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1.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 753527, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746287

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the main microorganisms used as probiotics against gastrointestinal inflammation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential probiotic characteristics (antimicrobial activity, artificial gastrointestinal model resistance, cell surface hydrophobicity, and autoaggregation ability) and safety characteristics (hemolytic activity, antimicrobial resistance, and in vivo safety) of LAB isolated from the rumen fluid of an adult female sika deer. Two isolated strains identified as Latilactobacillus curvatus Z12 and Z19 showed good antimicrobial activity against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Salmonella typhi (ATCC14028), and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923). In addition, L. curvatus Z12 exhibited higher artificial gastrointestinal model resistance, cell surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation ability than L. curvatus Z19. Therefore, regarding safety characteristics, only L. curvatus Z12 was evaluated. Upon assessment of safety, L. curvatus Z12 was negative for hemolytic activity and susceptible to penicillin G and cefamandole. Furthermore, an in vivo safety assessment showed that high-dose L. curvatus Z12 (109 CFU/mL) supplementation not only had no adverse effects on body weight gain, feed intake, and organ coefficients of treated mice but also played a key role in promoting the immune system maturation of treated mice. This research revealed that L. curvatus Z12 possesses desirable probiotic characteristics and could be used as a potential probiotic feed additive to improve sika deer health.

2.
J Pers Med ; 11(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683115

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether clinical and laboratory biomarkers can identify patients with COVID-19 who are less likely to be liberated from oxygen therapy. This was a retrospective study comparing 18 patients in the weaning failure group with 38 patients in the weaning success group. Weaning failure was defined as death or discharge with an oxygen device before day 28 after hospital admission or requiring oxygen support as of day 28. The median quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score was significantly higher and the median SpO2/FiO2 was significantly lower in the weaning failure group. The laboratory biomarkers, procalcitonin (PCT) and D-dimer, were significantly higher in the weaning failure group, as were the biomarkers of endothelial injury, such as angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and Ang-2/Ang-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Patients' qSOFA scores, SpO2/FiO2, and PCT, D-dimer, Ang-2, Ang-2/Ang-1, endocan (4-day and 7-day increases), and TNF-α levels predicted weaning failure; 7-day endocan levels were the best predictor of weaning failure with an AUC of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67-0.94). We identified clinical and laboratory parameters, including plasma biomarkers of endothelial injury, that may be considered as biomarkers for predicting failure of liberation from oxygen therapy in patients with severe COVID-19.

3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679720

RESUMO

Complex extracts of Ligularia stenocephala Matsum. & Koidz. (LSE) and Secale cereale L. sprout (SCSE) (TEES-10®) were prepared. The purposes of the study were to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities of TEES-10® in vitro and to observe resolution of gingivitis in human with oral administration of TEES-10®. The effects of TEES-10® on normal periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced PDL cell viability and the changes of inflammatory mediator expression were evaluated in vitro. In the clinical trial, 150 mg of TEES-10® powder containing capsule was administered twice daily to the test group, while the control group administered placebos in a total 100 participants with gingivitis. Probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment loss, gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were measured at baseline and 4 weeks. Administering TEES-10® showed significant increase in PDL cell viability compared to administering LSE or SCSE alone. In addition, treating TEES-10® to LPS induced PDL cell significantly increased PDL cell viability compared to control. TEES-10® suppressed expression of NF-κB, p-ERK, ERK, COX-2, c-Fos and p-STAT and promoted expression of PPARγ in LPS induced PDL cells. In the clinical trial, significant improvement of GI and BOP was observed in the test group at 4 weeks. In addition, the number of patients diagnosed with gingivitis was significantly reduced in the test group at 4 weeks. Salivary MMP-8 and MMP-9 was also significantly decreased compared to placebo group. Within the limitations of this study, the TEES-10® would have an anti-inflammatory potential clinically in the chronic gingivitis patients.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 997, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonrandom multiple respiratory virus (RV) detection provides evidence for viral interference among respiratory viruses. However, little is known as to whether it occurs randomly. METHODS: The prevalence of dual RV detection (DRVD) in patients with acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) at 4 academic medical centers was investigated; data about the prevalence of 8 RVs were collected from the Korean national RV surveillance dataset. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess the correlation between observed and estimated prevalence of each type of DRVD. RESULTS: In total, 108 patients with ARIs showing DRVD were included in this study between 2011 and 2017. In several types of regression analysis, a strong correlation was observed between the observed and estimated prevalence of each type of DRVD. Excluding three DRVD types (influenza/picornavirus, influenza/human metapneumovirus, and adenovirus/respiratory syncytial virus), the slope of the regression line was higher than that of the line of random occurrence (1.231 > 1.000) and the 95% confidence interval of the regression line was located above the line of random occurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to the results of previous epidemiologic studies, most types of DRVD occur more frequently than expected from the prevalence rates of individual RV, except for three underrepresented pairs above.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Metapneumovirus , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Vírus , Adulto , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mangosteen and propolis extracts (MAEC) have been potential therapeutic agents known to exhibit powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical and immunological efficacy of MAEC as well as safety and patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) on gingivitis and incipient periodontitis. METHODS: This study was performed on 104 patients diagnosed with gingivitis or incipient periodontitis. At baseline, the participants were randomly allocated to either the test group, with daily intake of a single capsule containing 194 mg of MAEC for eight weeks, or control group, with placebo. Clinical periodontal evaluation and immunological parameters from saliva and gingival sulcular fluid were assessed at baseline, four, and eight weeks. Individual PROMs were assessed by OHIP-14 questionnaires. RESULTS: There was a significant difference of modified gingival index at four and eight weeks between the test and control groups. In the test group, crevicular interleukin (IL)-6 was reduced, and the salivary matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 was increased after eight weeks. PROMs were improved up to four weeks compared to placebo. CONCLUSION: Oral administration of MAEC would have a potential to reduce gingival inflammation clinically and immunologically in the patients with gingivitis and incipient periodontitis.


Assuntos
Garcinia mangostana/química , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Própole/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Saliva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Anim Sci Technol ; 63(4): 919-933, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447967

RESUMO

We hypothesized that the unsaturated fatty acid palmitoleic acid (POA) could promote the expression of adipogenic/lipogenic genes in bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells (BSCs). The BSCs were cultured in a growth medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. When the cells reached 80%-90% confluence, we used the differentiation medium with 5% horse serum for differentiation for 96 h. The differentiation medium contained 50 µM, 100 µM and 200 µM POA. Control BSC were cultured only in differentiation media. Compared with the control BSC, the POA BSC significantly up-regulated the expression of paired box 3 (Pax3) and paired box 7 (Pax7) and down-regulated myogenin gene expression (p < 0.01), which indicates a depression in muscle fiber development. However, all POA treatments up-regulated the expression of the adipocyte transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha and beta (C/EBP α and C/EBP ß), and other genes (p < 0.01) and increased the expression of PAT-family proteins and the concentration of adiponectin in the media. These results indicate that POA can convert part of BSCs into adipocytes.

7.
J Anim Sci Technol ; 63(4): 934-953, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447968

RESUMO

Ciglitazone is a member of the thiazolidinedione family, and specifically binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), thereby promoting adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized that ciglitazone as a PPARγ ligand in the absence of an adipocyte differentiation cocktail would increase adiponectin and adipogenic gene expression in bovine satellite cells (BSC). Muscle-derived BSCs were isolated from six, 18-month-old Yanbian Yellow Cattle. The BSC were cultured for 96 h in differentiation medium containing 5 µM ciglitazone (CL), 10 µM ciglitazone (CM), or 20 µM ciglitazone (CH). Control (CON) BSC were cultured only in a differentiation medium (containing 2% horse serum). The presence of myogenin, desmin, and paired box 7 (Pax7) proteins was confirmed in the BSC by immunofluorescence staining. The CL, CM, and CH treatments produced higher concentrations of triacylglycerol and lipid droplet accumulation in myotubes than those of the CON treatment. Ciglitazone treatments significantly increased the relative expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), C/EBPß, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and perilipin 2. Ciglitazone treatments increased gene expression of Pax3 and Pax7 and decreased expression of myogenic differentiation-1, myogenin, myogenic regulatory factor-5, and myogenin-4 (p < 0.01). Adiponectin concentration caused by ciglitazone treatments was significantly greater than CON (p < 0.01). RNA sequencing showed that 281 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found in the treatments of ciglitazone. DEGs gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the top 10 GO enrichment significantly changed the biological processes such as protein trimerization, negative regulation of cell proliferation, adipocytes differentiation, and cellular response to external stimulus. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that DEGs were involved in the p53 signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, biosynthesis of amino acids, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and Wnt signaling pathway. These results indicate that ciglitazone acts as PPARγ agonist, effectively increases the adiponectin concentration and adipogenic gene expression, and stimulates the conversion of BSC to adipocyte-like cells in the absence of adipocyte differentiation cocktail.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300744

RESUMO

Vertical ridge augmentation for long-term implant stability is difficult in severely resorbed areas. We examined the clinical, radiological, and histological outcomes of guided-bone regeneration using novel titanium-reinforced microporous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (MP-ePTFE) membranes. Eighteen patients who underwent implant placement using a staged approach were enrolled (period: 2018-2019). Vertical ridge augmentation was performed in areas with vertical bone defects ≥4 mm. Twenty-six implant fixtures were placed in 14 patients. At implant placement six fixtures had relatively low stability. On cone-beam computed tomography, the average vertical changes were 4.2 ± 1.9 (buccal), 5.9 ± 2.7 (central), and 4.4 ± 2.8 mm (lingual) at six months after vertical ridge augmentation. Histomorphometric analyses revealed that the average proportions of new bone, residual bone substitute material, and soft tissue were 34.91 ± 11.61%, 7.16 ± 2.74%, and 57.93 ± 11.09%, respectively. Stable marginal bone levels were observed at 1-year post-loading. The residual bone graft material area was significantly lower in the exposed group (p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the vertical height change in the buccal side between immediately after the augmentation procedure and the implant placement reentry time (p = 0.371). However, all implants functioned well regardless of the exposure during the observation period. Thus, vertical ridge augmentation around implants using titanium-reinforced MP-ePTFE membranes can be successful.

9.
J Clin Med ; 10(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199053

RESUMO

Vaccination is considered crucial for the eradication of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In our medical center in Korea, most health care workers (HCWs) were vaccinated with the ChAdOx1 COVID-19 vaccine. After vaccination, many HCWs complained of adverse events (AEs). However, it remains unclear whether the production of neutralizing antibodies (NAb) was affected. Therefore, here, we aimed to evaluate AEs and early NAb production in relatively healthy Asians who received the ChAdOx1 vaccine and determine the effect of AEs and antipyretics on early NAb production against COVID-19. Of the 182 Korean HCWs who received the first dose of ChAdOx1 vaccine, 172 (94.5%) experienced ≥1 adverse events and 148 (81.3%) tested positive for NAb 33-40 days after the vaccination. NAb-positive vaccine recipients reported systemic AEs and consumed acetaminophen more frequently than NAb-negative recipients. We identified an association between antibody response and COVID-19 vaccine-related AEs. In conclusion, most ChAdOx1 vaccine recipients reported AEs in our medical center.

10.
Anim Biosci ; 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237918

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary glucose oxidase (GOD), catalase (CAT), or both supplementation on reproductive performance, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in sows. Methods: A total of 104 multiparous sows were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 26) with each group given with basal diet, basal diet plus GOD at 60 U/kg, basal diet plus CAT at 75 U/kg, and basal diet plus GOD at 60 U/kg and CAT at 75 U/kg. Sows were fed the experimental diets throughout gestation and lactation. Results: Dietary GOD supplementation increased average daily feed intake of sows and litter weight at weaning (p<0.05). Dietary CAT supplementation reduced the duration of parturition, stillbirth, and piglet mortality and increased growth performance of weaned piglets (p<0.05). Dietary GOD and CAT supplementation enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and lessened oxidative stress product levels in plasma of sows and elevated antioxidant capacity of 14-day milk and plasma in weaned piglets (p<0.05). Dietary GOD supplementation increased fecal Lactobacillus counts and reduced Escherichia coli counts of sows (p<0.05). Compared with the basal diet, the GOD diet reduced fecal Escherichia coli counts of sows, but the addition of CAT did not reduce Escherichia coli counts in the GOD diet. Dietary GOD and CAT supplementation reduced the apoptosis rate of the liver, endometrium, and ovarian granulosa cells in sows (p<0.05). In the liver, uterus, and ovary of sows, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was downregulated by dietary GOD and CAT supplementation (p<0.05). Conclusion: Dietary GOD and CAT supplementation could improve the antioxidant capacity of sows and weaned piglets, and alleviate hepatic, ovarian and uterine apoptosis by weakening apoptosis-related gene expression. Glucose oxidase regulated fecal microflora of sows, but supplementation of CAT to GOD could weaken the inhibitory effect of GOD on fecal Escherichia coli.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254167, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214123

RESUMO

Dexamethasone provides benefits in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), although data regarding immunological profiles and viral clearance are limited. This study aimed to evaluate for differences in biomarkers among patients with severe COVID-19 who did and did not receive dexamethasone. We measured plasma biomarkers of lung epithelial/endothelial injury and inflammation in 31 patients with severe COVID-19 and in 13 controls. Changes in biomarkers and clinical parameters were compared during the 7-day period among COVID-19 patients, and also according to dexamethasone use. Thirty-two patients with severe COVID-19 who received mechanical ventilation (n = 6), high-flow nasal cannula (n = 11), and supplemental oxygen (n = 15) were analyzed. Relative to controls, patients with severe COVID-19 had significantly higher concentrations of biomarkers related to glycocalyx shedding (endocan and syndecan-1), endothelial injury (von Willebrand factor), and inflammation (soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products [sRAGE] and interleukin-6). The 7-day decreases in biomarkers of endothelial injury (angiopoietin-2 [Ang-2] and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]) and sRAGE, but not in the biomarker of lung epithelial injury (surfactant protein D), were correlated with decreases in C-reactive protein and radiologic score at day 7. Twenty patients (63%) received dexamethasone, and the dexamethasone and non-dexamethasone groups differed in terms of disease severity. However, dexamethasone was associated marginally with increased SpO2/FiO2 and significantly with decreases in C-reactive protein and radiologic score after adjusting for baseline imbalances. Furthermore, the dexamethasone group exhibited a significant decrease in the concentrations of Ang-2, ICAM-1, soluble form of the Tie2 receptor (a biomarker of glycocalyx shedding), and sRAGE. Both groups exhibited a clinically insignificant increase in the cycle threshold value. Severe COVID-19 may be characterized by more severe endothelial injury and inflammation, and less severe lung epithelial injury. There is a possibility that dexamethasone improved severe COVID-19 and related endothelial injury without delaying viral clearance.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Carga Viral , Viremia/sangue
12.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycarprolactone and beta tricalcium phosphate (PCL/ß-TCP) are resorbable biomaterials that exhibit ideal mechanical properties as well as high affinity for osteogenic cells. AIM: Objective of this study was to evaluate healing and tissue reaction to the PCL/ß-TCP barrier membrane in the rabbit calvaria model for guided bone regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PCL/ß-TCP membranes were 3D printed. Three circular defects were created in calvaria of 10 rabbits. The three groups were randomly allocated for each specimen: (i) sham control; (ii) PCL/ß-TCP membrane (PCL group); and (iii) PCL/ß-TCP membrane with synthetic bone graft (PCL-BG group). The animals were euthanized after two (n = 5) and eight weeks (n = 5) for volumetric and histomorphometric analyses. RESULTS: The greatest augmented volume was achieved by the PCL-BG group at both two and eight weeks (p < 0.01). There was a significant increase in new bone after eight weeks in the PCL group (p = 0.04). The PCL/ß-TCP membrane remained intact after eight weeks with slight degradation, and showed good tissue integration. CONCLUSIONS: PCL/ß-TCP membrane exhibited good biocompatibility, slow degradation, and ability to maintain space over eight weeks. The 3D-printed PCL/ß-TCP membrane is a promising biomaterial that could be utilized for reconstruction of critical sized defects.

13.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 32(8): 971-979, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101908

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the healing outcome following grafting with deproteinized porcine bone mineral (DPBM) with or without collagen membrane coverage in two-wall (both buccal and lingual)-damaged extraction sockets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Distal roots of three mandibular premolars in six beagle dogs were extracted, and the whole buccal and lingual bony walls were surgically removed. Three treatment protocols were then applied according to the following group allocation: no graft (None), grafting DPBM (BG), and grafting DPBM with coverage by a collagen membrane (BG + M). Two observational periods (2 and 8 weeks) were used with the split-mouth design, and quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed by microcomputed tomography and histology. RESULTS: The dimensions of the alveolar ridge at both grafted sites (BG and BG + M) remained similar to those of the pristine ridge in the histologic and radiographic analyses, whereas the ungrafted sites (None) collapsed both vertically and horizontally. Both grafting protocols produced substantial bony regeneration, but the addition of a covering membrane enhanced the proportion of mineralized tissue within the augmented area, and the BG + M group also showed a significantly larger area of regenerated ridge than the None group (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Bone grafting with collagen membrane can maintain the alveolar ridge dimensions with substantial bone regeneration in a two-wall-damaged extraction socket.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Aumento do Rebordo Alveolar , Perda do Osso Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda do Osso Alveolar/cirurgia , Processo Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Processo Alveolar/cirurgia , Animais , Cães , Modelos Teóricos , Suínos , Extração Dentária , Alvéolo Dental/cirurgia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
14.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(5)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064696

RESUMO

Agaricus bisporus is a globally cultivated mushroom with high economic value. Despite its widespread cultivation, commercial button mushroom strains have little genetic diversity and discrimination of strains for identification and breeding purposes is challenging. Molecular markers suitable for diversity analyses of germplasms with similar genotypes and discrimination between accessions are needed to support the development of new varieties. To develop cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPs) markers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mining was performed based on the A. bisporus genome and resequencing data. A total of 70 sets of CAPs markers were developed and applied to 41 A. bisporus accessions for diversity, multivariate, and population structure analyses. Of the 70 SNPs, 62.85% (44/70) were transitions (G/A or C/T) and 37.15% (26/70) were transversions (A/C, A/T, C/G, or G/T). The number of alleles per locus was 1 or 2 (average = 1.9), and expected heterozygosity and gene diversity were 0.0-0.499 (mean = 0.265) and 0.0-0.9367 (mean = 0.3599), respectively. Multivariate and cluster analyses of accessions produced similar groups, with F-statistic values of 0.134 and 0.153 for distance-based and model-based groups, respectively. A minimum set of 10 markers optimized for accession identification were selected based on high index of genetic diversity (GD, range 0.299-0.499) and major allele frequency (MAF, range 0.524-0.817). The CAPS markers can be used to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure and will facilitate the management of emerging genetic resources.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252963, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125839

RESUMO

During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, social distancing was effective in controlling disease spread across South Korea. The impact of national social distancing on the spread of common respiratory virus infections has rarely been investigated. We evaluated the weekly proportion of negative respiratory virus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results and weekly positive rates of each respiratory virus during the social distancing period (10th-41st weeks of 2020) and the corresponding period in different years, utilizing the national respiratory virus surveillance dataset reported by the Korean Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The proportions of negative respiratory virus PCR test results increased up to 87.8% and 86.1% during level 3 and level 2 of the social distancing period, respectively. The higher the level of social distancing, the higher the proportion of negative respiratory virus PCR test results. During the social distancing period, the mean weekly positive rates for parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, human coronavirus, and human metapneumovirus were significantly lower than those during the same period in 2015-2019 (0.1% vs. 9.3%, P <0.001; 0.1% vs. 7.2%, P <0.001; 0.4% vs. 2.3%, P <0.001; and 0.2% vs. 5.3%, P <0.001, respectively). The mean positive rate for rhinovirus/enterovirus during level 3 social distancing was lower than that in the same period in 2015-2019 (8.5% vs. 19.0%, P <0.001), but the rate during level 1 social distancing was higher than that in the same period in 2015-2019 (38.3% vs. 19.4%, P <0.001). The national application of social distancing reduced the spread of common respiratory virus infections during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
16.
J Anim Sci Technol ; 63(2): 380-393, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987612

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the blood lipid profiles, fatty acid composition, and lipogenic enzyme activities in rat adipose tissues as affected by the Angus beef fat (ABF) and Hanwoo beef fat (HBF) containing high oleic acid (OA) content. We assigned 60 Sprague Dawley rats with a mean bodyweight of 249 ± 3.04 g to three groups (n = 20 each) to receive diets containing 7% coconut oil (CON), 7% ABF, or 7% HBF. The OA content was highest in the HBF (45.23%) followed by ABF (39.51%) and CON (6.10%). The final body weight of the HBF-fed group was significantly increased, probably due to increased feed intake, indicating the palatability of the diet. The HBF and ABF significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), decreased triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels, and also tended to attenuate glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels in the bloodstream of the rats compared to CON. As compared to CON, lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids were significantly lower, and those of OA and α-linolenic acid (ALA) were significantly higher in the adipose tissues of HBF and ABF-fed groups. The HBF and ABF also reduced lipogenesis as induced by depleted fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity in rat adipose tissues. Nevertheless, between the two fats, HBF showed high feed intake due to its high palatability but reduced lipogenic enzyme activity, specifically that of FAS, and increased HDL-C, decreased TC and TG levels in the bloodstream, reduced saturated fatty acids (SFA), and increased oleic and ALA contents in rat adipose tissues indicating that HBF consumption does not pose significant risks of cardiovascular disease.

17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(16): e104, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The temporal changes in the Staphylococcus aureus genotypes causing S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) and the corresponding clinical changes over the last decade in South Korea are rarely investigated. METHODS: A longitudinal study of adult SAB patients was conducted in a large referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Adult monomicrobial SAB patients were enrolled between August 2008 and December 2018. Genotyping was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing. Trends in changes were identified by linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 1782 adult SAB patients, the blood isolates of 1,778 (99.8%) and 1,634 (91.7%) were determined to be MLST and spa type, respectively. ST5 (-2.626%/year) and ST239 (-0.354%/year) decreased during the study period (P < 0.001 for both), but ST72 (2.009%/yr)-and ST8 (0.567%/yr) increased (P < 0.001 for both). The most common genotype was changed from ST5 in 2008 (44.9%) to ST72 in 2018 (36.3%). Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive spa-t008-MRSA (USA300) was found in 28.6%. Central venous catheter (CVC)-related SAB (-2.440%/yr) and persistent SAB (-1.016%/yr) decreased, but mortality and recurrence rates were unchanged. CONCLUSION: Over the last decade, the hospital clones ST5 and ST239 have been replaced by community genotype ST72. This was associated with decreased CVC-related and persistent SAB. Increased USA300 was observed in community and hospital settings. Further research is required to identify the reasons for the ST72 epidemic and predict the impending epidemic of ST8 strains, including USA300.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Antígenos de Bactérias , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249972, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831118

RESUMO

We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of two newly developed, point-of-care, rapid antigen tests (RATs) for detecting SARS-CoV-2, the AFIAS COVID-19 Ag and the ichromaTM COVID-19 Ag, and investigated antigen kinetics. A total of 200 serially collected nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens from 38 COVID-19 patients and 122 specimens from negative controls were analyzed. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were assessed in comparison to molecular test results and subdivided according to targeted genes (E, RdRP, and N) and days post-symptom onset (PSO). For the kinetics evaluation, cut-off-indices from serial NP specimens were used according to the number of days PSO. Both RATs showed sensitivity of 91.3‒100% for specimens with cycle threshold (Ct) < 25. The specificity of AFIAS was 98.7‒98.9% and that of ichromaTM was 100.0%. The kappa values of AFIAS and ichromaTM for the molecular testing of specimens with Ct < 25 (RdRP) were 0.97 and 1.00, respectively. The sensitivity of AFIAS and ichromaTM for all genes was lower for specimens collected at 8‒14 PSO than for those collected before 7-days PSO. The kinetics profiles showed that antigen levels gradually decreased from ≤ 7-days PSO to > 22-days PSO. Both RATs showed excellent specificity and acceptable sensitivity for NP specimens with higher viral loads and for specimens collected within 7-days PSO. Hence, they have the potential to become useful tools for the early detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, because of concerns about false negativity, RATs should be used in conjunction with molecular tests.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Nasofaringe , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(6)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810060

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the internal fit accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D)-printed biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block compared with a 3D-milled poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) block by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. In a total of 20 porcine rib bones, two different types of defects having two adjacent walls and a floor were produced: a defect with a flat floor (flat defect; N = 10) and a defect with a concave floor (curved defect; N = 10). Each defect was grafted with either the 3D-printed BCP block or the 3D-milled PMMA block fabricated following the computer aided design. The defects were then cut cross-sectionally and evaluated under the SEM. The extents of internal contact and gap were measured and statistically analyzed (p < 0.05). All blocks in both BCP and PMMA groups were successfully fit to the flat and curved defects. The internal contact ratio was significantly higher in the BCP group (flat defect: 0.47 ± 0.10; curved defect: 0.29 ± 0.05) compared with the PMMA group (flat defect: 0.21 ± 0.13; curved defect: 0.17 ± 0.04; p < 0.05). The internal gap area was similar between the two groups regardless of the defect types (p > 0.05). The internal fit accuracy of the 3D-printed BCP block was reliable in both the flat and curved defects when compared with the accuracy of the 3D-milled PMMA block.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although we previously proposed a nomogram to predict malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and validated it in an external cohort, its application is challenging without data on tumor markers. Moreover, existing nomograms have not been compared. This study aimed to develop a nomogram based on radiologic findings and to compare its performance with previously proposed American and Korean/Japanese nomograms. METHODS: We recruited 3708 patients who underwent surgical resection at 31 tertiary institutions in eight countries, and patients with main pancreatic duct >10 mm were excluded. To construct the nomogram, 2606 patients were randomly allocated 1:1 into training and internal validation sets, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was calculated using 10-fold cross validation by exhaustive search. This nomogram was then validated and compared to the American and Korean/Japanese nomograms using 1102 patients. RESULTS: Among the 2606 patients, 90 had main-duct type, 900 had branch-duct type, and 1616 had mixed-type IPMN. Pathologic results revealed 1628 low-grade dysplasia, 476 high-grade dysplasia, and 502 invasive carcinoma. Location, cyst size, duct dilatation, and mural nodule were selected to construct the nomogram. AUC of this nomogram was higher than the American nomogram (0.691 vs 0.664, P = .014) and comparable with the Korean/Japanese nomogram (0.659 vs 0.653, P = .255). CONCLUSIONS: A novel nomogram based on radiologic findings of IPMN is competitive for predicting risk of malignancy. This nomogram would be clinically helpful in circumstances where tumor markers are not available. The nomogram is freely available at http://statgen.snu.ac.kr/software/nomogramIPMN.

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