increasing remdesivir prescriptions worldwide. However, potential cardiovascular (CV) toxicities associated with remdesivir remain unknown. We aimed to characterize the CV adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, an individual case safety report database of the World Health Organization (WHO). Disproportionality analyses of CV-ADRs associated with remdesivir were performed using reported odds ratios and information components. We conducted in vitro experiments using cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) to confirm cardiotoxicity of remdesivir. To distinguish drug-induced CV-ADRs from COVID-19 effects, we restricted analyses to patients with COVID-19 and found that, after adjusting for multiple confounders, cardiac arrest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.29), bradycardia (aOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.24-3.53), and hypotension (aOR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.03-2.73) were associated with remdesivir. In vitro data demonstrated that remdesivir reduced the cell viability of hPSC-CMs in time- and dose-dependent manners. Physicians should be aware of potential CV consequences following remdesivir use and implement adequate CV monitoring to maintain a tolerable safety margin.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 50(41): 14560-14565, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643202

RESUMO

We studied the structural and magnetic properties of BaFe12O19 (BaM) nanoparticles synthesized by a co-precipitation route based on a modified citrate process. The lattice contraction of co-precipitated BaM nanoparticles is detected after prolonged sintering at 900 °C. In addition, investigation with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provides evidence of a highly enhanced population of oxygen vacancies. The lattice distortion and formation of oxygen vacancies are attributed to a direct result of substitutional incorporation of smaller Na ions into Ba2+ sites in the lattice of BaM during prolonged annealing. The aliovalent impurities are assumed to be originated from NaOH which has been incorporated as a pH modifier. Magnon scattering is detected at 1640 cm-1 in the low temperature Raman spectra of BaM. Minimization of the magnon peak is also identified after prolonged annealing, which indicates oxygen vacancy-induced collapse of strong anti-ferromagnetic interaction between Fe3+ ions in the bipyramidal sites and the octahedral sites in BaM nanoparticles. As a result, the saturation magnetization (Ms) of BaM nanoparticles is enhanced by the onset of local ferromagnetic interaction induced by the collapse of antiferromagnetic interaction between oppositely aligned spins. In this study, we re-investigated the evolution of structural and magnetic properties with prolonged annealing of BaM nanoparticles and the effects of residual Na ions are also discussed.

12.
ACS Omega ; 6(40): 26782-26790, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661032

RESUMO

Finding new materials with satisfying all the desired criteria for nanodevices is an extremely difficult work. Here, we introduce a novel Nb2Se9 material as a promising candidate, capable of overcoming some physical limitations, such as a suitable band gap, high carrier mobility, and chemical stability. Unlike graphene, it has a noticeable band gap and no dangling bonds at surfaces that deteriorate transport properties, owing to its molecular chain structure. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations with deformation potential (DP) theory, we find that the electron mobility of 2D Nb2Se9 across the axis direction reaches up to 2.56 × 103 cm2 V-1 s-1 and is approximately 2.5-6 times higher than the mobility of other 2D materials, such as MoS2, black phosphorous, and InSe, at room temperature. Moreover, the mobility of 2D Nb2Se9 is highly anisotropic (µ a /µ c ≈ 6.5). We demonstrate the potential of 2D Nb2Se9 for applications in nanoscale electronic devices and, possibly, mid-infrared photodetectors.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497122

RESUMO

Some of the most spectacular adaptive radiations begin with founder populations on remote islands. How genetically limited founder populations give rise to the striking phenotypic and ecological diversity characteristic of adaptive radiations is a paradox of evolutionary biology. We conducted an evolutionary genomics analysis of genus Metrosideros, a landscape-dominant, incipient adaptive radiation of woody plants that spans a striking range of phenotypes and environments across the Hawaiian Islands. Using nanopore-sequencing, we created a chromosome-level genome assembly for Metrosideros polymorpha var. incana and analyzed whole-genome sequences of 131 individuals from 11 taxa sampled across the islands. Demographic modeling and population genomics analyses suggested that Hawaiian Metrosideros originated from a single colonization event and subsequently spread across the archipelago following the formation of new islands. The evolutionary history of Hawaiian Metrosideros shows evidence of extensive reticulation associated with significant sharing of ancestral variation between taxa and secondarily with admixture. Taking advantage of the highly contiguous genome assembly, we investigated the genomic architecture underlying the adaptive radiation and discovered that divergent selection drove the formation of differentiation outliers in paired taxa representing early stages of speciation/divergence. Analysis of the evolutionary origins of the outlier single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed enrichment for ancestral variations under divergent selection. Our findings suggest that Hawaiian Metrosideros possesses an unexpectedly rich pool of ancestral genetic variation, and the reassortment of these variations has fueled the island adaptive radiation.

14.
Saf Health Work ; 12(3): 416-420, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527404

RESUMO

Hazardous area classification design is required to reduce the explosion risk in process plants. Among the international design guidelines, only IEC 60079-10-1 proposes a new type of zone, namely zone 2 NE, to prevent explosion hazards. We studied how to meet the zone 2 NE grade for a facility handling hydrogen gas, which is considered as most dangerous among explosive gases. Zone 2 NE can be achieved considering the grade of release, as well as the availability and effectiveness of ventilation, which are factors indicative of the facility condition and its surroundings. In the present study, we demonstrate that zone 2 NE can be achieved when the degree of ventilation is high by accessing temperature, pressure, and size of leak hole. The release characteristic can be derived by substituting the process condition of the hydrogen gas facility. The equations are summarized considering relation of the operating temperature, operating pressure, and size of leak hole. Through this relationship, the non-hazardous condition can be realized from the perspective of inherent safety by the combination of each parameter before the initial design of the hydrogen gas facility.

15.
Hum Genet ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529116

RESUMO

This phenotype-genotype study aimed to investigate the extent of audioprofile variability related to cochlin major domains and to identify potential ethnic-specific differences associated with COCH-related hearing loss. Eight Korean families (26 cases) were diagnosed with COCH-related hearing loss by exome sequencing. Audiometric test results were combined with those from nine published East Asian families (20 cases) and compared with those from 38 European-descent families (277 cases). Audioprofiles were created by grouping audiometric test results into age ranges by age at testing and then averaging hearing loss thresholds by frequency within age ranges. The functional impact of the identified variants was assessed in vitro by examining the intracellular trafficking, secretion, and cleavage of cochlin. In both East Asian and European-descent families segregating COCH-related hearing loss, deafness-associated variants in non-LCCL domains of cochlin were associated with hearing loss that was more severe earlier in life than hearing loss caused by variants in the LCCL domain. Consistent with this phenotypic difference, functional studies demonstrated distinct pathogenic mechanisms for COCH variants in a domain-dependent manner; specifically, a cytotoxic effect was observed for the p.Phe230Leu variant, which is located in the vWFA1 domain. No ethnic-specific differences in hearing loss progression were observed, except for those attributable to an overrepresentation of presymptomatic cases in the European-descent cohort.

16.
Hum Genet ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519870

RESUMO

Ski-slope hearing loss (HL), which refers to increased auditory threshold at high frequencies, is common in adults. However, genetic contributions to this post-lingual HL remain largely unknown. Here, we prospectively investigated deafness-associated and novel candidate genes causing ski-slope HL. We analyzed 192 families with post-lingual HL via gene panel and/or exome sequencing. With an overall molecular diagnostic rate of 35.4% (68/192) in post-lingual HL, ski-slope HL showed a lower diagnostic rate (30.7%) compared with other conditions (40.7%). In patients who showed HL onset before the age of 40, genetic diagnostic probability was significantly lower for ski-slope HL than for other conditions. Further analysis of 51 genetically undiagnosed patients in the ski-slope HL group identified three variants in delta-like ligand 1 (DLL1), a Notch ligand, which presented in vitro gain-of-function effects on Notch downstream signaling. In conclusion, genetic diagnostic rates in post-lingual HL varied according to audiogram patterns with age-of-onset as a confounding factor. DLL1 was identified as a candidate gene causing ski-slope HL.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18828, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552115

RESUMO

Mucus clearance, a primary innate defense mechanism of airways, is defective in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and CF animals. In previous work, the combination of a low dose of the cholinergic agonist, carbachol with forskolin or a ß adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol synergistically increased mucociliary clearance velocity (MCCV) in ferret tracheas. Importantly, the present study shows that synergistic MCCV can also be produced in CF ferrets, with increases ~ 55% of WT. Synergistic MCCV was also produced in pigs. The combined agonists increased MCCV by increasing surface fluid via multiple mechanisms: increased fluid secretion from submucosal glands, increased anion secretion across surface epithelia and decreased Na+ absorption. To avoid bronchoconstriction, the cAMP agonist was applied 30 min before carbachol. This approach to increasing mucus clearance warrants testing for safety and efficacy in humans as a potential therapeutic for muco-obstructive diseases.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39135-39141, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374274

RESUMO

Many physiochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of muscle tissues, such as nanometer scale dimension, nanotopography, negative charge, and elasticity, must be carefully reproduced to fabricate scaffold materials mimicking muscle tissues. Hence, we developed a muscle tissue ECM-mimicking scaffold using Mo6S3I6 inorganic molecular wires (IMWs). Composed of bio-essential elements and having a nanofibrous structure with a diameter of ∼1 nm and a negative surface charge with high stability, Mo6S3I6 IMWs are ideal for mimicking natural ECM molecules. Once Mo6S3I6 IMWs were patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane surface with an elasticity of 1877.1 ± 22.2 kPa, that is, comparable to that of muscle tissues, the proliferation and α-tubulin expression of myoblasts enhanced significantly. Additionally, the repetitive one-dimensional patterns of Mo6S3I6 IMWs induced the alignment and stretching of myoblasts with enhanced α-tubulin expression and differentiation into myocytes. This study demonstrates that Mo6S3I6 IMWs are promising for mimicking the ECM of muscle tissues.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Nanofios/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Iodo/química , Molibdênio/química , Músculos/citologia , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Enxofre/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Engenharia Tecidual , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
19.
Small ; 17(37): e2102602, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339104

RESUMO

In this study, high-purity and centimeter-scale bulk Ta2 Ni3 Se8 crystals are obtained by controlling the growth temperature and stoichiometric ratio between tantalum, nickel, and selenium. It is demonstrated that the bulk Ta2 Ni3 Se8 crystals could be effectively exfoliated into a few chain-scale nanowires through simple mechanical exfoliation and liquid-phase exfoliation. Also, the calculation of electronic band structures confirms that Ta2 Ni3 Se8 is a semiconducting material with a small bandgap. A field-effect transistor is successfully fabricated on the mechanically exfoliated Ta2 Ni3 Se8 nanowires. Transport measurements at room temperature reveal that Ta2 Ni3 Se8 nanowires exhibit ambipolar semiconducting behavior with maximum mobilities of 20.3 and 3.52 cm2 V-1 s-1 for electrons and holes, respectively. The temperature-dependent transport measurement (from 90 to 295 K) confirms the carrier transport mechanism of Ta2 Ni3 Se8 nanowires. Based on these characteristics, the obtained 1D vdW material is expected to be a potential candidate for additional 1D materials as channel materials.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444457

RESUMO

Safety showers and eyewash stations are equipment used for primary washing if their operator is exposed to hazardous chemicals. Therefore, safety showers and eyewash stations should be installed to ensure operator safety in process plants with excessive hazardous chemicals. International guidelines related to safety showers and eyewash stations are introduced in ANSI Z358.1, BS EN 15154, and German DIN 12899-3:2009, but only mechanical specifications regarding safety showers and eyewash stations are suggested. As such, there are currently no engineering guidelines, books, or technical journal papers requiring safety showers or eyewash stations and their efficient deployment. Thus, this study conducted risk assessment from an industrial hygiene perspective, suggesting which process equipment requires a safety shower and eyewash, including their economical and efficient deployment for operator safety. In industry, safety showers and eyewash stations are considered part of the process safety field; this study attempted to contribute to the safety improvement of operators by applying risk assessment of the industrial hygiene field. More studies are needed that contribute to operators' safety by incorporating industrial hygiene fields for other process safety fields, including safety showers and eyewash stations.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas , Saúde do Trabalhador , Plantas , Equipamentos de Proteção , Medição de Risco
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