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3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e020671, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558290

RESUMO

Background There is emerging evidence that rosacea, a chronic cutaneous inflammatory disease, is associated with various systemic diseases. However, its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate whether patients with rosacea are at increased risk of developing CVD. Methods and Results This retrospective cohort study from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort included patients with newly diagnosed rosacea (n=2681) and age-, sex-, and index year-matched reference populations without rosacea (n=26 810) between 2003 and 2014. The primary outcome was subsequent CVD including coronary heart disease and stroke. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate adjusted hazard ratios for subsequent CVD adjusted for major risk factors of CVD. Compared with the reference population (13 410 women; mean [SD] age, 57.7 [9.2] years), patients with rosacea (1341 women; mean [SD] age, 57.7 [9.2] years) displayed an increased risk for CVD (adjusted hazard ratios, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40) and coronary heart disease (adjusted hazard ratios, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.05-1.60). The risk for stroke was not significantly elevated (adjusted hazard ratios, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.91-1.37). Conclusions This study suggests that patients with rosacea are more likely to develop subsequent CVD. Proper education for patients with rosacea to manage other modifiable risk factors of CVD along with rosacea is needed.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360285

RESUMO

The association of short-term particulate matter concentration with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among cancer survivors is yet unclear. Using the National Health Insurance Service database from South Korea, the study population consisted of 22,864 5-year cancer survivors with CVD events during the period 2015-2018. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design, each case date (date of incident CVD) was matched with three or four referent dates, resulting in a total of 101,576 case and referent dates. The daily average particulate matter 10 (PM10), 2.5 (PM2.5), and 2.5-10 (PM2.5-10) on the day of case or referent date (lag0), 1-3 days before the case or referent date (lag1, lag2, and lag3), and the mean value 0-3 days before the case or referent date (lag0-3) were determined. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD according to quartiles of PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10. Compared to the 1st (lowest) quartile of lag0-3 PM10, the 4th (highest) quartile of lag0-3 PM10 was associated with higher odds for CVD (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.21). The 4th quartiles of lag1 (aOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.19), lag2 (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16), lag3 (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.12), and lag0-3 (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.18) PM2.5 were associated with higher odds for CVD compared to the respective 1st quartiles. Similarly, the 4th quartile of lag0-3 PM2.5-10 was associated with higher CVD events (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19) compared to the 1st quartile. Short-term exposure to high levels of PM may be associated with increased CVD risk among cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
5.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 51(4): 685-691, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of first, second, and third-line biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and tofacitinib with drug survival among seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: The study population was composed of 8,018 seropositive RA patients who were prescribed bDMARDs or tofacitinib between January 2014 and January 2019 from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. First, second, and third-line choice of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) including etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab, as well as non-TNFi including tocilizumab, rituximab, tofacitinib, and abatacept were assessed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for drug failure according to bDMARD or tofacitinib choice starting from the initial prescription date. RESULTS: Compared to first etanercept users, patients with first tocilizumab (aHR 0.56, 95% CI 0.46-0.68), tofacitinib (aHR 0.27, 95% CI 0.18-0.42), or abatacept (aHR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-0.99) had lower risk of drug failure. Second choice of tocilizumab (aHR 0.38, 95% CI 0.25-0.55), tofacitinib (aHR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15-0.37), or abatacept (aHR 0.54, 95% CI 0.35-0.84) was associated with lower drug failure risk compared to second etanercept users. Finally, third choice of tocilizumab (aHR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.62) or tofacitinib (aHR 0.35, 95% CI 0.19-0.63) was associated with lower drug failure risk compared to third TNFi users. CONCLUSION: First and second-line tocilizumab, tofacitinib, or abatacept may lead to improved drug survival. Third-line use of tocilizumab or tofacitinib may be beneficiary in reducing drug failure risk among seropositive RA patients.

6.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138453

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer survivors are currently considered high-risk populations for cardiovascular disease. However, no studies have directly evaluated risks and benefits of physical activity for stroke among long-term colorectal cancer survivors. METHODS: This large-scale observational cohort study used data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 who survived at least 5 years were studied. The primary outcome was stroke, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhage stroke. All patients were followed up to the date of stroke, death, or December 2018, whichever occurred earliest. RESULTS: Of 20,674 colorectal cancer survivors with a median age of 64 years, stroke occurred in 601 patients (2.9%). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity lowered stroke risk in 5-9 time/week group (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.93; P=0.010), but not in ≥10 time/week group (aHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.62-1.17; P=0.327). Walking also lowered stroke risk in 4-5 time/week group (aHR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58-0.97; P=0.028), but not in ≥6 time/week group (aHR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78-1.18; P=0.707). In addition, benefits of physical activity were maximized when carried out both moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and walking with moderate frequency (aHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60-0.97; P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate frequency of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (5-9 time/week) and walking (4-5 time/week) significantly lowers the risk of stroke, whereas high-frequency physical activity reduces the benefits of physical activity. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Physical activity with moderate frequency is important in the prevention of stroke for long-term colorectal cancer survivors.

7.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 710, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no evidence whether it is best to stop drinking alcohol at all or whether it is okay to drink a little in that light-to-moderate alcohol use was associated with low cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to non-drinker among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors, who are regarded as vulnerable to CVD. Therefore, we evaluated the association between alcohol consumption and incident CVD among long-term survivors of CRC. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective cohort study utilized data from the Korean National Insurance Service of 20,653 long-term survivors of CRC diagnosed between 2006 and 2012. Participants were followed up to the date of CVD, death, or December 31, 2018. All patients were categorized according to their daily alcohol consumption (g/day). The outcomes were incident CVD, including ischemic heart disease (IHD) and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and history of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. RESULTS: There was no association between alcohol consumption and incident CVD among long-term survivors of CRC. Additionally, hazardous alcohol consumption (≥ 40 g/day in male patients and ≥ 20 g/day in female patients) was associated with increased CVD, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.51 [1.15-1.97], 1.60 [1.03-2.48], and 2.65 [1.25-5.62], respectively) compared with non-drinkers. CONCLUSION: No discernable protective association was found between alcohol consumption and incident CVD for even light-to-moderate drinking among long-term survivors of CRC. Alcohol consumption ≥40 g/day in male patients and ≥ 20 g/day in female patients was associated with an increased risk of stroke compared with non-drinkers. These novel results provide useful evidence when advising survivors of CRC regarding alcohol use.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10152, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980955

RESUMO

The association of fluctuations in body mass index with cardiovascular risk in long-term is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate cardiovascular outcomes of weight fluctuation. Total of 67,101 obese adults from the Korean National Health Insurance Service who received health examinations in three separate biennial periods were included. Participants were followed up from January 1, 2008 to the date of cardiovascular disease, death, or December 31, 2015, and categorized into 9 distinctive groups according to the BMI. Continuous weight gain showed an increased risk of overall cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR], 2.36; P = 0.007), whereas weight loss after weight maintenance (HR, 0.91; P = 0.016) and weight maintenance after weight loss (HR, 0.91; P = 0.004) were ameliorative compared to the no weight change group. As for coronary heart disease, weight maintenance after weight gain was unfavorable (HR, 1.25; P = 0.004) while weight loss after weight maintenance (HR, 0.82; P < 0.001), weight cycling (HR, 0.83; P = 0.043), and weight maintenance after weight loss (HR, 0.88; P = 0.012) were beneficial. Weight maintenance after weight loss is beneficial for obese adults in terms of cardiovascular risks. In addition, weight loss is in part related to reduced risk of coronary heart disease despite weight cycling.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916625

RESUMO

(1) Background: There is limited information regarding association between long-term exposure to air pollutants and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (2). Methods: This study acquired data of 164,093 adults aged at least 40 years who were residing in 7 metropolitan cities between 2002 and 2005 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort database. CKD risk was evaluated using the multivariate Cox hazards proportional regression. All participants were followed up with until CKD, death, or 31 December 2013, whichever occurred earliest. (3) Results: Among 1,259,461 person-years of follow-up investigation, CKD cases occurred in 1494 participants. Air pollutant exposures including PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 showed no significant association with incident CKD after adjustments for age, sex, household income, area of residence, and the Charlson comorbidity index. The results were consistent in the sensitivity analyses including first and last year annual exposure analyses as well as latent periods-washed-out analyses. (4) Conclusions: Long-term exposure to air pollution is not likely to increase the risk of CKD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
10.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 39(5): 833-842, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association between hemoglobin (Hb) level including anemia and fracture has not been studied thoroughly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 197, 187 adults ≥ 50 years from the National Health Insurance Service of Korea were studied. Hb was determined during health screening examinations in 2004 or 2005. From 1 January 2006, participants were followed up for fracture until 31 December 2013. Hb levels (g/dL) were categorized into five groups, with normal hemoglobin levels subdivided into three groups (low normal, normal, and high normal Hb): < 13, ≥ 13 to < 14, ≥ 14 to < 16, ≥ 16 to < 17, 17 for men and < 12, ≥ 12 to < 13, ≥ 13 to < 14, ≥ 14 to < 16, ≥ 16 for women. Anemia was defined as Hb < 13 g/dL and < 12 g/dL for men and women, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for fracture according to Hb. RESULTS: Compared to individuals with normal Hb, those with anemia and low normal Hb were associated with significantly increased risk of fracture. In women, those with anemia had a higher risk for any (aHR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.17), hip (aHR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.59), and radius fracture (aHR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.25). In men, those with anemia had a higher risk for any (aHR 1.37, 95% CI 1.23-1.51), vertebral (aHR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.53), and hip fracture (aHR 1.64, 95% CI 1.30-2.08). This risk-enhancing association was preserved among various subgroups. CONCLUSION: Among adults ≥ 50 years, anemia and low normal Hb are risk factors for fracture.

11.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 67, 2021 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839996

RESUMO

In Korean adults aged 50 years and older, the overall risk of fractures increased with greater BMI variability among both men and women, specifically, spinal fractures for men and both spinal and hip fractures for women. PURPOSE: The bone-health-related outcome, such as fractures due to BMI fluctuation, has been understudied within Asian populations. In this large-scale, population-based cohort study in Korea, we aimed to investigate the relationship between variability in body mass index (BMI) and the risk of fractures. METHODS: The study included 166,932 subjects aged ≥ 50 years from the National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort. The BMI variability value from three follow-up examinations during 2002-2007 was categorized into quartiles. The hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effects of BMI variability on the risk of admission from hip, spine, and upper extremity fractures during 2008-2015 were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: Compared to those in the lowest BMI variability (1st quartile), men in the highest BMI variability (4th quartile) showed an increased risk of spinal fractures (aHR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.36) with a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0.021). Compared to those in the lowest BMI variability (1st quartile), women in the highest BMI variability (4th quartile) showed an increased risk of hip and spinal fractures (aHR 1.35, 95% CI 1.05-1.69; aHR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.28) with significant linear trends (P for trend = 0.021; P for trend = 0.003, respectively). There was no association between BMI variability and incidents of upper extremity fractures for men or women. CONCLUSION: Association between BMI variability and increased fracture risk depended on sex and fracture types. BMI maintenance, instead of high BMI fluctuation, may be beneficial in terms of lowering the overall fracture risk for Korean adults over 50 years old.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e045375, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and initiation and adherence to statin treatment for primary prevention of CVD in patients with newly diagnosed hypercholesterolaemia. DESIGN: A population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: This study used National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS) from Republic of Korea. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 11 320 participants without previous history of CVD aged between 40 and 79 years who had elevated total cholesterol level (more than 240 mg/dL) and had initiated statin treatment within 24 months of the national health screening from 2004 to 2012 identified in the NHIS-HEALS. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome, CVD, was defined as first-ever admission or death due to ischaemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, revascularisation or stroke, or December 31 2013. The HRs of CVD according to statin adherence were calculated according to stratification by Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation. RESULTS: Early statin initiation significantly lowered risk of CVD outcomes compared with late initiation (HR of late statin user, 1.24; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.51). Among early initiators, statin discontinuers had a significantly higher risk for CVD compared with persistent users (HR, 1.71; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.67), while statin reinitiators had an attenuated risk increase (HR 1.34, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.30). CONCLUSIONS: Among statin users with newly diagnosed hypercholesterolaemia, early statin initiation is associated with lower CVD risk compared with late initiation. Furthermore, statin discontinuation is associated with increased risk of CVD, but reinitiation attenuated the risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Hipercolesterolemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Eur Heart J ; 42(25): 2487-2497, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780974

RESUMO

AIMS: Little is known about the trade-off between the health benefits of physical activity (PA) and the potential harmful effects of increased exposure to air pollution during outdoor PA. We examined the association of the combined effects of air pollution and changes in PA with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: This nationwide cohort study included 1 469 972 young adults aged 20-39 years. Air pollution exposure was estimated by the annual average cumulative level of particulate matter (PM). PA was calculated as minutes of metabolic equivalent tasks per week (MET-min/week) based on two consecutive health examinations from 2009 to 2012. Compared with the participants exposed to low-to-moderate levels of PM2.5 or PM10 who continuously engaged in ≥1000 MET-min/week of PA, those who decreased their PA from ≥1000 MET-min/week to 1-499 MET-min/week [PM10 adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.48] and to 0 MET-min/week (physically inactive; PM10 aHR 1.38; 95% CI 1.07-1.78) had an increased risk of CVD (P for trend <0.01). Among participants exposed to high levels of PM2.5 or PM10, the risk of CVD was elevated with an increase in PA above 1000 MET-min/week. CONCLUSION: Reducing PA may lead to subsequent elevation of CVD risk in young adults exposed to low-to-moderate levels of PM2.5 or PM10, whereas a large increase in PA in a high-pollution environment may adversely affect cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668451

RESUMO

In a cohort of 190,599 participants from The National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening (NHIS-HEALS) study, we investigated the association of changes in the predicted body composition and metabolic profiles with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general population, which was hitherto incompletely elucidated. At baseline and follow-up examinations, the body composition, including lean body mass (LBM), body fat mass (BFM), and appendicular skeletal mass (ASM), were estimated using a prediction equation, and the risk of MetS was analyzed according to relative body composition changes. An increase in relative LBM and ASM decreased the risk of MetS in men and women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.78 and 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.77-0.79 and 0.79-0.81, respectively; all p < 0.001). As relative LBM and ASM increased, the risk of MetS was more significantly reduced in the group with higher baseline BMI and body fat mass index (BFMI)(all p-trend < 0.001). In men, when the relative LBM increased (aOR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.63-0.73), the risk of MetS was low despite increased BMI. Thus, our findings suggested that an increase in the relative LBM and ASM reduced the risk of MetS, whereas an increase in the relative BFMI increased the risk of MetS; this result was consistent in men despite an increase in BMI.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to investigate adverse effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) in various size on the incidence of prevalent autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs): Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: We investigated 230,034 participants in three metropolitan cities of South Korea from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). Starting from January 2010, subjects were followed up until the first event of prevalent AIRDs, death, or December 2013. 2008-2009 respective averages of PM2.5 (< 2.5µm) and PMcoarse (2.5µm to 10µm) were linked with participants' administrative district codes. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression analysis in one- and two-pollutant model. RESULTS: Adjusted for age, sex, region, and household income in two-pollutant model, RA incidence was positively associated with 10µg/m³ increment of PM2.5 (aHR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.06-2.86), but not with PMcoarse (aHR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.85). In one-pollutant model, an elevated incidence rate of RA was slightly attenuated (PM2.5 aHR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.99-2.61; PMcoarse aHR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.80-1.61), with marginal statistical significance of PM2.5. RA incidence was also higher in 4th quartile group of PM2.5 compared to 1st quartile group (aHR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.07-3.11). No adverse effects of PM were found on AS or SLE in one- and two-pollutant models. CONCLUSION: Important components of PM10 associated with RA incidence were fine fractions (PM2.5), while no positive association was found between PM and AS or SLE.

16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 188(1): 203-214, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599866

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association of physical activity among long-term breast cancer survivors on the occurrence of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: We investigated the risk of CVD among 39,775 breast cancer patients who were newly diagnosed in 2006 and survived until 2011 within the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Patients were followed up from 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis to the date of CVD event, death, or December 31, 2018, whichever came earliest. Every 500 MET-mins/week correspond to 152, 125, and 62.5 min per week of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression by physical activity levels. RESULTS: Compared with those with physical activity of 0 MET-min/week, those with 1-499 (aHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98), 500-999 (aHR 0.75, 95% CI 0.63-0.90), and ≥ 1,000 (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.93) MET-min/week of PA had lower risk of CVD. Higher levels of PA were associated with lower risk of stroke (p for trend = 0.016). The benefits of PA on obese and overweight breast cancer survivors were smaller than those in normal weight survivors. The frequency of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) showed a reverse J-curve association with CVD, and the best benefit occurred in the 3-4 times MVPA per week group (aHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.74). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that even small amounts of PA may be beneficial in potentially decreasing the risk of CVD, CHD, and stroke in breast cancer survivors. Our result will be useful to prescribe and delivery exercise among long-term breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 30(3): 211-219, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925510

RESUMO

Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in young adults might be clinically overlooked for future HCC risk. Thus, we examined the association between weight change and future risk of developing HCC in young adults. We collected a nationwide and population-based cohort data of more than 2.2 million men and women aged between 20 and 39 who were without previous cancer diagnosis and underwent two consecutive biennial national health screening between 2002 and 2005 from the National Health Insurance Service database. The individuals were categorized as weight loss (≥5.0 kg and 2.0-4.9 kg), stable weight (weight gain or loss <2.0 kg), and weight gain (2.0-4.9 kg and ≥5.0 kg) and were followed-up for incident HCC from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2018. During 12 years of follow-up, there were 2694 HCCs in men and 306 HCCs in women. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for socioeconomic, health behavior, medical characteristics, and family history, weight gain of more than 5.0 kg and between 2.0 and 4.9 kg were associated with significantly increased risk in young men [hazard ratio (HR) 1.16, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 1.01-1.32] and young women (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.77), respectively. Protective association of weight loss with HCC was not observed. The association of weight gain and HCC risk was stronger in young adults with underlying liver diseases compared to those without any liver disease (Pheterogeneity < 0.001). Weight gain during young adulthood should not be clinically overlooked for future HCC risk, especially among those with underlying liver diseases.

18.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 37(6): 567-571, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined whether tibolone (TIB), a type of hormone replacement therapy widely used in Asia and Europe, affects dementia risk in postmenopausal women. Our study aims to investigate the association of TIB and dementia risk in Korean women aged 50-80 years. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study was conducted using the Korean National Health Insurance Service claims database merged with national health examination data from 2002 to 2015. Among 13,110 participants, exposure to TIB was determined using the standardized defined daily dose (DDD) system from 2003 to 2007. Starting from 2007, participants were followed up for overall dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) until 2015. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of dementia according to TIB use. RESULTS: TIB use was not significantly associated with the risk of total dementia (aHR = 1.040; 95% CI = 0.734-1.472; p = .827), AD (aHR = 0.949; 95% CI = 0.652-1.381; p = .785) and VD (aHR = 1.245; 95% CI = 0.631-2.457; p = .528). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that TIB use does not have a significant association with dementia risk. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to elucidate the role of exogenous hormones in the development of dementia.

19.
Ophthalmology ; 128(1): 78-88, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598951

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To illustrate what is inside the so-called black box of deep learning models (DLMs) so that clinicians can have greater confidence in the conclusions of artificial intelligence by evaluating adversarial explanation on its ability to explain the rationale of DLM decisions for glaucoma and glaucoma-related findings. Adversarial explanation generates adversarial examples (AEs), or images that have been changed to gain or lose pathologic characteristic-specific traits, to explain the DLM's rationale. DESIGN: Evaluation of explanation methods for DLMs. PARTICIPANTS: Health screening participants (n = 1653) at the Seoul National University Hospital Health Promotion Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea. METHODS: We trained DLMs for referable glaucoma (RG), increased cup-to-disc ratio (ICDR), disc rim narrowing (DRN), and retinal nerve fiber layer defect (RNFLD) using 6430 retinal fundus images. Surveys consisting of explanations using AE and gradient-weighted class activation mapping (GradCAM), a conventional heatmap-based explanation method, were generated for 400 pathologic and healthy patient eyes. For each method, board-trained glaucoma specialists rated location explainability, the ability to pinpoint decision-relevant areas in the image, and rationale explainability, the ability to inform the user on the model's reasoning for the decision based on pathologic features. Scores were compared by paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivities, and specificities of DLMs; visualization of clinical pathologic changes of AEs; and survey scores for locational and rationale explainability. RESULTS: The AUCs were 0.90, 0.99, 0.95, and 0.79 and sensitivities were 0.79, 1.00, 0.82, and 0.55 at 0.90 specificity for RG, ICDR, DRN, and RNFLD DLMs, respectively. Generated AEs showed valid clinical feature changes, and survey results for location explainability were 3.94 ± 1.33 and 2.55 ± 1.24 using AEs and GradCAMs, respectively, of a possible maximum score of 5 points. The scores for rationale explainability were 3.97 ± 1.31 and 2.10 ± 1.25 for AEs and GradCAM, respectively. Adversarial example provided significantly better explainability than GradCAM. CONCLUSIONS: Adversarial explanation increased the explainability over GradCAM, a conventional heatmap-based explanation method. Adversarial explanation may help medical professionals understand more clearly the rationale of DLMs when using them for clinical decisions.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Aprendizado Profundo , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Inteligência Artificial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1844, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although social capital has been shown to be one of the important social determinants of health, the association between social trust and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not clear yet. We aimed to investigate the association of social trust with CVD risk using a large Korean population based data. METHODS: The data of this study was derived from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Community-level social trust was determined from the Korean Community Health Survey. The study population consisted of 2,156,829 participants. According to social trust index measured in the area of residence during 2011, participants were followed-up from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2016. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD risk according to quintiles of social trust. RESULTS: Compared to participants with the lowest quintile of social trust, those within the highest quintile had lower risk for CVD (aHR 0.91, 95% CI = 0.89 to 0.93), CHD (aHR 0.92, 95% CI = 0.89 to 0.95), and stroke (aHR 0.90, 95% CI = 0.87 to 0.93). The risk-reducing association of high social trust on CVD risk was preserved after additional adjustments for lifestyle behaviors including smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. CONCLUSION: Higher social trust was associated with reduced risk of CVD even after considering lifestyle behaviors. Social trust in a community level is an important determinant of CVD and enhancing social trust may lead to reduced risk of CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Confiança , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fumar
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