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1.
EMBO J ; : e101196, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750563

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by degeneration of midbrain-type dopamine (mDA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). The RNA-binding protein Lin28 plays a role in neuronal stem cell development and neuronal differentiation. In this study, we reveal that Lin28 conditional knockout (cKO) mice show degeneration of mDA neurons in the SN, as well as PD-related behavioral deficits. We identify a loss-of-function variant of LIN28A (R192G substitution) in two early-onset PD patients. Using an isogenic human embryonic stem cell (hESC)/human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based disease model, we find that the Lin28 R192G variant leads to developmental defects and PD-related phenotypes in mDA neuronal cells that can be rescued by expression of wild-type Lin28A. Cell transplantation experiments in PD model rats show that correction of the LIN28A variant in the donor patient (pt)-hiPSCs leads to improved behavioral phenotypes. Our data link LIN28A to PD pathogenesis and suggest future personalized medicine targeting this variant in patients.

2.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(12): 1209-1215, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769253

RESUMO

GLUT1 deficiency is a rare neurometabolic disorder that can be effectively treated with ketogenic diet. However, this condition is underdiagnosed due to its nonspecific, overlapping, and evolving symptoms with age. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical course of nine patients diagnosed with GLUT1 deficiency, based on SLC2A1 mutations and/or glucose concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. The patients included eight boys and one girl who initially presented with seizures (44%, 4/9) or delayed development (44%, 4/9) before 2 years of age, except for one patient who presented with apnea as a neonate. Over the clinical course, all of the children developed seizures of the mixed type, including absence seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. About half (56%, 5/9) showed movement disorders such as ataxia, dystonia, or dyskinesia. We observed an evolution of phenotype over time, although this was not uniform across all patients. Only one child had microcephaly. In five patients, ketogenic diet was effective in reducing seizures and movement symptoms, and the patients exhibited subjective improvement in cognitive function. Diagnosing GLUT1 deficiency can be challenging due to the phenotypic variability and evolution. A high index of clinical suspicion in pediatric and even older patients with epilepsy or movement disorders is key to the early diagnosis and treatment, which can improve the patient's quality of life.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 987-995, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587868

RESUMO

NKAP is a ubiquitously expressed nucleoplasmic protein that is currently known as a transcriptional regulatory molecule via its interaction with HDAC3 and spliceosomal proteins. Here, we report a disorder of transcriptional regulation due to missense mutations in the X chromosome gene, NKAP. These mutations are clustered in the C-terminal region of NKAP where NKAP interacts with HDAC3 and post-catalytic spliceosomal complex proteins. Consistent with a role for the C-terminal region of NKAP in embryogenesis, nkap mutant zebrafish with a C-terminally truncated NKAP demonstrate severe developmental defects. The clinical features of affected individuals are highly conserved and include developmental delay, hypotonia, joint contractures, behavioral abnormalities, Marfanoid habitus, and scoliosis. In affected cases, transcriptome analysis revealed the presence of a unique transcriptome signature, which is characterized by the downregulation of long genes with higher exon numbers. These observations indicate the critical role of NKAP in transcriptional regulation and demonstrate that perturbations of the C-terminal region lead to developmental defects in both humans and zebrafish.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 40(8): 1115-1126, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264822

RESUMO

Encoding the slow skeletal muscle isoform of myosin binding protein-C, MYBPC1 is associated with autosomal dominant and recessive forms of arthrogryposis. The authors describe a novel association for MYBPC1 in four patients from three independent families with skeletal muscle weakness, myogenic tremors, and hypotonia with gradual clinical improvement. The patients carried one of two de novo heterozygous variants in MYBPC1, with the p.Leu263Arg variant seen in three individuals and the p.Leu259Pro variant in one individual. Both variants are absent from controls, well conserved across vertebrate species, predicted to be damaging, and located in the M-motif. Protein modeling studies suggested that the p.Leu263Arg variant affects the stability of the M-motif, whereas the p.Leu259Pro variant alters its structure. In vitro biochemical and kinetic studies demonstrated that the p.Leu263Arg variant results in decreased binding of the M-motif to myosin, which likely impairs the formation of actomyosin cross-bridges during muscle contraction. Collectively, our data substantiate that damaging variants in MYBPC1 are associated with a new form of an early-onset myopathy with tremor, which is a defining and consistent characteristic in all affected individuals, with no contractures. Recognition of this expanded myopathic phenotype can enable identification of individuals with MYBPC1 variants without arthrogryposis.

5.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341245

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical and experimental evidence has suggested pathobiological crosstalk between lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) and cancer. We aimed to elucidate the association between germline variants in LSD genes and cancer. METHODS: We performed aggregate rare variant association analysis of potentially pathogenic variants (PPVs) in 42 LSD genes and >30 histological types of cancer using genome sequencing data from 2567 cancer patients (Pan-Cancer cohort) and 2504 healthy individuals (1000 Genomes cohort) and exome sequencing data from 53,105 individuals without cancer (ExAC cohort). RESULTS: PPVs were significantly enriched in the Pan-Cancer cohort compared with the 1000 Genomes cohort (PPV prevalence, 20.7% vs. 13.5%; P = 8.7 × 10-12). Cancer risk was higher in individuals with a greater number of PPVs (P = 7.3 × 10-12). Population structure-adjusted optimal sequence kernel association test (SKAT-O) revealed 37 significantly associated cancer type-LSD gene pairs. These results were supported by the consistent tendency toward enrichment of PPVs in cancer patients compared with the ExAC cohort. Cancer developed earlier in PPV carriers than in wild-type patients. Analysis of tumor transcriptomic data from the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cohort revealed 508 genes differentially expressed according to PPV carrier status, which were highly enriched in the core signaling pathways of pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSION: Carriers of PPVs in LSD genes are at increased risk of cancer.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(13): 4026-4037, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979738

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The plasticity of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has been reported in vitro and in the microenvironment of the intestine. However, whether ILC plasticity contributes to regulation of the tumor microenvironment remains unknown. In this study, we explored plasticity of ILCs in human lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed immune subsets and cytokine expression in lung cancers freshly obtained from 80 patients and explored conversion of ILC1 into ILC3 in coculture with lung cancer cells. Prognostic effects of converted ILC3 and related pathway were evaluated by retrospective cohort composed of 875 patients with lung cancer. RESULTS: Low percentages of ILC1, and high percentages of ILC3 were found in pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC) but not adenocarcinomas (ADC). In non-small-cell lung cancers, the percentage of ILC3 was associated with IL23 expression in tumor cells but not immune cells. In cocultures, tumor cells of SqCCs converted ILC1 into ILC3 by producing IL23, thus promoting IL17-mediated tumor cell proliferation. Consistently, among IL17+ immune cells, the percentages of ILCs were higher in SqCCs than ADCs. Furthermore, the numbers of CD3-RORγt+ ILC3, IL17 expression level, and IL23- or IL17RA-expressing tumor cells were associated with short survival of patients with SqCC but not ADC. CONCLUSIONS: Conversion from ILC1 into ILC3 by IL23-producing SqCCs promotes IL17-mediated tumor progression, resulting in a poor prognosis.

8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 68, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Korean Undiagnosed Diseases Program (KUDP) was launched in January 2017 as a one-year pilot project to address the increasing global interest in patients with undiagnosed rare diseases. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the project results and emphasize the unmet research needs among patients with undiagnosed rare diseases in Korea. RESULTS: Patient enrollment, assessment, and diagnostic processes were determined by the KUDP clinical expert consortium. Patients followed a diagnostic workflow after being categorized into one of four groups: I) insufficient clinical information or lack of standard diagnostic processes; II) undiagnosed due to low disease awareness; III) clinically diagnosed but unconfirmed genetically due to genetic heterogeneities; or IV) unknown disease due to complex, atypical clinical presentations. After excluding two patients from group I, 97 patients were enrolled, including 10 in group II, 67 in group III, and 20 in group IV. Most of them (92 of 97, 94.8%) were pediatric patients (< 18 years old) and 59 (60.8%) were male. The primary symptoms for 80 patients (82.5%) were neurologic. During the one-year pilot study, 72 patients completed a diagnostic assessment including clinical and molecular genetic analyses; some patients also underwent pathological or biochemical analysis. Twenty-eight of these patients (28/72, 38.9%) achieved molecular genetic diagnosis. Thirteen patients were diagnosed based on traditional tests, including biochemical assay, single or targeted genetic analysis, and chromosomal microarray. We performed whole exome sequencing on 52 patients, among whom 15 (28.8%, 15/52) reached a final diagnosis. One new disorder was identified via international collaboration. CONCLUSIONS: Using an efficient clinical diagnostic workflow, this KUDP pilot study resulted in a fair diagnostic success rate, improving the potential for additional diagnoses and new scientific discovery of complex and rare diseases. KUDP also satisfied unmet needs for rare diseases with multisystem involvement, highlighting the value of emerging genomic technologies for further research into rare and still-undiagnosed conditions.


Assuntos
Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 439-453, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773278

RESUMO

SPONASTRIME dysplasia is a rare, recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphism, and aberrant radiographic findings of the spine and long bone metaphysis. No causative genetic alterations for SPONASTRIME dysplasia have yet been determined. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified bi-allelic TONSL mutations in 10 of 13 individuals with SPONASTRIME dysplasia. TONSL is a multi-domain scaffold protein that interacts with DNA replication and repair factors and which plays critical roles in resistance to replication stress and the maintenance of genome integrity. We show here that cellular defects in dermal fibroblasts from affected individuals are complemented by the expression of wild-type TONSL. In addition, in vitro cell-based assays and in silico analyses of TONSL structure support the pathogenicity of those TONSL variants. Intriguingly, a knock-in (KI) Tonsl mouse model leads to embryonic lethality, implying the physiological importance of TONSL. Overall, these findings indicate that genetic variants resulting in reduced function of TONSL cause SPONASTRIME dysplasia and highlight the importance of TONSL in embryonic development and postnatal growth.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4619, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397230

RESUMO

Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates disturbance of critical binding and interaction motifs. Experimental assays with six of the identified mutations show that a subset directly affects ATPase activity, and all but one yield alterations in chromatin remodeling. We implicate de novo CHD3 mutations in a syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and impaired speech and language.

12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1984, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279688

RESUMO

Bile acids (BAs) control metabolism and inflammation by interacting with several receptors. Here, we report that intravenous infusion of taurodeoxycholate (TDCA) decreases serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, normalizes hypotension, protects against renal injury, and prolongs mouse survival during sepsis. TDCA increases the number of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCLT) distinctive from MDSCs obtained without TDCA treatment (MDSCL) in the spleen of septic mice. FACS-sorted MDSCLT cells suppress T-cell proliferation and confer protection against sepsis when adoptively transferred better than MDSCL. Proteogenomic analysis indicated that TDCA controls chromatin silencing, alternative splicing, and translation of the immune proteome of MDSCLT, which increases the expression of anti-inflammatory molecules such as oncostatin, lactoferrin and CD244. TDCA also decreases the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules such as neutrophil elastase. These findings suggest that TDCA globally edits the proteome to increase the number of MDSCLT cells and affect their immune-regulatory functions to resolve systemic inflammation during sepsis.

15.
Brain Dev ; 40(5): 429-432, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29428275

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A recurrent de novo mutation in KCNC1 (c.959G > A, p.Arg320His) has been identified recently as one of the important genetic causes of progress myoclonic epilepsy (PME). The clinical phenotype resulting from this mutation has been named as myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia due to potassium channel mutation (MEAK). This finding carries important clinical implications in that autosomal dominant inheritance and de novo occurrence need to be considered when conducting genetic tests in patients with PME. We present two familial cases of MEAK in siblings with a recurrent p.Arg320His mutation in KCNC1. METHOD: Whole exome sequencing and subsequent Sanger sequencing were performed for the cases and their parents. RESULTS: A recurrent p.Arg320His mutation in KCNC1 was identified in the two brothers who showed characteristic features of MEAK: near normal early development, onset of myoclonus around 10 years of age, infrequent generalized tonic-clonic seizures, relatively mild cognitive impairment, and generalized epileptiform discharges. Interestingly, the asymptomatic mother was suspected as being mosaic for this mutation. This finding could lead to misleading inheritance patterns and make genetic diagnosis of PME more complicated. CONCLUSIONS: Our familial MEAK cases show that consideration of parental mosaicism in addition to meticulous phenotyping is needed when conducting KCNC1 genetic testing.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Canais de Potássio Shaw/genética , Adulto , Ataxia/genética , Criança , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Epilepsias Mioclônicas Progressivas/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Canais de Potássio/genética , Convulsões/genética , Canais de Potássio Shaw/metabolismo , Irmãos
16.
Brain Dev ; 40(5): 383-390, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GM1 gangliosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by GLB1 mutations. Because of its extreme rarity and symptoms that overlap with other neurodegenerative diseases, its diagnosis is sometimes challenging, especially in the late infantile form with less severe phenotype. We aim to expand the clinical and genetic spectrum of late infantile GM1 gangliosidosis. METHODS: We confirmed a diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis based on GLB1 mutations and/or the deficiency of ß-galactosidase activity. We identified the first two cases by whole-exome sequencing, and then the other six cases by direct sequencing of GLB1 with enzyme analysis. RESULTS: All eight patients presented with developmental delay or regression during late infancy and later developed epilepsy, mostly intractable generalized tonic seizures. No clinical signs of storage disorders were noted except for skeletal abnormalities. Interestingly, we found aspartate transaminase (AST) elevations alone with normal alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in all patients. The recurrent mutation, p.D448V in GLB1, accounted for 50.0% of total alleles in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: With a high index of clinical suspicion, skeletal survey and AST level would be important for early diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis. In addition, we would highlight the clinical usefulness of whole-exome sequencing in the diagnosis of non-classical presentation of ultra-rare neurodegenerative disease in children.


Assuntos
Gangliosidose GM1/diagnóstico , Gangliosidose GM1/genética , beta-Galactosidase/genética , Alelos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Feminino , Gangliosidose GM1/enzimologia , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/diagnóstico , Masculino , Mutação , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo , beta-Galactosidase/fisiologia
17.
J Neurooncol ; 138(1): 41-48, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423538

RESUMO

Although meningioma is the most common primary tumor of the central nervous system, the mechanism of progression from benign to atypical or anaplastic grade remains elusive. The present case reports the genomic evaluation of two synchronous meningiomas with different histological grades (benign and atypical) in the same patient. Under the assumption that the atypical tumor may have progressed from the benign tumor, the clonal origin of the lesions was investigated to identify genomic events responsible for the oncogenic process of evolution to higher grades in meningioma. A 59 year-old female patient was diagnosed with two synchronous meningiomas with different histological grades, benign and atypical. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of both tumors were done. WES analysis showed that each meningioma harbored distinct mutation profiles, and RNA-seq analysis revealed distinct gene expression profiles between the two tumors. The only apparent common genetic abnormality found in both tumors was the loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 22, raising the possibility that this event is the initial step in tumor formation, after which distinct subsequent mutations lead to the evolvement of two separate tumors of different grades. The result provides additional evidence on previous reports suggesting separate, independent mechanism of progression into higher grades in meningioma.

18.
Nat Genet ; 50(3): 349-354, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29403011

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism, a common cause of severe hypertension 1 , features constitutive production of the adrenal steroid aldosterone. We analyzed a multiplex family with familial hyperaldosteronism type II (FH-II) 2 and 80 additional probands with unsolved early-onset primary aldosteronism. Eight probands had novel heterozygous variants in CLCN2, including two de novo mutations and four independent occurrences of a mutation encoding an identical p.Arg172Gln substitution; all relatives with early-onset primary aldosteronism carried the CLCN2 variant found in the proband. CLCN2 encodes a voltage-gated chloride channel expressed in adrenal glomerulosa that opens at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. Channel opening depolarizes glomerulosa cells and induces expression of aldosterone synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme for aldosterone biosynthesis. Mutant channels show gain of function, with higher open probabilities at the glomerulosa resting potential. These findings for the first time demonstrate a role of anion channels in glomerulosa membrane potential determination, aldosterone production and hypertension. They establish the cause of a substantial fraction of early-onset primary aldosteronism.

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