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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known if modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer-specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (adjusted p>0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI {greater than or equal to}30 vs 18.5-25 kg/m2 (HR (95%CI): 1.19 (1.06,1.34)); current vs never smoking (1.37 (1.27,1.47)), high vs low physical activity (0.43 (0.21,0.86)), age {greater than or equal to}30 years vs <20 years at first pregnancy (0.79 (0.72,0.86)); >0 to <5 years vs {greater than or equal to}10 years since last full term birth (1.31 (1.11,1.55)); ever vs never use of oral contraceptives (0.91 (0.87,0.96)); ever vs never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy (0.61 (0.54,0.69)). Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; e.g. 1.11 (1.02,1.21) for current vs never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20631, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244065

RESUMO

A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies was conducted to assess the association between menopausal hormone therapy and cardiovascular disease. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from 2000 to 2019, using review methods based on a previous Cochrane review. Quality assessment of RCTs and observational studies was conducted using the Jadad scale and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, respectively. A total of 26 RCTs and 47 observational studies were identified. The study populations in the RCTs were older and had more underlying diseases than those in the observational studies. Increased risks of venous thromboembolism [summary estimate (SE), 95% confidence interval (CI): RCTs, 1.70, 1.33-2.16; observational studies, 1.32, 1.13-1.54] were consistently identified in both study types, whereas an increased risk of stroke in RCTs (SE: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.25) and a decreased risk of myocardial infarction in observational studies (SE: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.75-0.84) were observed. Differential clinical effects depending on timing of initiation, underlying disease, regimen type, and route of administration were identified through subgroup analyses. These findings suggest that underlying disease and timing of initiation should be carefully considered before starting therapy in postmenopausal women.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053772

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy worldwide. Physical activity and a healthy diet contribute to energy balance and have been recommended for the prevention of colorectal cancer. We suggest that the individual differences in energy balance can be explained by genetic polymorphisms involved in mitochondria, which play a central role in energy metabolism at the cellular level. This study aimed to evaluate the association between genetic variants of the mitochondrial citric acid cycle and colorectal cancer. Study participants comprised 3523 colorectal cancer cases and 10,522 matched controls from the UK Biobank study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer were estimated using a conditional logistic regression model. We found a significant association between the SUCLG2 gene rs35494829 and colon cancer (ORs [95% CIs] per increment of the minor allele, 0.82 [0.74-0.92]). Statistical significance was observed in the interactions of the citric acid cycle variants with obesity, energy intake, and vigorous physical activity in colorectal cancer. We also identified significant SNP-SNP interactions among citric acid cycle SNPs in colorectal cancer. The results of this study may provide evidence for bioenergetics in the development of colorectal cancer and for establishing a precise prevention strategy.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zoonotic coronaviruses have emerged as a global threat by causing fatal respiratory infections. Given the lack of specific antiviral therapies, application of human convalescent plasma retaining neutralizing activity could be a viable therapeutic option that can bridge this gap. METHODS: We traced antibody responses and memory B cells in peripheral blood collected from 70 recovered MERS-CoV patients for three years after the 2015 outbreak in South Korea. We also used a mouse infection model to examine whether the neutralizing activity of collected sera could provide therapeutic benefit in vivo upon lethal MERS-CoV challenge. RESULTS: Anti-spike-specific IgG responses, including neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting memory B cells, persisted for up to 3 years, especially in MERS patients that suffered from severe pneumonia. Mean antibody titers gradually decreased annually by less than two fold. Levels of antibody responses were significantly correlated with fever duration, viral shedding periods, and maximum viral loads observed during infection periods. In a transgenic mice model challenged with lethal doses of MERS-CoV, a significant reduction in viral loads and enhanced survival was observed when therapeutically treated with human plasma retaining high neutralizing titer (> 1/5,000). However, this failed to reduce pulmonary pathogenesis, as revealed by pathological changes in lungs and initial weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: High titers of neutralizing activity are required for suppressive effect on the viral replication but may not be sufficient to reduce inflammatory lesions upon fatal infection. Therefore, immune sera with high neutralizing activity must be carefully selected for plasma therapy of zoonotic coronavirus infection.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3833, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737321

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been shown to predict breast cancer risk in European women, but their utility in Asian women is unclear. Here we evaluate the best performing PRSs for European-ancestry women using data from 17,262 breast cancer cases and 17,695 controls of Asian ancestry from 13 case-control studies, and 10,255 Chinese women from a prospective cohort (413 incident breast cancers). Compared to women in the middle quintile of the risk distribution, women in the highest 1% of PRS distribution have a ~2.7-fold risk and women in the lowest 1% of PRS distribution has ~0.4-fold risk of developing breast cancer. There is no evidence of heterogeneity in PRS performance in Chinese, Malay and Indian women. A PRS developed for European-ancestry women is also predictive of breast cancer risk in Asian women and can help in developing risk-stratified screening programmes in Asia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841297

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep duration and quality with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. Among a total of 74,867 participants (25,069 men and 49,798 women) recruited for the Health Examinees (HEXA) study, adjusted geometric means of hs-CRP level were compared across categories of sleep duration (<6, 6-7, 8-9, and ≥10 hours) and sleep quality (difficulty in initiating sleep and maintaining sleep) using ANCOVA models. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for elevated hs-CRP (>3 mg/L) associated with sleep characteristics were estimated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Men who slept ≥10 hours per day were significantly associated with elevated hs-CRP (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.95). Whereas in women, difficulty in initiating sleep (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.57 for "Always"), and maintaining sleep was significantly associated with elevated hs-CRP levels (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26 for "Often"; OR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.97-1.28 for "Always"). Additionally, women who experienced poor sleep quality presented an elevated level of hs-CRP (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.23). Our findings suggest that excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality are significantly associated with the elevated inflammatory marker, specifically hs-CRP. Further research is needed to examine the effect of sleep interventions focused on these factors.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence of the complicated pathways of underlying determinants in the phases of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate simultaneously a set of potential determinants on the initiation and maintenance phases of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). METHODS: The longitudinal data of 54,359 Korean adults aged 40-69 years from the Health Examinees study were used. The median follow-up duration was 4.2 years. The self-reported durations per week of LTPA was repeatedly assessed. Based on previous longitudinal studies, the potential determinants were selected, and hypothetical models were constructed that consider the complex associations between the determinants. The standardized coefficients for direct and indirect effects were estimated by path analysis to differentiate contributions of mediation from the total effects. RESULTS: In the total population, age, education, chronic diseases, smoking, depression symptoms, and self-rated health were significantly associated with both initiation and maintenance phases. Income (B=0.025) and social supports (B=0.019) were associated only with the initiation phase. Waist-to-hip ratio (B=-0.042) and stress (B=-0.035) were associated only with the maintenance phase. After stratifying by sex, the significant effects of education, chronic diseases, and smoking were found only in men. The initiation phase-specific effects of income and social supports and the maintenance phase-specific effects of stress were found only in women. It was estimated that indirect effects contributed approximately 15% of the total effect. CONCLUSION: The findings suggested that there were initiation- or maintenance-specific determinants of leisure-time physical activity according to sex.

9.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854492

RESUMO

Purpose: Dietary calcium intake has been suggested to be protective against the development of colorectal cancer. The mean dietary calcium intake of Koreans is 490 mg/day, which is far below the recommended calcium intake of 700-800 mg/day. In this study, we explored the relationship between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer development in Koreans with relatively low calcium intake compared with individuals in Western countries. Materials and Methods: The Health Examinees Study, a large-scale genomic community-based prospective cohort study, was designed to identify the general characteristics of major chronic diseases in Koreans. A total of 119,501 participants aged 40-69 years recruited between 2004 and 2013 were included in this analysis. The calcium intake level was categorized using the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs). The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer risk, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: In the multivariable-adjusted model, compared with the group that consumed less than the recommended amount of calcium, the group that consumed more than the recommended intake of calcium showed a significant reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer in women. (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.95). Among men, however, no significant association was observed between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.45). Conclusion: Korean women who adhere to the recommended intake of calcium showed a reduced risk of colorectal cancer.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234852, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many studies have focused on leisure time physical activity (LTPA), household physical activity (HPA) can contribute to health benefits. This study aimed to compare LTPA and HPA patterns and to examine the association of these types of activities with the risk of mortality in Korea. METHODS: A total of 125,299 participants 40 to 69 years old and enrolled in the Health Examinees (HEXA) study from 2004 to 2012 were included in this study. The sex-specific LTPA and HPA categories were defined based on a questionnaire. A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the LTPA and HPA correlates. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Overall, the LTPA and HPA patterns differed by age, income, and history of chronic diseases. LTPA reduced the risk of death, and lower risks were observed in more time spent engaged in or a vigorous LTPA intensity. The subjects who participated only in HPA and were not involved in LTPA also had lower risks of mortality (HR = 0.72, 95% CIs: 0.60-0.85 for men, and HR = 0.84, 95% CIs: 0.69-1.02 for women) than those who did not participate in both LTPA and HPA. CONCLUSIONS: HPA reduced the risks of mortality in middle-aged Korean adults and could even decrease the risk of death in those who did not participate in LTPA.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Atividade Motora , Adulto , Idoso , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
12.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 14(3): 217-224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported on marital status and the prevalence of obesity; however, few studies have assessed the prevalence of underweight in relation to marital status. This study aimed to explore the association of obesity and abdominal obesity with marital status among Koreans aged 40-69 years. METHODS: We selected a total of 137,608 participants from the Health Examinees Gem Study for the final analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of obesity with marital status, with controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of underweight was higher in unmarried men (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.25-2.63) and women (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.79-2.61) than in married individuals. Compared to married individuals, a lower prevalence of BMI≥25kg/m2 was observed for those who were unmarried (men: OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.62-0.81, women: OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.58-0.73) or divorced/separated (men: OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.69-0.93, women: OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98). Interestingly, widowed women showed higher prevalence of BMI≥25kg/m2 (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10-1.25) and abdominal obesity (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16-1.30) compared to married women, and the association persisted only among women in their 50s and 60s. CONCLUSIONS: Married participants showed a higher prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity than those in other marriage categories except for widowed women.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1217, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139696

RESUMO

Known risk variants explain only a small proportion of breast cancer heritability, particularly in Asian women. To search for additional genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer, here we perform a meta-analysis of data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Asians (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and European descendants (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls). We identified 31 potential novel loci with the lead variant showing an association with breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The associations for 10 of these loci were replicated in an independent sample of 16,787 cases and 16,680 controls of Asian women (P < 0.05). In addition, we replicated the associations for 78 of the 166 known risk variants at P < 0.05 in Asians. These findings improve our understanding of breast cancer genetics and etiology and extend previous findings from studies of European descendants to Asian women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
14.
Int J Oncol ; 56(2): 559-567, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894325

RESUMO

Fucosylation is a post­translational modification that attaches fucose residues to protein­ or lipid­bound oligosaccharides. Certain fucosylation pathway genes are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancer, including non­small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and this aberrant expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with cancer. However, the molecular mechanism by which these fucosylation pathway genes promote tumor progression has not been well­characterized. The present study analyzed public microarray data obtained from NSCLC samples. Multivariate analysis revealed that altered expression of fucosylation pathway genes, including fucosyltransferase 1 (FUT1), FUT2, FUT3, FUT6, FUT8 and GDP­L­fucose synthase (TSTA3), correlated with poor survival in patients with NSCLC. Inhibition of FUTs by 2F­peracetyl­fucose (2F­PAF) suppressed transforming growth factor ß (TGFß)­mediated Smad3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in NSCLC cells. In addition, wound­healing and Transwell migration assays demonstrated that 2F­PAF inhibited TGFß­induced NSCLC cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, in vivo bioluminescence imaging analysis revealed that 2F­PAF attenuated the metastatic capacity of NSCLC cells. These results may help characterize the oncogenic role of fucosylation in NSCLC biology and highlight its potential for developing cancer therapeutics.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Fucose/metabolismo , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fucosiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Fucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glicosilação , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Korean J Intern Med ; 35(5): 1188-1198, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: A link between oral cavity infections and chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (CIOM) in patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) undergoing intensive chemotherapy (IC) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been suggested. However, conclusive data are lacking, and there are no current guidelines for the prophylactic use of antimicrobials to prevent CIOM in these populations. METHODS: The relationships between herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation and Candida colonization in the oral cavity and CIOM in patients with HMs undergoing IC or HSCT were evaluated. Patients aged ≥ 19 years with HMs undergoing IC or HSCT were enrolled. Each patient was evaluated for HSV and Candida in the oral cavity along with CIOM at baseline and during the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks. RESULTS: Seventy presentations among 56 patients were analyzed. CIOM was observed in 23 presentations (32.9%), with a higher incidence associated with HSCT (17 of 35 presentations, 48.6%) than with IC (six of 35 presentations, 8.6%). The reactivation of HSV-1 was significantly associated with an increased incidence of CIOM after adjusting for age, sex, type of disease, and treatment stage. A higher HSV-1 viral load was associated with an increased incidence of CIOM. The presence of Candida was not associated with CIOM. CONCLUSION: HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity was highly associated with CIOM in patients with HMs undergoing high-dose chemotherapy.

16.
J Invest Dermatol ; 140(4): 827-837.e9, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628929

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by type 2 cytokines secreted by T helper type 2 cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Despite a high degree of heterogeneity, AD is still explained by type 2 immunity, and the role of IL-17A, which is increased in acute, pediatric, or Asian patients with AD, remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of IL-17A-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), which are unexplored immune cells, in the pathogenesis of AD. We found that the numbers of ILC3s in the skin of AD-induced mice were increased, and that neutralizing IL-17A delayed development of AD. Moreover, adoptive transfer of ILC3s accelerated the symptoms of AD. Mechanically, ILC3s induced IL-33 production by nonimmune skin cells, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts, which promoted type 2 immune responses. Because AD has a complex pathophysiology and a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes, the presence of ILC3s in the skin and their interaction with nonimmune skin cells could explain the pathogenesis of cutaneous AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interleucina-17/biossíntese , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Linfócitos/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Animais , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
17.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 203-211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously conducted a systematic field synopsis of 1059 breast cancer candidate gene studies and investigated 279 genetic variants, 51 of which showed associations. The major limitation of this work was the small sample size, even pooling data from all 1059 studies. Thereafter, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have accumulated data for hundreds of thousands of subjects. It's necessary to re-evaluate these variants in large GWAS datasets. METHODS: Of these 279 variants, data were obtained for 228 from GWAS conducted within the Asian Breast Cancer Consortium (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry). Meta-analyses were conducted to combine the results from these two datasets. FINDINGS: Of those 228 variants, an association was observed for 12 variants in 10 genes at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 2·19 × 10-4. The associations for four variants reached P < 5 × 10-8 and have been reported by previous GWAS, including rs6435074 and rs6723097 (CASP8), rs17879961 (CHEK2) and rs2853669 (TERT). The remaining eight variants were rs676387 (HSD17B1), rs762551 (CYP1A2), rs1045485 (CASP8), rs9340799 (ESR1), rs7931342 (CHR11), rs1050450 (GPX1), rs13010627 (CASP10) and rs9344 (CCND1). Further investigating these 10 genes identified associations for two additional variants at P < 5 × 10-8, including rs4793090 (near HSD17B1), and rs9210 (near CYP1A2), which have not been identified by previous GWAS. INTERPRETATION: Though most candidate gene variants were not associated with breast cancer risk, we found 14 variants showing an association. Our findings warrant further functional investigation of these variants. FUND: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Caspase 8 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Risco
18.
PLoS Med ; 16(8): e1002893, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various risk factors have been associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk in observational epidemiological studies. However, the causal nature of the risk factors reported, and thus their suitability as effective intervention targets, is unclear given the susceptibility of conventional observational designs to residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic variants as proxies for risk factors to strengthen causal inference in observational studies. We used MR to evaluate the association of 12 previously reported risk factors (reproductive, anthropometric, clinical, lifestyle, and molecular factors) with risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, invasive epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes, and low malignant potential tumours. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic instruments to proxy 12 risk factors were constructed by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were robustly (P < 5 × 10-8) and independently associated with each respective risk factor in previously reported genome-wide association studies. These risk factors included genetic liability to 3 factors (endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, type 2 diabetes) scaled to reflect a 50% higher odds liability to disease. We obtained summary statistics for the association of these SNPs with risk of overall and histotype-specific invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (22,406 cases; 40,941 controls) and low malignant potential tumours (3,103 cases; 40,941 controls) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The OCAC dataset comprises 63 genotyping project/case-control sets with participants of European ancestry recruited from 14 countries (US, Australia, Belarus, Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Canada, Poland, UK, Spain, Netherlands, and Sweden). SNPs were combined into multi-allelic inverse-variance-weighted fixed or random effects models to generate effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three complementary sensitivity analyses were performed to examine violations of MR assumptions: MR-Egger regression and weighted median and mode estimators. A Bonferroni-corrected P value threshold was used to establish strong evidence (P < 0.0042) and suggestive evidence (0.0042 < P < 0.05) for associations. In MR analyses, there was strong or suggestive evidence that 2 of the 12 risk factors were associated with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 8 of the 12 were associated with 1 or more invasive epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes. There was strong evidence that genetic liability to endometriosis was associated with an increased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR] per 50% higher odds liability: 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P = 6.94 × 10-7) and suggestive evidence that lifetime smoking exposure was associated with an increased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (OR per unit increase in smoking score: 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.78; P = 0.02). In analyses examining histotypes and low malignant potential tumours, the strongest associations found were between height and clear cell carcinoma (OR per SD increase: 1.36, 95% CI 1.15-1.61; P = 0.0003); age at natural menopause and endometrioid carcinoma (OR per year later onset: 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16; P = 0.007); and genetic liability to polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrioid carcinoma (OR per 50% higher odds liability: 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96; P = 0.002). There was little evidence for an association of genetic liability to type 2 diabetes, parity, or circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and sex hormone binding globulin with ovarian cancer or its subtypes. The primary limitations of this analysis include the modest statistical power for analyses of risk factors in relation to some less common ovarian cancer histotypes (low grade serous, mucinous, and clear cell carcinomas), the inability to directly examine the association of some ovarian cancer risk factors that did not have robust genetic variants available to serve as proxies (e.g., oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy), and the assumption of linear relationships between risk factors and ovarian cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive examination of possible aetiological drivers of ovarian carcinogenesis using germline genetic variants to proxy risk factors supports a role for few of these factors in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer overall and suggests distinct aetiologies across histotypes. The identification of novel risk factors remains an important priority for the prevention of epithelial ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Menarca , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Menopausa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Paridade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12524, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467304

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação C da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação C da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos
20.
Diabetes Metab J ; 43(5): 615-626, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between change in alcohol intake and metabolic syndrome is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective cohort consisted of 41,368 males and females from the Health Examinees-GEM study. Participants were divided into non-drinkers (0.0 g/day), light drinkers (male: 0.1 to 19.9 g/day; female: 0.1 to 9.9 g/day), moderate drinkers (male: 20.0 to 39.9 g/day; female: 10.0 to 19.9 g/day), and heavy drinkers (male: ≥40.0 g/day; female: ≥20.0 g/day) for each of the initial and follow-up health examinations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing metabolic syndrome according to the change in alcohol consumption between the initial and follow-up health examinations. Adjusted mean values for the change in waist circumference, fasting serum glucose (FSG), blood pressure, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were determined according to the change in alcohol consumption by linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Compared to persistent light drinkers, those who increased alcohol intake to heavy levels had elevated risk of metabolic syndrome (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.92). In contrast, heavy drinkers who became light drinkers had reduced risk of metabolic syndrome (aOR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.84) compared to persistent heavy drinkers. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with elevated adjusted mean values for waist circumference, FSG, blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL-C levels (all P<0.05). Reduction in alcohol intake was associated with decreased waist circumference, FSG, blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL-C levels among initial heavy drinkers (all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Heavy drinkers who reduce alcohol consumption could benefit from reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.

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