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1.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647855

RESUMO

As the interest in wearable devices has increased recently, increasing biosensor flexibility has begun to attract considerable attention. Among the various types of biosensors, electrochemical biosensors are uniquely suited for the development of such flexible biosensors due to their many advantages, including their fast response, inherent miniaturization, convenient operation, and portability. Therefore, many studies on flexible electrochemical biosensors have been conducted in recent years to achieve non-invasive and real-time monitoring of body fluids such as tears, sweat, and saliva. To achieve this, various substrates, novel nanomaterials, and detection techniques have been utilized to develop conductive flexible platforms that can be applied to create flexible electrochemical biosensors. In this review, we discussed recently reported flexible electrochemical biosensors and divided them into specific categories including materials for flexible substrate, fabrication techniques for flexible biosensor development, and recently developed flexible electrochemical biosensors to externally monitor target molecules, thereby providing a means to noninvasively examine cells and body fluid samples. In conclusion, this review will discuss the materials, methods, recent studies, and perspectives on flexible electrochemical biosensors for healthcare monitoring and wearable biosensing systems.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(8)2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325654

RESUMO

In this paper, we proposed a new thresholding method for impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar-based detection applications by taking both the false alarm and miss-detection rates into consideration. The thresholding algorithm is the key point of the detection application, and there have been numerous studies on these developments. Most of these studies were related to the occurrence of false alarms, such as the constant false alarm rate algorithm (CFAR). However, very few studies have considered miss-detection, which is another crucial issue in detection applications. To mitigate this issue, our proposed algorithm considered miss-detection as well as the false alarms occurring during thresholding. In the proposed algorithm, a threshold is determined by combining a noise signal-based threshold, in which the focus point is the false alarm, with a target signal-based threshold, in which the focus point is a miss-detection, at a designed ratio. Therefore, a threshold can be determined based on the focus point by adjusting the designed ratio. In addition, the proposed algorithm can estimate the false alarm and miss-detection rates for the determined threshold, and thus, the threshold can be objectively set. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is better in terms of understanding the target signal for a given environment. A target signal can be affected by the clutter, installation height, and the angle of the radar, which are factors that noise-oriented algorithms do not consider. As the proposed algorithm analyzed the target signal, these factors were all considered. We analyzed the false alarm and miss-detection rates for the thresholds, which were determined by different combination ratios at various distances, and we experimentally verified the validity of the proposed algorithm.

3.
Biotechnol J ; 15(6): e1900347, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143237

RESUMO

Biomolecules, especially proteins and nucleic acids, have been widely studied to develop biochips for various applications in scientific fields ranging from bioelectronics to stem cell research. However, restrictions exist due to the inherent characteristics of biomolecules, such as instability and the constraint of granting the functionality to the biochip. Introduction of functional nanomaterials, recently being researched and developed, to biomolecules have been widely researched to develop the nanobiohybrid materials because such materials have the potential to enhance and extend the function of biomolecules on a biochip. The potential for applying nanobiohybrid materials is especially high in the field of bioelectronics. Research in bioelectronics is aimed at realizing electronic functions using the inherent properties of biomolecules. To achieve this, various biomolecules possessing unique properties have been combined with novel nanomaterials to develop bioelectronic devices such as highly sensitive electrochemical-based bioelectronic sensing platforms, logic gates, and biocomputing systems. In this review, recently reported bioelectronic devices based on nanobiohybrid materials are discussed. The authors believe that this review will suggest innovative and creative directions to develop the next generation of multifunctional bioelectronic devices.

4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 156: 112125, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174554

RESUMO

Biophysical cues, such as electrical stimulus, mechanical feature, and surface topography, enable the control of neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation and neurite outgrowth. However, the effect of these biophysical cues on NSC behavior has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we developed an innovative combinatorial biophysical cue sensor array combining a surface modified nanopillar array with conductive hydrogel micropatterns. The micro/nanopattern comprised silicon oxide-coated polyurethane nanopillar arrays on a flexible film and conductive hydrogel micropatterns including polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel, silver nanowires (AgNW), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model was used to optimize the design parameters of the nanopillar arrays. In the study, we successfully demonstrated that SiO2-coated nanopillar array enhanced the differentiation of NSCs and efficiently regulated neuronal behavior, such as neurite outgrowths, by conductive hydrogel micropatterns combined with electrical stimuli. Therefore, our innovative combinatorial biophysical cue sensor array to control NSC behavior via electrical stimuli can be potentially useful to study neurodegenerative and neurological disorder therapy applications.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(4)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069896

RESUMO

For the early diagnosis of several diseases, various biomarkers have been discovered and utilized through the measurement of concentrations in body fluids such as blood, urine, and saliva. The most representative analytical method for biomarker detection is an immunosensor, which exploits the specific antigen-antibody immunoreaction. Among diverse analytical methods, surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based immunosensors are emerging as a potential detection platform due to high sensitivity, selectivity, and intuitive features. Particularly, SPR-based immunosensors could detect biomarkers without labeling of a specific detection probe, as typical immunosensors such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) use enzymes like horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In this review, SPR-based immunosensors utilizing noble metals such as Au and Ag as SPR-inducing factors for the measurement of different types of protein biomarkers, including viruses, microbes, and extracellular vesicles (EV), are briefly introduced.

6.
Nanoscale ; 12(17): 9306-9326, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090229

RESUMO

Stem cells show excellent potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine based on their excellent capability to not only self-renew but also differentiate into a specialized cell type of interest. However, the lack of a non-destructive monitoring system makes it challenging to identify and characterize differentiated cells before their transplantation without compromising cell viability. Thus, the development of a non-destructive monitoring method for analyzing cell function is highly desired and can significantly benefit stem cell-based therapies. Recently, nanomaterial-based scaffolds (e.g., nanoarrays) have made possible considerable advances in controlling the differentiation of stem cells and characterization of the differentiation status sensitively in real time. This review provides a selective overview of the recent progress in the synthesis methods of nanoarrays and their applications in controlling stem cell fate and monitoring live cell functions electrochemically. We believe that the topics discussed in this review can provide brief and concise guidelines for the development of novel nanoarrays and promote the interest in live cell study applications. A method which can not only control but also monitor stem cell fate and function will be a promising technology that can accelerate stem cell therapies.

7.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940924

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, nanostructured conducting polymers have received great attention in several application fields, including biosensors, microelectronics, polymer batteries, actuators, energy conversion, and biological applications due to their excellent conductivity, stability, and ease of preparation. In the bioengineering application field, the conducting polymers were reported as excellent matrixes for the functionalization of various biological molecules and thus enhanced their performances as biosensors. In addition, combinations of metals or metal oxides nanostructures with conducting polymers result in enhancing the stability and sensitivity as the biosensing platform. Therefore, several methods have been reported for developing homogeneous metal/metal oxide nanostructures thin layer on the conducting polymer surfaces. This review will introduce the fabrications of different conducting polymers nanostructures and their composites with different shapes. We will exhibit the different techniques that can be used to develop conducting polymers nanostructures and to investigate their chemical, physical and topographical effects. Among the various biosensors, we will focus on conducting polymer-integrated electrochemical biosensors for monitoring important biological targets such as DNA, proteins, peptides, and other biological biomarkers, in addition to their applications as cell-based chips. Furthermore, the fabrication and applications of the molecularly imprinted polymer-based biosensors will be addressed in this review.

8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 229: 117890, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839573

RESUMO

Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SHINERS) has been a non-destructive, highly sensitive, specific and powerful sensing method. Detection of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, main neurotransmitters in the human brain, is important to diagnosis the neurological disorder. The purpose of this study is preparing a simple, rapid and inexpensive fabrication of Au nanobipyramids/polymer core/shell as a SHINERS-based biosensor to detect different neurotransmitters such as GABA and glutamate with high sensitivity and specificity. Au nanobipyramids/polymer core/shell was fabricated by using two steps process. In the first Au nanobipyramids with longitude and latitude axial of about 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively, was prepared based on the chemical reduction of Au ions by using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. Then a thin layer of polypyrrole was used for decorating the Au nanobipyramids by using direct polymerization in the presence of Au nanobipyramids. The sensor composed Au nanobipyramids with a thin layer of polypyrrole that could measure GABA within a wide range of concentrations in the presence of human serum. And this sensor was used for direct monitoring of GABA and glutamate. The proposed biosensor can be applied to monitor the level of neurotransmitters accurately for the diagnosis of various neurological disorders with optical signal enhancement.

9.
Nano Lett ; 19(11): 8138-8148, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663759

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has demonstrated great potential to analyze a variety of bio/chemical molecular interactions within cells in a highly sensitive and selective manner. Despite significant advancements, it remains a critical challenge to ensure high sensitivity and selectivity, while achieving uniform signal enhancement and high reproducibility for quantitative detection of targeted biomarkers within a complex stem cell microenvironment. Herein, we demonstrate an innovative sensing platform, using graphene-coated homogeneous plasmonic metal (Au) nanoarrays, which synergize both electromagnetic mechanism (EM)- and chemical mechanism (CM)-based enhancement. Through the homogeneous plasmonic nanostructures, generated by laser interference lithography (LIL), highly reproducible enhancement of Raman signals could be obtained via a strong and uniform EM. Additionally, the graphene-functionalized surface simultaneously amplifies the Raman signals by an optimized CM, which aligns the energy level of the graphene oxide with the target molecule by tuning its oxidation levels, consequently increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of our sensing system. Using the dual-enhanced Raman scattering from both EM from the homogeneous plasmonic Au nanoarray and CM from the graphene surface, our graphene-Au hybrid nanoarray was successfully utilized to detect as well as quantify a specific biomarker (TuJ1) gene expression levels to characterize neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Collectively, we believe our unique graphene-plasmonic hybrid nanoarray can be extended to a wide range of applications in the development of simple, rapid, and accurate sensing platforms for screening various bio/chemical molecules.

10.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510029

RESUMO

Hydrogel scaffolds are particularly interesting for applications in tissue engineering because of their ability to create a favorable environment which mimics in vivo conditions. However, the hierarchically ordered anisotropic structure which is found in many native tissues and cellular components is hard to achieve in 3D scaffolds. In this work, we report the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide (m-rGO) within a collagen hydrogel. This magneto-responsive m-rGO aligned within the collagen hydrogel during gelation with the application of a low external magnetic field. This nanocomposite hydrogel with magnetically aligned m-rGO flakes is capable of encapsulating neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y), promoting cell differentiation and inducing oriented cell growth owing to its excellent biocompatibility and electrical conductivity. The directionally oriented and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells within the m-rGO collagen hydrogel showed propagation of calcium signal along the direction of orientation. This method can be applied to creating magnetically responsive materials with potential for various biomedical applications.

11.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 130(10): 1962-1970, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) patients are susceptible to cognitive deficits, especially attention dysfunction. The objective of this study is to elucidate the neural mechanism of the dysfunction in attention known as 'inhibition of return' (IOR) in iRBD patients based on an analysis of oscillatory cortical activity during a selective attention task. METHODS: Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from iRBD patients and normal control subjects while performing a Posner task. The differences in N1 ERP and theta- and beta-bands event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs) between valid and invalid stimuli were compared between groups. RESULTS: The N1 amplitude was significantly higher for the invalid stimuli in controls, while the valid-invalid difference was not significant in iRBD patients. The valid-invalid differences in ERSPs were prominent in controls at ∼100-400 ms for the theta-band and ∼200-400 ms for the beta-band, and the valid-invalid differences in ERSPs were not significant in the iRBD patients. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that valid-invalid differences in neural activity were absent in iRBD patients, and these neural findings were in accord with the behavioral results. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings imply impairment in sensory-perceptual processing mediated by attentional control and response inhibition in early-stage iRBD before clinical neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Ritmo beta/fisiologia , Polissonografia/métodos , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/fisiopatologia , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/diagnóstico
12.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 4259369, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379934

RESUMO

Interpersonal communication is based on questions and answers, and the most useful and simplest case is the binary "yes or no" question and answer. The purpose of this study is to show that it is possible to decode intentions on "yes" or "no" answers from multichannel single-trial electroencephalograms, which were recorded while covertly answering to self-referential questions with either "yes" or "no." The intention decoding algorithm consists of a common spatial pattern and support vector machine, which are employed for the feature extraction and pattern classification, respectively, after dividing the overall time-frequency range into subwindows of 200 ms × 2 Hz. The decoding accuracy using the information within each subwindow was investigated to find useful temporal and spectral ranges and found to be the highest for 800-1200 ms in the alpha band or 200-400 ms in the theta band. When the features from multiple subwindows were utilized together, the accuracy was significantly increased up to ∼86%. The most useful features for the "yes/no" discrimination was found to be focused in the right frontal region in the theta band and right centroparietal region in the alpha band, which may reflect the violation of autobiographic facts and higher cognitive load for "no" compared to "yes." Our task requires the subjects to answer self-referential questions just as in interpersonal conversation without any self-regulation of the brain signals or high cognitive efforts, and the "yes" and "no" answers are decoded directly from the brain activities. This implies that the "mind reading" in a true sense is feasible. Beyond its contribution in fundamental understanding of the neural mechanism of human intention, the decoding of "yes" or "no" from brain activities may eventually lead to a natural brain-computer interface.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Intenção , Adulto , Compreensão/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Adulto Jovem
13.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 8793-8803, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361458

RESUMO

The full realization of stem cell-based treatments for neurodegenerative diseases requires precise control and characterization of stem cell fate. Herein, we report a multifunctional magneto-plasmonic nanorod (NR)-based detection platform to address the limitations associated with the current destructive characterization methods of stem cell neurogenesis. Exosomes and their inner contents have been discovered to play critical roles in cell-cell interactions and intrinsic cellular regulations and have received wide attention as next-generation biomarkers. Moreover, exosomal microRNAs (miRNA) also offer an essential avenue for nondestructive molecular analyses of cell cytoplasm components. To this end, our developed nondestructive, selective, and sensitive detection platform has (i) an immunomagnetic active component for exosome isolation and (ii) a plasmonic/metal-enhanced fluorescence component for sensitive exosomal miRNA detection to characterize stem cell differentiation. In a proof-of-concept demonstration, our multifunctional magneto-plasmonic NR successfully detected the expression level of miRNA-124 and characterized neurogenesis of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells in a nondestructive and efficient manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated the versatility and feasibility of our multifunctional magneto-plasmonic NRs by characterizing a heterogeneous population of neural cells in an ex vivo rodent model. Collectively, we believe our multifunctional magneto-plasmonic NR-based exosomal miRNA detection platform has a great potential to investigate the function of cell-cell interactions and intrinsic cellular regulators for controlling stem cell differentiation.

14.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(8)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357466

RESUMO

An electrochemical flexible biosensor composed of gold (Au), molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles (MoS2 NPs), and Au (Au/MoS2/Au nanolayer) on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate is developed to detect envelope glycoprotein GP120 (gp120), the surface protein of HIV-1. To fabricate the nanolayer on the PET substrate, Au is sputter coated on the flexible PET substrate and MoS2 NPs are spin coated on Au, which is sputter coated once again with Au. The gp120 antibody is then immobilized on this flexible electrode through cysteamine (Cys) modified on the surface of the Au/MoS2/Au nanolayer. Fabrication of the biosensor is verified by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. A flexibility test is done using a micro-fatigue tester. Detection of the gp120 is measured by square wave voltammetry. The results indicate that the prepared biosensor detects 0.1 pg/mL of gp120, which is comparable with previously reported gp120 biosensors prepared even without flexibility. Therefore, the proposed biosensor supports the development of a nanomaterial-based flexible sensing platform for highly sensitive biosensors with flexibility for wearable device application.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(27): 23909-23918, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252451

RESUMO

Multifunctional nanoparticles that carry chemotherapeutic agents can be innovative anticancer therapeutic options owing to their tumor-targeting ability and high drug-loading capacity. However, the nonspecific release of toxic DNA-intercalating anticancer drugs from the nanoparticles has significant side effects on healthy cells surrounding the tumors. Herein, we report a tumor homing reactive oxygen species nanoparticle (THoR-NP) platform that is highly effective and selective for ablating malignant tumors. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) were selected as an exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator and a superoxide dismutase 1 inhibitor, respectively. DDC-loaded THoR-NP, in combination with SNP treatment, eliminated multiple cancer cell lines effectively by the generation of peroxynitrite in the cells (>95% cell death), as compared to control drug treatments of the same concentration of DDC or SNP alone (0% cell death). Moreover, the magnetic core (ZnFe2O4) of the THoR-NP can specifically ablate tumor cells (breast cancer cells) via magnetic hyperthermia, in conjunction with DDC, even in the absence of any exogenous RS supplements. Finally, by incorporating iRGD peptide moieties in the THoR-NP, integrin-enriched cancer cells (malignant tumors, MDA-MB-231) were effectively and selectively killed, as opposed to nonmetastatic tumors (MCF-7), as confirmed in a mouse xenograft model. Hence, our strategy of using nanoparticles embedded with ROS-scavenger-inhibitor with an exogenous ROS supplement is highly selective and effective cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Ditiocarb , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias Experimentais , Nitroprussiato , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1 , Animais , Ditiocarb/química , Ditiocarb/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/economia , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Nitroprussiato/química , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase-1/química , Superóxido Dismutase-1/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 140: 111343, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150985

RESUMO

The need for flexible biosensors has increased because of their potential applications for point-of-care diagnosis and wearable biosensors. However, flexible biosensors have low sensitivity due to the flexibility of the electrode, and their fabrication involves complex processes. To overcome these limitations, a flexible electrochemical enzyme biosensor was developed in this study by immobilizing an enzyme on the flexible polymer electrode modified with a gold/MoS2/gold nanofilm. The fabrication process involved sputter deposition of gold, spin coating of MoS2, and sputter deposition of gold on the flexible polymer electrode (commercially available Kapton® polyimide film). The flexible glucose biosensor was made by immobilization of glucose oxidase on a flexible electrode by using a chemical linker. The detection limit for glucose was estimated to be 10 nM, which indicates more sensitivity as compared with a previously reported flexible glucose sensor. This sensitivity is due to the facilitation of electron transfer by MoS2. The flexure extension of this biosensor was estimated at 3.48 mm, which is much higher than that of the rigid sensor using a gold-coated silicon electrode (0.09 mm), according to measurements with a micro-fatigue tester. The proposed flexible biosensor composed of the enzyme/gold/MoS2/gold nanofilm on the polymer electrode can be used as a flexible sensing platform for developing wearable biosensing systems because of its high sensitivity, high flexibility, and simple fabrication process.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Glicemia/análise , Glucose Oxidase/química , Ouro/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Elasticidade , Eletrodos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Polímeros/química
17.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(5)2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137779

RESUMO

Bioelectronic devices have been researched widely because of their potential applications, such as information storage devices, biosensors, diagnosis systems, organism-mimicking processing system cell chips, and neural-mimicking systems. Introducing biomolecules including proteins, DNA, and RNA on silicon-based substrates has shown the powerful potential for granting various functional properties to chips, including specific functional electronic properties. Until now, to extend and improve their properties and performance, organic and inorganic materials such as graphene and gold nanoparticles have been combined with biomolecules. In particular, bionanohybrid materials that are composed of biomolecules and other materials have been researched because they can perform core roles of information storage and signal processing in bioelectronic devices using the unique properties derived from biomolecules. This review discusses bioelectronic devices related to computation systems such as biomemory, biologic gates, and bioprocessors based on bionanohybrid materials with a selective overview of recent research. This review contains a new direction for the development of bioelectronic devices to develop biocomputation systems using biomolecules in the future.

18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(20): e146, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The processing of emotional visual stimulation involves the processing of emotional and visuoperceptual information. It is not completely revealed how the valence and arousal affect these two aspects. The objective was to investigate the effects of valence and arousal on spatiotemporal characteristics of cortical information processing using distributed source imaging of event-related current density (ERCD). METHODS: Electroencephalograms (64 channels) were recorded from 19 healthy men while presenting affective pictures. Distributed source localization analysis was adopted to obtain the spatiotemporal pattern of ERCD on cortical surface in response to emotional visual stimulation. A nonparametric cluster-based permutation test was used to find meaningful time and space without prior knowledge. RESULTS: Significant changes of ERCD in 400-800 ms among positive, negative, and neutral emotional conditions were found in left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right inferior temporal cortex (ITC). In the PCC, the stimuli with higher arousal levels showed more negative ERCD than neutral stimuli. In the ITC, the ERCD for negative stimuli was significantly more negative than those of positive and neutral ones. CONCLUSION: Arousal and valence had strong influence on memory encoding and visual analysis at late period. The location and time showing significant change in neural activity according to arousal and valence would provide valuable information for understanding the changes of cortical function by neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nano Converg ; 6(1): 13, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041617

RESUMO

γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), which acts as a major biomarker for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Meningitis. To this end, the precise measurement of GABA molecule arisen as an important subject for the effective diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders. However, yet highly sensitive biosensor systems which can analyze a wide range of GABA molecule in a fast response manner have not been reported. In this study, for the first time, a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (FET) device based immunosensor was developed to detect GABA molecule. Zig-zag shaped silicon nanowires has been fabricated by electron beam lithography and the electrical property p-type FET device was validated through semiconductor analyzer. The optimal immobilizing condition of antibody against GABA molecule was determined by the fluorescent signal measurement. Various concentrations of GABA ranging from 970 fM to 9.7 µM were sensitively measured by conductance change on silicon nanowire-based through the immunoreactions. Further, owing to the ease of miniaturization and label-free system, we believe that the suggested device system has a potential to be utilized for an implantable biosensor to detect neurotransmitter in the brain and can create new opportunities in the field of diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.

20.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 217: 288-293, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952095

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne virus that causes infectious chronic hepatitis. Egypt has the largest epidemic of HCV in the world, with about 14.7% of the Egyptian population. Thus, HCV, which could cause severe risks for human health including liver failure, becomes a public health concern for Egyptians. Development of highly selective and sensitive biosensors for accurate detection of HCV levels without extensive sample preparation has received great attention. The present work reported on developing a new rapid, highly selective and highly selective HCV-based biosensor for early detection of HCV-RNA extracted from clinical samples. The HCV-based biosensor was constructed by fabrication of gold nanodots/indium tin oxide substrate and followed by immobilization of a specific peptide nucleic acid (as bio-receptors) terminated with thiol group onto gold nanodots/indium tin oxide. The principle of the developed biosensor was based on the selective hybridization between the peptide nucleic acid and the HCV-RNA at the untranslated regions (5'-UTR). Raman spectroscopy and Square wave voltammetry techniques were used to monitor the interaction between the HCV-RNA and the immobilized peptide nucleic acid. The reported HCV-biosensor demonstrated a high capability to detect HCV-RNA.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Ácidos Nucleicos Peptídicos/química , RNA Viral/análise , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ouro/química , Hepatite C/genética , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Compostos de Estanho/química
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