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1.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684783

RESUMO

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a critical role in the formation and growth of human cancer. Therefore, STAT3 is a therapeutic target for cancer drug discovery. Acacetin, a flavone present in various plants, inhibits constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation in STAT3-activated DU145 prostate cancer cells. Acacetin inhibits STAT3 activity by directly binding to STAT3, which we confirmed by a pull-down assay with a biotinylated compound and two level-free methods, namely, a drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) experiment and a cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA). Acacetin inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation at the tyrosine 705 residue and nuclear translocation in DU145 cells, which leads to the downregulation of STAT3 target genes. Acacetin then induces apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Interestingly, acacetin induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are not involved in the acacetin-induced inhibition of STAT3 activation because the suppressed p-STAT3 level is not rescued by treatment with GSH or NAC, which are general ROS inhibitors. We also found that acacetin inhibits tumor growth in xenografted nude mice. These results suggest that acacetin, as a STAT3 inhibitor, could be a possible drug candidate for targeting STAT3 for the treatment of cancer in humans.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257822, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the gender factors that influence regular exercise in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in Korea. METHODS: A total of 1,432 patients with NIDDM were recruited using raw data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey conducted between 2016 and 2018. SAS 9.4 was adopted for data analyses, and the distributional difference was measured with multinomial logistic regression and Rao-Scott x2 statistics to identify the factors that influence the regular physical activities of patients. that the analysis only provides associations. RESULTS: Based on general characteristics, health behaviors, and conditions, patients with NIDDM in Korea were less physically active. In addition, patients with higher educational attainment, higher income, and higher subjective health conditions had a higher odds ratio for regular exercise. Meanwhile, the ratio was lower for smokers and those stressed up. CONCLUSION: A professional guide for the initial phase of training and consistent management is required to increase the involvement of patients with NIDDM in regular exercise. Therefore, it is important to maintain their motivation to continue exercising. Rather than providing a universal guideline, it is more important to provide customized programs and management plans which reflect factors that influence their engagement in physical activities, such as individual physical strength, stress level, alcohol consumption, and arthritis.

3.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1348-1359, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493867

RESUMO

Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) is a common cause of cancer mortality but its genomic landscape is poorly characterized. Here high-coverage whole-genome sequencing of 232 LCINS showed 3 subtypes defined by copy number aberrations. The dominant subtype (piano), which is rare in lung cancer in smokers, features somatic UBA1 mutations, germline AR variants and stem cell-like properties, including low mutational burden, high intratumor heterogeneity, long telomeres, frequent KRAS mutations and slow growth, as suggested by the occurrence of cancer drivers' progenitor cells many years before tumor diagnosis. The other subtypes are characterized by specific amplifications and EGFR mutations (mezzo-forte) and whole-genome doubling (forte). No strong tobacco smoking signatures were detected, even in cases with exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. Genes within the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras pathway had distinct impacts on survival; five genomic alterations independently doubled mortality. These findings create avenues for personalized treatment in LCINS.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1611-1630, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343493

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a melanoma-associated locus on chromosome band 7p21.1 with rs117132860 as the lead SNP and a secondary independent signal marked by rs73069846. rs117132860 is also associated with tanning ability and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Because ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a key environmental exposure for all three traits, we investigated the mechanisms by which this locus contributes to melanoma risk, focusing on cellular response to UVR. Fine-mapping of melanoma GWASs identified four independent sets of candidate causal variants. A GWAS region-focused Capture-C study of primary melanocytes identified physical interactions between two causal sets and the promoter of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Subsequent chromatin state annotation, eQTL, and luciferase assays identified rs117132860 as a functional variant and reinforced AHR as a likely causal gene. Because AHR plays critical roles in cellular response to dioxin and UVR, we explored links between this SNP and AHR expression after both 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Allele-specific AHR binding to rs117132860-G was enhanced following both, consistent with predicted weakened AHR binding to the risk/poor-tanning rs117132860-A allele, and allele-preferential AHR expression driven from the protective rs117132860-G allele was observed following UVB exposure. Small deletions surrounding rs117132860 introduced via CRISPR abrogates AHR binding, reduces melanocyte cell growth, and prolongs growth arrest following UVB exposure. These data suggest AHR is a melanoma susceptibility gene at the 7p21.1 risk locus and rs117132860 is a functional variant within a UVB-responsive element, leading to allelic AHR expression and altering melanocyte growth phenotypes upon exposure.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Loci Gênicos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Alelos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Banho de Sol , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1590-1610, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390653

RESUMO

Our study investigated the underlying mechanism for the 14q24 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) susceptibility risk locus identified by a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The sentinel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs4903064, at 14q24 confers an allele-specific effect on expression of the double PHD fingers 3 (DPF3) of the BAF SWI/SNF complex as assessed by massively parallel reporter assay, confirmatory luciferase assays, and eQTL analyses. Overexpression of DPF3 in renal cell lines increases growth rates and alters chromatin accessibility and gene expression, leading to inhibition of apoptosis and activation of oncogenic pathways. siRNA interference of multiple DPF3-deregulated genes reduces growth. Our results indicate that germline variation in DPF3, a component of the BAF complex, part of the SWI/SNF complexes, can lead to reduced apoptosis and activation of the STAT3 pathway, both critical in RCC carcinogenesis. In addition, we show that altered DPF3 expression in the 14q24 RCC locus could influence the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment for RCC by regulating tumor cytokine secretion and immune cell activation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14 , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Loci Gênicos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/imunologia , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia
6.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436372

RESUMO

The reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack-harnessing salinity gradient power mainly consists of ion exchange membranes (IEMs). Among the various types of IEMs used in RED stacks, pore-filling ion exchange membranes (PIEMs) have been considered promising IEMs to improve the power density of RED stacks. The compositions of PIEMs affect the electrical resistance and permselectivity of PIEMs; however, their effect on the performance of large RED stacks have not yet been considered. In this study, PIEMs of various compositions with respect to the RED stack were adopted to evaluate the performance of the RED stack according to stack size (electrode area: 5 × 5 cm2 vs. 15 × 15 cm2). By increasing the stack size, the gross power per membrane area decreased despite the increase in gross power on a single RED stack. The electrical resistance of the PIEMs was the most important factor for enhancing the power production of the RED stack. Moreover, power production was less sensitive to permselectivities over 90%. By increasing the RED stack size, the contributions of non-ohmic resistances were significantly increased. Thus, we determined that reducing the salinity gradients across PIEMs by ion transport increased the non-ohmic resistance of large RED stacks. These results will aid in designing pilot-scale RED stacks.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1631-1646, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293285

RESUMO

Although expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) have been powerful in identifying susceptibility genes from genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings, most trait-associated loci are not explained by eQTLs alone. Alternative QTLs, including DNA methylation QTLs (meQTLs), are emerging, but cell-type-specific meQTLs using cells of disease origin have been lacking. Here, we established an meQTL dataset by using primary melanocytes from 106 individuals and identified 1,497,502 significant cis-meQTLs. Multi-QTL colocalization with meQTLs, eQTLs, and mRNA splice-junction QTLs from the same individuals together with imputed methylome-wide and transcriptome-wide association studies identified candidate susceptibility genes at 63% of melanoma GWAS loci. Among the three molecular QTLs, meQTLs were the single largest contributor. To compare melanocyte meQTLs with those from malignant melanomas, we performed meQTL analysis on skin cutaneous melanomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 444). A substantial proportion of meQTL probes (45.9%) in primary melanocytes is preserved in melanomas, while a smaller fraction of eQTL genes is preserved (12.7%). Integration of melanocyte multi-QTLs and melanoma meQTLs identified candidate susceptibility genes at 72% of melanoma GWAS loci. Beyond GWAS annotation, meQTL-eQTL colocalization in melanocytes suggested that 841 unique genes potentially share a causal variant with a nearby methylation probe in melanocytes. Finally, melanocyte trans-meQTLs identified a hotspot for rs12203592, a cis-eQTL of a transcription factor, IRF4, with 131 candidate target CpGs. Motif enrichment and IRF4 ChIP-seq analysis demonstrated that these target CpGs are enriched in IRF4 binding sites, suggesting an IRF4-mediated regulatory network. Our study highlights the utility of cell-type-specific meQTLs.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Alelos , Atlas como Assunto , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Masculino , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Transcriptoma
8.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 62(8): 458-470, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331495

RESUMO

Urinary mutagenicity reflects systemic exposure to complex mixtures of genotoxic/carcinogenic agents and is linked to tumor development. Coal combustion emissions (CCE) and diesel engine exhaust (DEE) are associated with cancers of the lung and other sites, but their influence on urinary mutagenicity is unclear. We investigated associations between exposure to CCE or DEE and urinary mutagenicity. In two separate cross-sectional studies of nonsmokers, organic extracts of urine were evaluated for mutagenicity levels using strain YG1041 in the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay. First, we compared levels among 10 female bituminous (smoky) coal users from Laibin, Xuanwei, China, and 10 female anthracite (smokeless) coal users. We estimated exposure-response relationships using indoor air concentrations of two carcinogens in CCE relevant to lung cancer, 5-methylchrysene (5MC), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Second, we compared levels among 20 highly exposed male diesel factory workers and 15 unexposed male controls; we evaluated exposure-response relationships using elemental carbon (EC) as a DEE-surrogate. Age-adjusted linear regression was used to estimate associations. Laibin smoky coal users had significantly higher average urinary mutagenicity levels compared to smokeless coal users (28.4 ± 14.0 SD vs. 0.9 ± 2.8 SD rev/ml-eq, p = 2 × 10-5 ) and a significant exposure-response relationship with 5MC (p = 7 × 10-4 ). DEE-exposed workers had significantly higher urinary mutagenicity levels compared to unexposed controls (13.0 ± 10.1 SD vs. 5.6 ± 4.4 SD rev/ml-eq, p = .02) and a significant exposure-response relationship with EC (p-trend = 2 × 10-3 ). Exposure to CCE and DEE is associated with urinary mutagenicity, suggesting systemic exposure to mutagens, potentially contributing to cancer risk and development at various sites.

9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e30828, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129513

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/26145.].

10.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073777

RESUMO

House dust mites (HDM) are critical factors in airway inflammation. They activate respiratory epithelial cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). ROS induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in respiratory epithelial cells. Lycopene is a potent antioxidant nutrient with anti-inflammatory activity. The present study aimed to investigate whether HDM induce intracellular and mitochondrial ROS production, TLR4 activation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-6 and IL-8) in respiratory epithelial A549 cells. Additionally, we examined whether lycopene inhibits HDM-induced alterations in A549 cells. The treatment of A549 cells with HDM activated TLR4, induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-8, and increased intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels. TAK242, a TLR4 inhibitor, suppressed both HDM-induced ROS production and cytokine expression. Furthermore, lycopene inhibited the HDM-induced TLR4 activation and cytokine expression, along with reducing the intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels in HDM-treated cells. These results collectively indicated that the HDM induced TLR4 activation and increased intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels, thus resulting in the induction of cytokine expression in respiratory epithelial cells. The antioxidant lycopene could inhibit HDM-induced cytokine expression, possibly by suppressing TLR4 activation and reducing the intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels in respiratory epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Licopeno/farmacologia , Pyroglyphidae/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946700

RESUMO

As COVID-19 solidifies its presence in everyday life, the interest in mental health is growing, resulting in the necessity of sentiment analysis. A smart mirror is suitable for encouraging mental comfort due to its approachability and scalability as an in-home AI device. From the aspect of natural language processing (NLP), sentiment analysis for Korean lacks an emotion dataset regarding everyday conversation. Its significant differences from English in terms of language structure make implementation challenging. The proposed smart mirror LUX provides Korean text sentiment analysis with the deep learning model, which examines GRU, LSTM, CNN, Bi-LSTM, and Bi-GRU networks. There are four emotional labels: anger, sadness, neutral, and happiness. For each emotion, there are three possible interactive responses: reciting wise sayings, playing music, and sympathizing. The implemented smart mirror also includes more-typical functions, such as a wake-up prompt, a weather reporting function, a calendar, a news reporting function, and a clock.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emoções , Humanos , Idioma , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(6): 962-976, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712835

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies often rely on questionnaire data, exposure measurement tools, and/or biomarkers to identify risk factors and the underlying carcinogenic processes. An emerging and promising complementary approach to investigate cancer etiology is the study of somatic "mutational signatures" that endogenous and exogenous processes imprint on the cellular genome. These signatures can be identified from a complex web of somatic mutations thanks to advances in DNA sequencing technology and analytical algorithms. This approach is at the core of the Sherlock-Lung study (2018-ongoing), a retrospective case-only study of over 2,000 lung cancers in never-smokers (LCINS), using different patterns of mutations observed within LCINS tumors to trace back possible exposures or endogenous processes. Whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, genome-wide methylation, microbiome, and other analyses are integrated with data from histological and radiological imaging, lifestyle, demographic characteristics, environmental and occupational exposures, and medical records to classify LCINS into subtypes that could reveal distinct risk factors. To date, we have received samples and data from 1,370 LCINS cases from 17 study sites worldwide and whole-genome sequencing has been completed on 1,257 samples. Here, we present the Sherlock-Lung study design and analytical strategy, also illustrating some empirical challenges and the potential for this approach in future epidemiologic studies.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Causalidade , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 53(4): 400-407, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783100

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intensive care unit (ICU) readmission is considered one of the major quality indicators of critical care. Reducing ICU readmission can improve patients' outcomes and optimize health resources, but there are limited data on the predictors of unplanned ICU readmission. This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with unplanned ICU readmission within 48 hr (early) and after 48 hr (late) from ICU discharge. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Data were collected from patients' electronic medical records in a 24-bed medical ICU at a tertiary academic medical center in Busan, South Korea. Among all the patients admitted to the medical ICU (n = 1,033) between January 2015 and December 2017, 739 eligible patients were analyzed. A multivariable multinomial logistic regression model was conducted to identify predictors of ICU readmission. FINDINGS: Out of the 739 patients analyzed, 66 (8.9%) were readmitted to the medical ICU: 13 (1.8%) as early readmission and 53 (7.1%) as late readmission. Two significant predictors were identified for early readmission: ICU admission from the ward (odds ratio [OR] = 4.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25, 13.67) and mechanical ventilation support >14 days (OR = 13.25; 95% CI 1.78, 98.89). For late ICU admission, there were four risk factors: ICU admission from the ward (OR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.44, 5.05), tracheostomy placement (OR = 3.58; 95% CI 1.49, 8.59), mechanical ventilation support >14 days (OR = 4.77; 95% CI 1.67, 13.63), and continuous renal replacement therapy (OR = 4.57; 95% CI 2.42, 8.63). CONCLUSIONS: To prevent unplanned ICU readmission in patients at high risk, it is necessary to investigate further the role of clinical judgment and communication within the ICU clinical team and institutional-level support regarding ICU readmission events. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both ICU nurses and nurses in post-ICU settings should be aware of the potential risk factors associated with early and late ICU readmission. Predictors and readmission strategies may be different for early and late readmissions. Prospective multicenter studies are needed to examine how these factors influence post-ICU outcomes.

14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e28211, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657006

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/26145.].

15.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125474, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647616

RESUMO

A preparation of colloidal activated carbon (CAC) for phenol remediation from groundwater was introduced. The CAC prepared by a simple pulverization technique was an excellent metal-free catalyst for persulfate (PS) activation due to high contact surface area. The removal efficiency of phenol in the PS/CAC system (~100%) was higher than that in the PS/activated carbon (AC) system (90.1%) and was superior to the conventional PS/Fe2+ system (27.9%) within 30 min. The phenol removal reaction occurred both in bulk solution and at the surface of the CAC, as confirmed by Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model fitting, FT-IR, and electron spin resonance (ESR) analyses. The downsizing of particle size from AC to CAC played a critical role in the radical oxidation mechanism by leading to the formation of predominant superoxide radical (O2•-) species in the PS/CAC system. Anions NO3-, SO42-, and Cl- slightly inhibited the phenol removal efficiency, whereas CO32-, HCO3- and PO43- did not. Ferulic acid (C10H10O4) was detected as an organic byproduct of phenol oxidation. The use of CAC as a metal-free bifunctional catalyst has an important implication in the PS activation for phenol degradation in groundwater.

16.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 1053-1063, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737846

RESUMO

Speaking up for patient safety among health care professionals is important because it can contribute to the prevention of adverse patient events, such as medication errors, infections, wrong-site surgical procedures, and other sentinel events. This systematic review identified factors that facilitate or inhibit nurses' willingness to speak up regarding patient safety in East Asian hospitals. Following the steps of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, four databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, were searched. Nine studies were analyzed in this review, including five qualitative and four quantitative studies published between 2014 and 2019. Quality of included studies were evaluated using the Mixed-Method Appraisal Tool. Data synthesis was based upon qualitative-led synthesis adopting two existing multilevel frameworks on safety voice and employee voice signals. Four studies were conducted in Japan, three in South Korea, one in Hong Kong, and one in Taiwan. We organized factors influencing East Asian nurses' willingness to speak up regarding patient safety according to the following four contexts: individual (motivation toward patient safety, organizational commitment, perceived effectiveness and importance of speaking up, and assertive personality), team (positive relationship and team trust, team culture, and mentoring), organizational (hospital administrative support and organizational culture) and sociocultural (hierarchy and power differential and collectivistic culture). However, due to the limited number of studies conducted in East Asian hospitals, further studies with larger cohort samples of nurses in various East Asian countries should be conducted to deepen our understanding of nurses' willingness to voice their concerns for patient safety.

17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26145, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous instruments are designed to measure digital literacy among the general population. However, few studies have assessed the use and appropriateness of these measurements for older populations. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify and critically appraise studies assessing digital literacy among older adults and to evaluate how digital literacy instruments used in existing studies address the elements of age-appropriate digital literacy using the European Commission's Digital Competence (DigComp) Framework. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for studies using validated instruments to assess digital literacy among older adults. The quality of all included studies was evaluated using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool (CCAT). Instruments were assessed according to their ability to incorporate the competence areas of digital literacy as defined by the DigComp Framework: (1) information and data literacy, (2) communication and collaboration, (3) digital content creation, (4) safety, and (5) problem-solving ability, or attitudes toward information and communication technology use. RESULTS: Searches yielded 1561 studies, of which 27 studies (17 cross-sectional, 2 before and after, 2 randomized controlled trials, 1 longitudinal, and 1 mixed methods) were included in the final analysis. Studies were conducted in the United States (18/27), Germany (3/27), China (1/27), Italy (1/27), Sweden (1/27), Canada (1/27), Iran (1/27), and Bangladesh (1/27). Studies mostly defined older adults as aged ≥50 years (10/27) or ≥60 years (8/27). Overall, the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) was the most frequently used instrument measuring digital literacy among older adults (16/27, 59%). Scores on the CCAT ranged from 34 (34/40, 85%) to 40 (40/40, 100%). Most instruments measured 1 or 2 of the DigComp Framework's elements, but the Mobile Device Proficiency Questionnaire (MDPQ) measured all 5 elements, including "digital content creation" and "safety." CONCLUSIONS: The current digital literacy assessment instruments targeting older adults have both strengths and weaknesses, relative to their study design, administration method, and ease of use. Certain instrument modalities like the MDPQ are more generalizable and inclusive and thus, favorable for measuring the digital literacy of older adults. More studies focusing on the suitability of such instruments for older populations are warranted, especially for areas like "digital content creation" and "safety" that currently lack assessment. Evidence-based discussions regarding the implications of digitalization for the treatment of older adults and how health care professionals may benefit from this phenomenon are encouraged.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Nurse Educ Today ; 98: 104664, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge and skill acquisition to perform an accurate respiratory system assessment is a key competency expected in undergraduate nursing students. Learning physical assessment requires the integration of multiple knowledge bases and skills; hence, applying an innovative teaching approach, such as the flipped-classroom (FC) approach, fosters an active and student-centered learning environment for physical assessment class. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated FC's feasibility in delivering respiratory system assessment content in a health assessment course and explored the changes in nursing students' perceptions regarding student-centeredness and active learning environments before and after applying FC. DESIGN: A single group pre- and post-test concurrent mixed-methods design was used. SETTINGS: This study was conducted in a private nursing college in South Korea. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 91 second year undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a health assessment course. METHODS: FC was offered at one didactic session of a physical assessment course. In the FC, students completed a self-directed pre-class activities using online lecture videos and reading materials prior to the class and participated in interactive team-based learning activities inside the classroom. Skills lab practicum took place after the FC. Students' perceptions regarding student-centeredness and active learning environments, in terms of teaching, social, and cognitive presences were measured before (T1) and after (T2) conducting the FC. Qualitative data were obtained at T2 using free-response questions, which required students to comment on their FC experience. RESULTS: Participants' perceptions of student-centeredness significantly increased from T1 to T2. Although student-perceived teaching and social presence in their learning environment showed upward trends from T1 to T2, these changes were not statistically significant. Students considered FC an acceptable approach to foster active learning in a supportive learning environment. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that incorporating FC to deliver respiratory system assessment content was feasible and considered acceptable by undergraduate nursing students.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Currículo , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , República da Coreia , Sistema Respiratório
19.
Clin Nurs Res ; 30(4): 423-441, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396391

RESUMO

Consistent with global trends, population aging in South Korea is necessitating increasing admissions to intensive care units (ICU). This integrative review describes the challenges experienced by family caregivers of ICU patients in South Korea and evaluates relevant intervention studies. Using Whittemore and Knafl's methods, we identify and synthesize findings from 20 (14 descriptive and 6 experimental design) articles and evaluate study quality. South Korean ICU family caregivers reported challenges such as feelings of powerlessness and vulnerability, difficulty in maintaining their own health and well-being, and mixed feelings regarding patients' transition to the general ward. Intervention studies, which were based on quasi-experimental design, examined modified visiting hours, information provision strategies, nurse-led transitional care programs, and educational support. Findings highlight the current state of the science in this topic area in South Korea. Future studies should use more robust methods, such as longitudinal cohort studies and randomized controlled trials.

20.
Environ Technol ; 42(10): 1591-1602, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566080

RESUMO

The three-parameter (K, b, and n) Song isotherm model was slightly modified to make it possible to obtain analytical integration of the spreading pressure integral. The modified Song model (MSM) allows more efficient and accurate calculation of the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST). The MSM also satisfies the Henry's law and the Freundlich model at low and high concentrations, respectively, and reverts to the Langmuir and the linear models when n equals zero and one, respectively. Approximate values of each parameter could be estimated from a plot of log (q/c) versus log c; the partition coefficient in the Henry's law region (K) and the Freundlich index (n) can be estimated from the ordinate value of the low-concentration asymptote and the slope of the high-concentration asymptote, respectively, and the parameter (b) can be estimated from the solution-phase concentration of the intersection point of the two asymptotes. The MSM was fitted to the single-solute sorption of 2-chloro-, 3-cyano-, and 4-nitrophenol onto montmorillonites modified with either HDTMA cation or TMA/HDTMA dual cations. The ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) combined with either dual-mode model, Khan model or MSM as a single-solute isotherm model was used to predict three bisolute and one trisolute sorption to organoclays. The Sheindorf-Rebhun-Sheintuch (SRS) and Murali-Aylmore (M-A) were also used to predict bisolute sorption to organoclays. The IAST predictions were generally in good agreement with the multisolute sorption data. The advantages of MSM over other three-parameter models were fully discussed.


Assuntos
Bentonita , Fenóis , Adsorção , Cátions , Soluções
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